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Environmental Pollution can be defined as any
undesirable change in physical, chemical, or
biological characteristics of any component of
the environment i.e. air, water, soil which can
cause harmful effects on various forms of life or
Pollution: The term pollution can be defined as
influence of any substance causing disturbance,
harmful effects, and uneasiness to the organisms
‫الكائنات الحية‬.
Pollutant:- Any substance causing disturbance
or harmful effects or uneasiness to the
organisms, then that particular substance may
be called as the pollutant.
Water Pollution can be defined as alteration in
physical, chemical, or biological characteristics
of water through natural or human activities and
making it unsuitable for its designated use.
Fresh Water present on the earth surface is put
to many uses. It is used for drinking, domestic
and municipal uses, agricultural, irrigation,
industries, navigation, recreation ‫المالحة والترفيه‬.
The used water becomes contaminated and is
called waste water.
Most of Water Pollution is man made It may also
occur naturally by addition of soil particles through
erosion animal wastes and leaching of minerals from
.‫عن طريق إضافة جزيئات التربة من خالل تآكل فضالت الحيوانات وترشيح المعادن من الصخور‬
Municipal Waste Water
In-organic Pollutants
Organic Pollutants
Agricultural Wastes
Marine Pollution ‫التلوث البحري‬
Thermal pollution
The major source of water pollution is the waste
water discharged from industries and commercial
metallurgical, food processing industries, textile,
paper industries.
They discharge several organic and inorganic
pollutants. That prove highly toxic to living beings.
They include fine particles of different metals,
chlorides, sulphates, oxides of iron, cadmium,
acids and alkalies.
‫ واألحماض‬، ‫ والكادميوم‬، ‫ وأكاسيد الحديد‬، ‫ وكبريتات‬، ‫ وكلوريد‬، ‫معادن مختلفة‬
They Include oils, fats, phenols, organic acids
grease and several other organic compounds
Oil Spills (hard to clean up)
pesticides ‫األسمدة والمبيدات‬
essential for present day
high yielding crops.
Consequently, they have become a potential
source of water pollution. These fertilizers ‫اسمدة‬
contain major plants nutrients mainly nitrogen,
phosphorous, and potassium.
Excess fertilizers may reach the ground water by
leaching ‫ رشح‬or may be mixed with surface
water of rivers, lakes and ponds ‫ البرك‬by runoff
and drainage ‫الجريان السطحي والصرف‬.
Ocean are the final sink of all natural and
manmade pollutants. Rivers discharge their
pollutants into the sea. The sewage and garbage
of costal cities are also dumped into the sea. The
other sources include, discharge of oils, grease,
detergents, and radioactive wastes from ships.
‫ تصب األنهار‬.‫المحيط هو المغسلة النهائية لجميع الملوثات الطبيعية واالصطناعية‬
‫ كما يتم إلقاء مياه الصرف الصحي والقمامة في المدن الساحلية‬.‫ملوثاتها في البحر‬
‫ وتشمل المصادر األخرى تصريف الزيوت والشحوم والمنظفات والنفايات‬.‫في البحر‬
‫المشعة من السفن‬.
Thermal Pollution of water is caused by the rise in
temperature of water. The main source of thermal
pollution are the thermal and nuclear power
plants. The power generating plants use water as
coolants and release hot water into the original
source. Sudden rise in temperature kills fish and
other aquatic animals.
Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals,
particulate matter, or biological materials that
cause harm or discomfort to humans or other
living organisms, or cause damage to the
natural environment or built environment, into
the atmosphere.
A substance in the air that can cause harm to
humans and the environment is known as an air
Carbon dioxide - this happens because of
deforestation ‫ إزالة الغابات‬and fossil fuel burning.
Sulfur dioxide – Due to the burning of sulfur
containing compounds of fossil fuels.
Sulfur oxides - very dangerous to humans at a
high concentration. Sulfur in the atmosphere is
responsible for acid rain.
CO2 is a good transmitter of sunlight, but it also
partially restricts infrared radiation going back
from the earth into space, which produces the so
called greenhouse effect that prevents a drastic
cooling of the Earth during the night.
CO2 in atmosphere --> GLOBALWARMING
Land pollution is the demolition of Earth's land
surfaces often caused by human activities and
their misuse of land resources. It occurs when
waste is not disposed properly.
Urbanization ‫ تحضر‬and industrialization are major
causes of land pollution.
Four main causes of land pollution:
Domestic waste
Industrial Waste
Buildings take up resources and land, the trees
are chopped down and used to make buildings.
