Uploaded by solwan maher


Cosmetics introduction
Prepared by Begad Mohamed, BSc. Of pharmacy , diploma of
pharmaceutical compounding , Diploma of clinical pharmacy, clinical
pharmacist at CCHE 57357, Cairo, Egypt.
• Cosmetic definition
• Regulation concept
• Important terms
• Cosmetics products classification
• Dosage forms
What is science?
science is the organized body of knowledge that is derived
from a systematic observation of natural events and conditions
and that can be verified or tested by further investigations.
EX.: chemistry, biology, and physics.
Is cosmetic science considered a real science?
• Commercial science that tries to find reasons for selling a product.
• Comparative science many manufacturers compare their own
products to other manufacturers’ products and try to convince
• Traditional science, such as chemistry or physics , performing a
number of tests and reactions.
• Borderline science as it is a transition among a number of different
scientific fields, including pharmacy, chemistry, dermatology, and
marketing, among others
Basic knowledge required for cosmetics
• Anatomy and physiology
• Chemical
• Pharmacological
• Guidelines, rules, and regulations (labeling and packaging)
• Analytical sciences as well as microbiology
• Marketing and business
Is It a Drug or a Cosmetic?
According to Food, Drug and Cosmetic (FD&C) Act
• Cosmetics : Articles intended to be rubbed, poured, sprinkled, or
sprayed on, introduced into, or otherwise applied to the human body or
any part there for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or
altering the appearance without affecting structure or function
Is It a Drug or a Cosmetic?
Drugs: “Articles intended for use in the diagnosis, cure,
mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease and “articles
(other than food) intended to affect the structure or any
function of the body of man or other animals.”
There are two categories of drugs:
• OTC drugs
• prescription-only drugs
the legal difference between a cosmetic and a drug in the US
is determined by a product’s intended use
In the US, certain products can be cosmetics and drugs at the same time if they
meet the definitions of both cosmetics and drugs (OTC drug–cosmetic products)
• Toothpaste that contains fluoride to prevent tooth decay ( Prevent disease ).
cosmetic function is to clean , and refresh the teeth
• Antiperspirants that not only mask bad body odor but also alter the normal process of
• Mouthwash that contains ingredients to prevent and/or treat gingivitis
• Facial foundations that also contain sunscreens to protect the skin from the harmful
radiation of the sun.
• Facial cleansers that contain antiacne active ingredients to prevent and/or treat acne
• Hand soaps that contain antibacterial agents to kill germs.
Important terms:
• Toiletries (personal care products): term used for products that are used to
clean the body, hair, and teeth, for example, a bodywash, shampoo,
and toothpaste.
• Color cosmetics, makeup, and decorative care products : products
primarily applied by women to make themselves more attractive, for
example, a lipstick, mascara, and nail polish.
How is the intended use of a product determined?
• Claims: reflect the expected effects of a particular product.
cosmetic claims include moisturizes skin, while drug claims include reduces
Cosmetics cannot be marketed with drug claims
• the FDA issues a warning letter to the companies making drug claims to their
cosmetic products and recommends them to change the wording of their claims in
order to avoid regulatory difficulties.
How is the intended use of a product
• Consumer Perception : it reflects whether a claim that was
intended to be a cosmetic claim is understood as a cosmetic
claim and is not misinterpreted.
• The History of an Ingredient’s Use : the present of active
pharmaceutical ingredient in therapeutic concentration , so it will
be consider drug even the claim of this product is cosmetic.
Popular Cosmetic Claims
Used to make products sound catchy and raise consumer’s interest.
• Cosmeceuticals :
o In the past used only for prescribed only product , but to day?
o In fact bioactive ingredients that product contain are not drugs
o Examples for bioactive ingredients
o include vitamins, antioxidants, proteins, anti-inflammatory agents
o No comment from FDA
o In japan called quasi-drugs
Popular Cosmetic Claims
Popular Cosmetic Claims
• Nutraceuticals :
o dietary supplements or nutraceuticals ( not considered as cosmetics)
o These products often claim to make the hair, skin, and nails look healthier, shinier, and
o natural ingredients and pharmaceuticals. Dietary supplements are also regulated by the FDA;
however, they are defined in the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of
o vitamins, minerals, herbs or other botanicals, amino acids, and substances such as enzymes
and metabolites. Dietary supplements can also be extracts or concentrates and may be found in
many forms such as tablets, capsules, soft gels, gel caps, liquids, or powders.
