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Cardiovascular Part II Study Questions

Cardiovascular Part II Study Questions
Heart Failure (HF):
 What is heart failure (HF)?
 Recognize signs and symptoms for:
o Left-sided heart failure
o Right-sided heart failure
 Interpret diagnostic studies used to evaluate HF:
o Echocardiogram: ejection fraction
o B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)
 Understand nursing management for HF:
o Pharmacologic therapy: Which medications are often used? How do the drugs
work to help with HF? What laboratory values needs to be monitored? How to
determine if patients are responding to the medications? What to monitor to see
if patients are responding to diuretics? Additionally, what to monitor if digoxin is
used? When to hold digoxin?
o Nutritional therapy: What to teach patients regarding sodium content in diet?
Why should we restrict sodium? What can they do to make food more
appetizing? What are some examples of high sodium content foods to avoid?
o Discharge planning: What do these patients need to monitor daily at home?
Daily weights. When do they need to call their health care providers? What type
of health promotion measures should they follow?
o Monitor for acute pulmonary edema. What are some signs and symptoms? What
are some nursing interventions?
 Review nursing diagnoses for heart failure
 What important nursing assessment should be performed for HF patients in fluid
overload? (Hint: assess breathing)
 What important nursing assessment should be performed for acute HF with
tachycardia? (Hint: apical pulse)
 Remember to assist patients with ADLs to decrease workload of the heart (such as
providing a bedside commode for toileting)
Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD):
Circulatory problems due to arterial pathology:
o Define intermittent claudication
o Recognize signs and symptoms of peripheral arterial disease
o Monitor extremities for peripheral arterial disease. What happens if the legs are
elevated and if they are lowered into a dependent position?
o Interpret diagnostic study used to evaluate peripheral arterial disease: Ankle-Brachial
Index (ABI)
o Review nursing diagnoses for peripheral arterial disease
o Identify the 6 P’s of acute arterial ischemic disorder. When any of these occur, make
sure to notify health care providers immediately.
o Review care for patients receiving autogenous saphenous vein or synthetic bypass graft
o Recognize arterial vs. venous manifestations
Circulatory problems due to venous pathology:
What are some risk factors for venous disorders?
Recognize signs and symptoms of venous disorders such as DVT
What are the diagnostic tests for venous disorders?
Review common medications used to treat DVT.
Recognize signs and symptoms of venous insufficiency
What are some ways to prevent venous stasis and promote venous return?
Complications of venous disorders/deep vein thrombosis?
Recognize signs and symptoms of pulmonary embolism (PE)
How to care for venous ulcers?
Cardiovascular Exam & HESI prep:
o Review HESI (2017). Comprehensive Review for the NCLEX-RN Examination (5th ed.). pp.
98 – 111; 114 - 120.
o HESI case studies
a. Coronary Artery Disease
b. Heart Failure with Atrial Fibrillation
c. Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD) with amputation
o HESI Patient reviews
a. Cardiovascular health problems
a. Mr. Swan
b. Mr. Erickson
c. Mr. Leon