‫ ويتم قطع األشجار واستخدامها لصنع المباني‬، ‫تشغل المباني الموارد واألراضي‬.
Takes away the places for animals and other
organisms to live.
As there are more and more people inhabiting
‫ يسكن‬the earth, food is in higher demand and so
forests are chopped down and turned into
In addition, herbicides, pesticides, artificial
fertilizers, animal manure are washed into the soil
and pollute it.
‫ يتم غسل مبيدات األعشاب والمبيدات الحشرية واألسمدة‬، ‫باإلضافة إلى ذلك‬
‫االصطناعية وروث الحيوانات في التربة وتلوثها‬.
Tons of domestic waste is dumped every day.
Some waste from homes, offices and industries
can be recycled or burnt.
There is still a lot of garbage, such as
refrigerators and washing machines that are
dumped in landfills ‫ مدافن النفايات‬simply because they
cannot be reused in anyway, nor recycled .
Plastics factories, chemical plants, oil refineries,
nuclear waste disposal activity, large animal
farms, coal-fired power plants ‫محطات توليد الطاقة التي تعمل‬
‫بالفحم‬, metals production factories and other heavy
industry all contribute to land pollution.
Noise pollution is excessive, displeasing human,
animal, or machine-created environmental
noise that disrupts the activity or balance of
human or animal life.
Sound becomes undesirable when it disturbs the
normal activities such as working, sleeping, and
during conversations.
World Health Organization WHO stated that
“Noise must be recognized as a major threat to
human wellbeing ‫”رفاهية‬
Transportation systems are the main source of
noise pollution in urban areas.
Construction of buildings, highways, and streets
cause a lot of noise, due to the usage of air
compressors, bulldozers, loaders, dump trucks,
and pavement breakers.
Industrial noise also adds to the
unfavorable state of noise pollution.
Loud speakers, plumbing, boilers, generators, air
conditioners, fans, and vacuum cleaners add to
the existing noise pollution.
According to the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency USEPA, there are direct links between
noise and health. Also, noise pollution adversely
affects the lives of millions of people.
Noise pollution can damage physiological and
psychological health.
High blood pressure, stress related illness, sleep
disruption, hearing loss, and productivity loss are
the problems related to noise pollution.
It can also cause memory loss,
depression, and panic attacks ‫نوبات الهلع‬
Planting bushes and trees in and around sound
generating sources is an effective solution for
noise pollution.
Regular servicing and tuning of automobiles can
effectively reduce the noise pollution
Social awareness programs should be taken up
to educate the public about the causes and
effects of noise pollution.
Workers should be provided with equipment
such as ear plugs and earmuffs for hearing
Similar to automobiles, lubrication of the
machinery and servicing should be done to
minimize noise generation.
Soundproof doors and windows can be installed
to block unwanted noise from outside.
Regulations should be imposed to restrict the
usage of play loudspeakers in crowded areas
and public places.
Factories and industries should be located far
from the residential areas.
We believe that it is the responsible thing to do
to increase recycling. It is just like doing laundry
and separating blacks and colors.
The residents of the country should also try and
do their part and put in at least one day of litter
picking up ‫جمع القمامة‬.
 Global warming refers to a rise in the temperature of
the surface of the earth.
 The Greenhouse Effect is a process by which thermal
radiation from a planetary surface is absorbed by
atmospheric greenhouse gases, and is re-radiated
in all directions.
‫هو عملية يتم من خاللها امتصاص اإلشعاع الحراري من سطح‬
‫ وإعادة إشعاعها‬، ‫كوكب بواسطة غازات الدفيئة في الغالف الجوي‬
‫في جميع االتجاهات‬
Definitions of Glacier
Slowly moving mass or river of ice formed by the
accumulation and compaction of snow on
mountains or near the poles.
‫كتلة أو نهر جليدي يتحرك ببطء يتشكل من تراكم وضغط الثلج على‬
.‫الجبال أو بالقرب من القطبين‬
OF December 2003
Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
Ministry of Environment
Environment in Jordan:
The challenges, achievements and trends
Ministry of Environment’s Vision
The Ministry of Environment’s vision is to be a
model Ministry on national and regional level,
capable of protecting and sustaining Jordan’s
environmental resources and contributing to a
better quality of life
Ministry of Environment’s Mission
The Ministry seeks to maintain and improve the
quality of Jordan's environment, conserve
natural resources and contribute to sustainable
strategies, legislation, monitoring & enforcement
& by mainstreaming ‫ تعميم‬environmental
concepts into all national development plans.
