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Microbiome and Diabetes

Microbiome and Diabetes
Student Name:
Microbiome and Diabetes
According to Jia et al. (2016), health issues have become contemporary issues
affecting all governments and international organizations across the world. The rapid
increase of intergovernmental agencies mandated to advance better health departments
and adopt effective strategies to ensure their countries can address health problems
effectively. The rationale behind the concern and alarm arising from health-related
issues follows the reasoning that human civilization's primary objective is to exploit the
environment for humankind’s benefit. Therefore, increasing life span would
appropriately classify as one of the core objectives, despite its reducing rates because of
such factors as unhealthy lifestyles (Kerry et al., 2021). Additionally, the World Health
Organization has raised concerns about environmental degradation and its effects on
human health, thus calling on its sister international body, the United Nations
Environment Program, to sustain a healthy environment that is habitable for humanity.
The two organizations have steered various projects and research, delving into
phenomenal concepts that, if understood, would help governments and nongovernmental organizations focusing on maintaining healthy lifestyles and
However, Sharma et al. (2020) argue that human health is significantly triggered
by the environment and lifestyles that individuals lead. There are also inherent and nonenvironmental factors that affect their health. For instance, genetic imbalances and
improper coding during genetic formation would result in an abnormal nucleotides
sequence. For example, deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid determine an
individual’s protein structures reflected in the amino acid sequence. On the other hand,
the messenger RNA involves molecules that synthesize from the DNA, directing the
formation of the protein structures. Through such information from reasserting and
biological study of a human body, inventors have utilized the ever-evolving civilization
to complement treatment methods with technology. This paper focuses on the molecular
structures and presence of microorganisms in understanding a diabetic condition in a
human body as the sample for diseases that medical professionals can treat using
molecular and cellular diagnostic technologies. Kanyong et al. (2020) found that though
specialized diagnostics may be costly to adopt and integrate within the operating
systems of a facility, their accuracy and capacity to handle a myriad of information at
once is worth the walk. Technology serves as the partial alternative to human efforts
because it helps address situations where physical observations would increase the
probability of making incorrect diagnostics, thus treating a patient for a disease other
than the one they are suffering from.
The foundational principles of involving governments and health departments in
the private sector often relate to the professional expectation that healthcare and
medical practice shall serve communities by advancing their best interests (Doan &
Carpenter, 2019). As such, relevant authorities should ensure that they adopt the most
appropriate mechanisms to promote as accurate service delivery as possible. In line with
the state obligations that governments should protect, fulfill, and respect human rights
through a tripartite typology structure, it binds the government to support technology in
the health sector. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is among the
international instruments resigning health as a fundamental right entitled to every
citizen as a social right. As a social right, the government should advance the realization
of these rights gradually and progressively, making sure that their citizens enjoy
property health rights to the highest attainable standards (Jia et al., 2016). Therefore,
governments should liaise with their medical departments to support research and
adopt technological concepts like cellular and molecular diagnostics.
According to Kanyong et al. (2020), among the notable benefits of adopting
cellular-molecular diagnostics systems is the ability to conduct a rapid analysis, which
reflects high sensitivity and detailed data about the diseases. Indisputably, these are the
primary components of personalized treatment for patients because medical
professionals are better positioned to understand the patient’s unique needs. Finer
details in this method find their logic from what Doan & Carpenter (2019) refers to as
the ability to collect information through techniques that focus on biology markers,
which are the measurable indicators of an individual’s biological condition. Components
associated with the process often include but are not limited to soft tissues, urine, blood,
and pathogens in understanding the typical functioning of a human body. For diabetes,
the sugar levels in the patient’s blood would help the doctor or observer identify any
body parts that are at higher risks of becoming dysfunctional, especially the kidneys,
eyes, and skin tone.
This paper adopts a qualitative approach in analyzing empirical research from
researchers and scholars who have made observations and measurements on topics
revolving around technology and its incorporation in addressing human health. Beyond
understanding their essence and mode of operation, this approach helps capture the
rationale behind adopting the methods to ensure efficiency in identifying challenges,
diagnosing diseases, and treating them to advance human health. This information is
credible because the sources included in the research process are scholarly and prove
their reliability through publications in academic websites, medical journals, and formal
article journals. Mandip & Steer (2019) notes that delving into the concepts around
technology and human health from a professional and legal perspective helps avoid such
challenges as the ethical disapprovals that face technology-based health systems if
ethical considerations were to take precedence. This statement denotes that despite the
efficiency associated with these methods, criticisms are disapproving of their relevance
and interests if the authorities and professionals consider the best interests of an ideal
society. Additionally, they got peer reviews from other scholars in similar fields before
their publications. During the research, keywords included but were not limited to
"Technological Treatments," "Diagnostic," "Molecular-Based Methods," "Cell-Based
Methods," "Understanding Biological Diagnostics," "Cell Phenotypes," "Enzyme
Immunoassay," "Curing Diseases," and "Diabetic Patients."
Results and Analysis
Diabetic Patients
Among the prevalent diseases often associated with technical diagnostic is
diabetes, scientifically termed diabetes mellitus. The rationale behind this practice
follows the ideological finding that this disease involves biological components such as
sugar levels in the human body. Sharma et al. (2020) rank glucose as the primary source
of energy within the body, and it is best sourced from the diet that an individual
consumes. Insulin, the pancreatic hormone, helps the body to absorb glucose from the
diet. Therefore, if the body inhibits the proper secretion of insulin, the individual
experiences poor glucose absorption, thus increasing sugar levels in the blood.