Popular Cosmetic Claims
• Organic Products
o An ingredient’s source does not determine its safety (cyanogenic glycoside ,
present in apple seeds and apricot seeds )
o aloe extract, chamomile extract, and lemon seed extract.
o General concern with natural ingredients that they contain mixture of
o not defined in any of the FDA’s laws or regulations
o the term is regulated by the Agricultural Marketing Service of the US
Department of Agriculture (USDA)
o The categories are the following: 100% organic, organic, made with more than
70% organic ingredients, and made with less than 70% organic ingredients.
Popular Cosmetic Claims
• Hypoallergenic Products
o Produce fewer allergic reactions
o refers to products that do not contain ingredients known to cause allergic
reactions, such as fragrances.
• Cruelty-Free Products
o Not tested on animal
Popular Cosmetic Claims
• Preservative-Free Products
o Paraben free( paraben may cause allergy)
• Dermatologist Recommended
o Mainly depended on survey
• Clinically Proven
o the claim “clinically proven” without being aware of the study details is still
not very informative.
• Patented Formula
o Patent may be relate to technique of preparation , that mean its not related to
Cosmetics dosage forms:
Dosage Forms for Cosmetic Applications
• Solution:
oSolutions can be classified based on the types of solvent used:
Water-based solutions contain water as the vehicle. Examples eye makeup
remover, hand soap, and many shampoos.
Hydroalcoholic solutions contain a mixture of water and alcohol as the
vehicle. Examples hair spray, mouthwash, aftershave cologne, and facial toner.
Anhydrous solutions the vehicle. The solvents can be organic solvent, such
as for base coat or nail polish remover. Solvents can also be oily components,
ex. Massage oil
Dosage Forms for Cosmetic Applications
• Emulsion :
Dosage Forms for Cosmetic Applications
• Emulsions are widely used dosage forms in the cosmetics industry due to
their advantages over other dosage forms. They have a unique texture
and provide a nice skin feel, and they are used as vehicles to deliver both
hydrophilic and hydrophobic ingredients.
• O/W emulsions :low concentration from fatty material , it is suitable for hair
conditioners, shaving creams, or facial moisturizing creams.
• W/O emulsions are preferred when a larger amount of oil is desired in
the formulation ( grease and water resistant ), ex. Dipper rash , sunscreen
• water-in-silicon (W/Si) emulsions: unique, no greasy skin feel and quick
smooth. Ex. facial foundations, cream eyeshadows, and certain sunscreens.
Dosage Forms for Cosmetic Applications
Emulsion according to viscosity classified to :
• Lotion:
Ex.: facial cleansing milks, liquid foundations, aftershave balms, and nonaerosol sunscreen sprays
• Cream:
EX. : facial moisturizing creams, leave-in hair conditioners, sunscreens, cream
Dosage Forms for Cosmetic Applications
Ointment :
EX. :hair styling products, diaper rash
Paste : tooth paste
Suspension :
• Water-based : suspensions
• Hydroalcoholic : facial toners
• Anhydrous :organic solvent-based nail polishes, and any liquid colored
cosmetics containing pigments as color additives, such as mascara, liquid
Dosage Forms for Cosmetic Applications
Suspension :
Dosage Forms for Cosmetic Applications
Powder (Including Loose and Pressed Powder) :
powder is an intimate mixture of dry, finely divided chemicals
• Loose powder : mineral facial powders, blushes, and some eye shadows, as well
as for baby powder and bath salts
• Pressed powders : eye shadows ,facial powders and bath bomb
Dosage Forms for Cosmetic Applications
Gel :
o hair styling gels, facial cleansing gels, shaving gels, aftershave gels,
after-sun gels, extrudable deodorant and/or antiperspirant gels, and
hand sanitizer gels
o Classified to two types :
Water-based formulations, such as facial cleansers; and
 Hydroalcoholic formulations, such as hair styling gels and hand
Dosage Forms for Cosmetic Applications
• Stick :
• lipsticks, lip liners, eyeshadow sticks, eyeliners and concealers, as well as
personal care products, such as deodorant/antiperspirant sticks and sunscreen
sticks .