Ministry of Environment’s Values
The Ministry of Environment is committed to the
following values & principles throughout its internal &
external interaction:
 Transparency
 Fairness
 Commitment
principles and environmental behavior
 Partnership towards better environment
Strategic Objectives
1. To contribute to the
development ‫ تنمية مستدامة‬.
2. To develop & implement policies & legislations ‫السياسات‬
3. To enhance monitoring, inspection, and enforcement of
4. To develop and implement information management
Strategic Objectives
5. To raise public awareness and education.
6. To promote national, regional & international
7. To strengthen and develop the capacity of the
ministry ‫تعزيز وتطوير قدرات الوزارة‬.
Sustainable Development
Sustainable development is the organizing principle for
meeting human development goals while simultaneously
sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the
natural resources and ecosystem services based upon
which the economy and society depend.
‫التنمية المستدامة هي المبدأ التنظيمي لتحقيق أهداف التنمية البشرية مع الحفاظ في نفس‬
‫الوقت على قدرة النظم الطبيعية على توفير الموارد الطبيعية وخدمات النظام البيئي التي‬
‫يعتمد عليها االقتصاد والمجتمع‬.
Unique environmental characteristics
Environmental challenges & problems
Achievements and trends
Unique environmental
one of the Unique environmental characteristics
“ Dead Sea”
Unique environmental characteristics
Jordan suffers from scarcity of natural resources
and increasing population growth and the
successive migrations, specifically with regard to
water and energy and degradation of
agricultural land in addition to the impact of
global climate change.
، ‫يعاني األردن من ندرة الموارد الطبيعية وزيادة النمو السكاني الطبيعي والهجرة المتتالية‬
‫خاصة فيما يتعلق بالمياه والطاقة وتدهور األراضي الزراعية باإلضافة إلى تأثير تغير‬
‫المناخ العالمي‬.
Unique environmental characteristics
The exploitation ‫ استغالل‬of nature for human
services, health and strategic planning to
provide the elements of growth and
development refers to the need to exploit
resources in the Dead Sea
‫يشير استغالل الطبيعة للخدمات البشرية والصحة والتخطيط‬
‫االستراتيجي لتوفير عناصر النمو والتنمية إلى الحاجة إلى استغالل‬
‫الموارد في البحر الميت‬
Unique environmental characteristics
The gradual decrease of the level of the surface
of the Dead Sea annually is an environmental
issue should be taken into account so we see
that the project will lead to a carrier of reddead sea to provide water, energy and
maintain the level of the sea within the limits
‫إن االنخفاض التدريجي في مستوى سطح البحر الميت سنو ًيا هو مسألة بيئية يجب أن تؤخذ‬
‫ لذلك نرى أن المشروع سيؤدي إلى ناقل البحر األحمر الميت لتوفير المياه‬، ‫في االعتبار‬
‫والطاقة والحفاظ على مستوى البحر ضمن الحدود‬
Red Sea - Dead Sea
Canal map
Seawater Reverse Osmosis
Environmental challenges
& problems
The most important challenges
environmental problems in Jordan
Land degradation and biodiversity ‫التنوع البيولوجي‬
Water pollution
Air pollution
Waste and hazardous materials
Coastal Areas ‫المناطق الساحلية‬
Environmental Management
Land degradation & biodiversity
The spread of desertification and drought on land
suitable for cultivation.
‫انتشار التصحر والجفاف في األراضي الصالحة للزراعة‬
Rangeland degradation, and weak sustainability.
‫ وضعف االستدامة‬، ‫تدهور المراعي‬.
Intrusions on the forest areas in search of primary energy
‫التطفل على مناطق الغابات بحثًا عن مصادر الطاقة األولية‬.
The accumulation
agricultural areas.
‫تراكم بقايا المبيدات في بعض المناطق الزراعية‬
Land degradation & biodiversity
Displays some rare species of plants and organisms to
‫تعرض بعض األنواع النادرة من النباتات والكائنات لالنقراض‬.
Over collecting of natural plants, over-use for medical
and food production.
‫ واإلفراط في استخدام المنتجات الطبية والغذائية‬،‫اإلفراط في جمع النباتات الطبيعية‬.
Urban sprawl on agriculturally productive areas.
‫الزحف العمراني على مناطق اإلنتاج الزراعي‬
Land degradation & biodiversity
The desire of the private sector in industrial investment
and tourism in some areas of environmental excellence.