Additionally, as the gut microbiota modifies, external interventions such as
dysregulation and secretory changes trigger insulin resistance, which results in diabetes
type 1. This statement denotes that imbalances in an individual’s microbiome are
associated with adverse health conditions. These health conditions would best be
diagnosed through a cellular system that assesses the body’s functioning from a
molecular structure. On the other hand, there is a direct connection between sugar
levels and the normal microbiome (Kerry et al., 2021). For instance, large sugar
consumption leads to colon inflammations. It inhibits the average uptake of minerals
from the digestive system to the blood for transport to other body parts, where they are
more valuable.
Cell-Based Diagnostics
These methods rely on the cellular structure to evaluate the entire cell and
identify an individual's health condition. Cell-based evaluations help detect the presence
of disease because abnormal cell structures and shapes such as inflammations indicate
that the person under test is suffering from a particular disease. According to Jia et al.
(2016), cell-based evaluations have proven to work better for infectious organisms and
viral infections. These methods cover a wide array of laboratory techniques that help
improve visualization, growth, and qualitative evaluations for the entire cellular
structures within an individual’s body. For instance, microscopy involves direct
visualization of the infected cell to diagnose a disease affecting the person. The rationale
behind the efficiency in this method follows the reasoning that with the mere acquisition
of a microscope and the requisite skills to operate a powerful microscope, the medic
involved would quickly identify such physical and visible characteristics of cells such as
shape and size. However, the primary challenge with this method is that it involves
sophisticated laboratory facilities and experts with specialized personnel that are often
unavailable because of the low resource settings in health facilities (Doan & Carpenter,
Molecular-Based Methods
Kerry et al. (2021) found that the primary purpose of every molecular approach
in analyzing the biological markers focuses on the proteome and the genome, and
extensively, their cells' protein structure expressions. Though this method may be less
refined than the cellular-based approaches, it helps understand the protein structures'
increased size, visibility, and encoding of the various products. These methods combine
laboratory testing skills and molecular knowledge to revolutionize how clinics and
public health facilities operate within the diagnostics limits. Activities involved in these
methods include but are not limited to human body investigations, viral diagnostics,
genes, and microbial genomes. Jia et al. (2016) highlights that the Polymerase Chain
Reaction and Real-Time (PCR) ranks as the most common molecular-based technique,
especially when investigating enzyme sequences within a particular location of interest
within the human body. An additional advantage to experts applying this method is that
the medic can easily understand the precision medicine practice through the analysis.
This practice presupposes a medical model where people though suffering from the
same diseases, require that the medical professionals attend to the particular tailored
decisions, interventions, and treatment that fit them (Kanyong et al., 2020).
Ethics in Gene Editing
Among the most contemporary issues in the world of ethics and human
expectations is the practice of gene editing, which Kerry et al. (2021) consider being the
manipulation of an individual’s genetic composition. From the wordings of this
statement, gene editing involves replacing, deleting, or inserting genetic materials into
the DNA sequence of an individual to produce desired traits in a particular human. The
primary purpose of genome editing is to improve human understanding of the genetic
functioning of the human body and advance appropriate treatments for genetically
acquired diseases. The practice treats diseases through a preventive mechanism that
alters a particular genetic composition to manipulate it with the experts of persons
involved, such as parents. However, this practice has revived criticisms from scholars
and researchers who believe it is unethical and relevant authorities should intervene to
prevent its continuance. The primary disapproval is the effect of reducing human
diversity, which critics opine as harmful because it increases social inequalities by
editing the type of humans that medical science desires (Mandip & Steer, 2019).
Additionally, among the basic definitions of a human being in the legal framework
involves a general and diseased creature, which may easily be left out in this category if
it possesses an otherwise genetic composition. The right to self-determination requires
that individuals consent to what becomes of their body, which is absent in gene editing
From the above discussion, this paper concludes that molecular and cellular
diagnostics ranks as one of the most transformative, detailed, and dynamic areas in
health science, which leads to revolutionizing diagnosis and treatment methods—
assessing an individual's health status at such acceptable levels as cellular and molecular
plays a significant role in increasing the accuracy of the results and the appropriateness
of the treatment method that the medic would apply (Kanyong et al., 2020). Therefore,
governments and relevant bodies interested in advancing health science should invest
more in technical diagnostics by acquiring the existing methods because the benefits of
the plans are worth the expenses. Additionally, they should commit themselves to
supporting research by funding projects and opening research centers where
researchers can interact and study certain phenomena jointly. This move would enhance
the exchange of ideas and complementarity in every researcher and scholar's potential
to contribute positively to specialized diagnostics.
Doan, M., & Carpenter, A. E. (2019). Leveraging machine vision in cell-based
diagnostics to do more with less. Nature Materials, 18(5), 414-418.
Jia, S., Zocco, D., Samuels, M. L., Chou, M. F., Chammas, R., Skog, J., ... & Kuo,
W. P. (2016). Emerging technologies in extracellular vesicle-based molecular
diagnostics. Expert review of molecular diagnostics, 14(3), 307-321.
Kanyong, P., Patil, A. V., & Davis, J. J. (2020). Functional Molecular Interfaces
for Impedance-Based Diagnostics. Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry, 13,
183-200. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-anchem-061318-115600
Kerry, R. G., Mahapatra, G. P., Maurya, G. K., Patra, S., Mahari, S., Das, G., ... &
Sahoo, S. (2021). The molecular prospect of type-2 diabetes: Nanotechnologybased diagnostics and therapeutic intervention. Reviews in Endocrine and
Metabolic Disorders, 22(2), 421-451. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11154-02009606-0
Mandip, K., & Steer, C. J. (2019). A new era of gene editing for the treatment of
human diseases. Swiss medical weekly, 149(0304).
Sharma, M., Li, Y., Stoll, M. L., & Tollefsbol, T. O. (2020). The epigenetic
connection between the gut microbiome in obesity and diabetes. Frontiers in
genetics, 10, 1329. https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2019.01329