‫رغبة القطاع الخاص في االستثمار الصناعي والسياحي في بعض مجاالت التميز البيئي‬.
Non-site rehabilitation of quarries and crushers.
‫إعادة تأهيل مواقع الكسارات والكسارات‬.
Spread of flies in the Jordan Valley region because of
manure and cesspits.
‫انتشار الذباب في منطقة وادي األردن بسبب السماد والحفر االمتصاصية‬.
Water contamination
Random disposal of wastewater in some of the
natural waterways & ponds on groundwater.
‫التخلص العشوائي من المياه العادمة في بعض المجاري المائية والبرك في المياه الجوفية‬.
Overlap of wastewater with groundwater basins.
‫تداخل مياه الصرف مع أحواض المياه الجوفية‬.
The absence of treatment plants for wastewater in
some industrial areas.
‫عدم وجود محطات معالجة لمياه الصرف في بعض المناطق الصناعية‬
Air pollution
High proportion of sulfur in diesel.
‫نسبة عالية من الكبريت في الديزل‬.
The use of lead in gasoline.
‫استخدام الرصاص في البنزين‬.
Polluting emissions from factories and facilities
(petroleum refinery, cement plant).
)‫االنبعاثات الملوثة من المصانع والمنشآت (مصفاة البترول ومصنع األسمنت‬
Blowing dust contaminated by mines and
‫نفخ الغبار الملوث بالمناجم والمحاجر‬.
Waste and hazardous materials
The absence of an integrated system for recycling
in Jordan linked to economic incentives.
‫عدم وجود نظام متكامل إلعادة التدوير في األردن مرتبط بالحوافز االقتصادية‬.
To continue to use plastic bags.
‫االستمرار في استخدام األكياس البالستيكية‬.
The absence of a modern mechanism for the
disposal of medical waste in the central and
southern regions.
‫عدم وجود آلية حديثة للتخلص من النفايات الطبية في المناطق الوسطى والجنوبية‬.
Growing e-waste in the absence of sound systems
to deal with it environmentally.
ً ‫تزايد المخلفات اإللكترونية في غياب األنظمة السليمة للتعامل معها بيئيا‬.
Environmental Management
The need for harmonization between economic
development & environmental protection.
‫ضرورة التنسيق بين التنمية االقتصادية وحماية البيئة‬.
Lack of economic incentives & financial support
for environmentally friendly industries.
‫نقص الحوافز االقتصادية والدعم المالي للصناعات الصديقة للبيئة‬.
Environmental Management
environmental control for
environmental violations.
all sources of
‫عدم القدرة على تغطية الرقابة البيئية المتكاملة لكافة مصادر المخالفات البيئية‬.
Multiplicity of references in the licensing of
facilities development.
‫تعدد المراجع في ترخيص تطوير المنشآت‬.
The cost of environmental degradation
in Jordan
In 2004, the World Bank prepared a
study to calculate the cost of
environmental degradation in Jordan
through the use of scientific method to
measure the actual expenditure was
environmental & health impacts of
environmental pollution in many
sectors and the result was as follows
‫ أعد البنك الدولي دراسة لحساب تكلفة‬، 2004 ‫في عام‬
‫التدهور البيئي في األردن من خالل استخدام طريقة علمية‬
‫لقياس اإلنفاق الفعلي تم تقديرها لمعالجة اآلثار البيئية‬
‫والصحية للتلوث البيئي في العديد من القطاعات وكانت النتيجة‬
‫على النحو‬
Achievements and Trends
Land and Biodiversity
Develop a system of land use in Jordan in areas
of environmental excellence.
Develop a network of protected areas covering
4% of the total area of Jordan.
Prevent the entry of untreated manure to the
Jordan Valley area.
.‫تطوير نظام استخدام األراضي في األردن في مجاالت التميز البيئي‬
.‫ من إجمالي مساحة األردن‬٪4 ‫تطوير شبكة من المناطق المحمية تغطي‬
‫منع دخول السماد غير المعالج إلى منطقة وادي األردن‬
Land and Biodiversity
Development of productivity in the rangelands
through the rehabilitation of the terrestrial
(environmental compensation).
The implementation of the national strategy for
.)‫تنمية اإلنتاجية في المراعي من خالل إعادة تأهيل البيئة األرضية في البادية األردنية (التعويض البيئي‬
‫تنفيذ االستراتيجية الوطنية لمكافحة التصحر وحماية التنوع البيولوجي‬.
Land and Biodiversity
Rehabilitation of quarries & quarry sites in addition
to environmental conditions.
Contribute to the national
greening of the municipalities.
.‫تأهيل المحاجر ومواقع المحاجر باإلضافة إلى الظروف البيئية‬
‫المساهمة في المشروع الوطني لتخضير البلديات‬.
Water Contamination
The establishment of a water treatment plant in Irbid.
Agreement with the private sector to establish a
treatment plant for industrial wastewater in Zarqa.
Develop an integrated strategic program for the
rehabilitation of the Zarqa River Basin.
Reducing and treating the waste of olive presses in a
peaceful manner environmentally.
.‫انشاء محطة لمعالجة المياه في اربد‬
.‫االتفاق مع القطاع الخاص على إنشاء محطة معالجة لمياه الصرف الصناعي في الزرقاء‬
.‫تطوير برنامج استراتيجي متكامل إلعادة تأهيل حوض نهر الزرقاء‬
ً ‫الحد من ومعالجة مخلفات معاصر الزيتون بطريقة سلمية بيئيا‬
Water Contamination
Focus on achieving the goal of rehabilitation of the
Zarqa River Basin in the plan to be implemented within 15
Development of an effective control program on the
sources of wastewater from industrial facilities.
.‫ سنة‬15 ‫التركيز على تحقيق هدف إعادة تأهيل حوض نهر الزرقاء في الخطة التي سيتم تنفيذها خالل‬
‫تطوير برنامج رقابة فعال على مصادر المياه العادمة من المنشآت الصناعية‬.
Air pollution
Electronic link in the control of emissions of the cement
Get rid of leaded gasoline.
The installation of 12 stations within the capital and Zarqa
and Irbid to monitor air quality through the establishment
of an electronic network.
.‫رابط إلكتروني في التحكم في انبعاثات مصنع األسمنت‬
.‫تخلص من البنزين المحتوي على الرصاص‬
‫ محطة داخل العاصمة والزرقاء واربد لمراقبة جودة الهواء من خالل انشاء شبكة الكترونية‬12 ‫تركيب‬.
Air pollution
Trend towards the use of low sulfur diesel.
The development of specifications for exhaust emissions
of vehicles.
.‫االتجاه نحو استخدام الديزل منخفض الكبريت‬
‫تطوير مواصفات انبعاثات عوادم المركبات‬.
Waste management and hazardous materials
Coordination with the private sector to address
hazardous and medical waste in the territory of the middle.
Developing an integrated system to track industrial
waste liquid and semi-solid in the Kingdom.
Find alternatives to reduce the use of plastic bags.
.‫التنسيق مع القطاع الخاص لمعالجة النفايات الخطرة والطبية في إقليم الوسط‬
.‫تطوير نظام متكامل لتتبع المخلفات الصناعية السائلة وشبه الصلبة في المملكة‬
‫البحث عن بدائل لتقليل استخدام األكياس البالستيكية‬
Waste management and hazardous materials
environmental hotspots.
Develop the areas of recycling through an integrated
management system.
The development of a national program for the
management and processing of electronic waste.
.‫إعادة تأهيل مدافن النفايات التي تعتبر من النقاط البيئية الساخنة‬
.‫تطوير مجاالت إعادة التدوير من خالل نظام إدارة متكامل‬
‫تطوير برنامج وطني إلدارة ومعالجة النفايات اإللكترونية‬.
Environmental Management
Establishment of the Environmental Police.
The establishment of the national program for cleaner
Periodic inspection of industrial and artisan enterprises to
ensure compliance with environmental requirements .
The establishment of the Jordan Environmental Fund.
.‫إنشاء الشرطة البيئية‬
.‫إنشاء البرنامج الوطني لإلنتاج األنظف‬
.‫الفحص الدوري للمنشآت الصناعية والحرفية للتأكد من االلتزام بالمتطلبات البيئية‬
‫إنشاء صندوق البيئة األردني‬.
Cleaner production is intended to minimize waste and emissions and
maximize product output
Environmental Management
Develop the system of economic incentives to invest in
environmentally friendly activities. (Renewable energy,
organic agriculture ... etc).
The establishment
environmental Liability.
... ‫ (الطاقة المتجددة والزراعة العضوية‬.‫تطوير نظام الحوافز االقتصادية لالستثمار في األنشطة الصديقة للبيئة‬
‫إنشاء برنامج وطني للمسئولية البيئية‬.
Cleaner production is intended to minimize waste and emissions and maximize
product output
Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on
the environment
The worldwide disruption caused by the COVID-19
pandemic has resulted in numerous impacts on the
environment and the climate.
The severe decline in planned travel has caused many
regions to experience a drop in air pollution.
In China, lockdowns and other measures resulted in a
25 per cent reduction in carbon emissions and 50 percent
reduction in nitrogen oxides emissions, which one Earth
systems scientist estimated may have saved at least 77,000
lives over two months.
Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on
the environment
However, the outbreak has also provided cover for illegal
activities such as deforestation of the Amazon rainforest
and poaching in Africa, hindered environmental
diplomacy efforts, and created economic fallout that is
predicted to slow investment in green energy
ً ‫ فإن تفشي المرض قد وفر أي‬، ‫ومع ذلك‬
‫ضا غطاء لألنشطة غير القانونية مثل إزالة الغابات من‬
، ‫ وعرقل جهود الدبلوماسية البيئية‬، ‫غابات األمازون المطيرة والصيد غير المشروع في إفريقيا‬
.‫وخلق تداعيات اقتصادية من المتوقع أن تبطئ االستثمار في تكنولوجيات الطاقة الخضراء‬
The positive impacts on the
environment since the coronavirus
lockdown began
From cleaner air to liberated wildlife, coronavirus
lockdowns across the world appear to have had a number
of positive effects on the environment.
‫ يبدو البرية الحياة إلى النظيف الهواء من‬، ‫العالم أنحاء جميع في التاجية الفيروسات قفل عمليات أن المحررة‬
‫البيئة على اإليجابية اآلثار من عدد لها كان‬.
Modern life as we know it has largely been put on pause
with millions of us cooped up indoors as governments try to
curtail the spread of the Covid-19 pandemic.
‫لقد تم إيقاف الحياة العصرية كما نعلمها إلى حد كبير مع وجود ماليين منا متعاونين داخل منازلهم بينما تحاول‬
Covid-19. ‫الحكومات الحد من انتشار جائحة‬
Cleaner Air and Increased Visibility
Cleaner air has perhaps been the single greatest positive
effect of the lockdowns on the environment.
‫ربما كان الهواء النظيف هو التأثير اإليجابي األكبر الوحيد لعمليات اإلغالق على البيئة‬.
Citizens in Northern India are seeing the view of the
Himalayan mountain range for the first time in their lives,
due to the drop in air pollution caused by the country's
coronavirus lockdown.
‫ بسبب انخفاض تلوث الهواء‬، ‫يشهد المواطنون في شمال الهند إطاللة على سلسلة جبال الهيمااليا ألول مرة في حياتهم‬
‫الناجم عن إغالق الفيروس التاجي في البالد‬.
Cleaner Air and Increased Visibility
 Those living in Jalandhar in northern Punjab have shared
pictures of the mountains from rooftops and empty
streets, amazed by the view which has been hidden by
pollution for 30 years.
‫شارك أولئك الذين يعيشون في جاالندهار في شمال البنجاب صورًا للجبال من أسطح المنازل‬
.‫ عا ًما‬30 ‫ وقد دهشتها المنظر الذي أخفىه التلوث منذ‬، ‫والشوارع الفارغة‬
The Himalayas are visible in Northern India
The Environmental Implications of
 In fact cities across the world have seen pollution levels
plummet ‫ هبوط سريع‬as people have spent less time in
vehicles, offices and factories and more time at home.
 Reductions in particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide
have been registered in localities throughout the UK,
with London and several other major cities all recording
a dip in the presence of the harmful substances.
The Environmental Implications of
 Elsewhere in Europe, cities including Paris, Madrid and
Milan have all seen a reduction in average levels of
nitrogen dioxide from March 14-25, compared with the
same period last year, according to new satellite
 The images, released by the European Space Agency,
show the changing density of the harmful gas - which is
emitted when fossil fuels are burnt.
Nitrogen dioxide
Nitrogen dioxide is part of a group of gaseous
air pollutants produced as a result of road traffic and other
fossil fuel combustion processes. Its presence in air
contributes to the formation and modification of other
air pollutants, such as ozone and particulate matter, and
to acid rain
The Environmental
 While in China, where the Covid-19 pandemic
originated, carbon emissions fell by around 25 per cent
over a four-week period at the beginning of this year as
authorities shuttered factories and people were
instructed to stay home, according to an analysis
carried out for the climate website Carbon Brief.
 Meanwhile, with aviation grinding to a halt and millions
of commutes no longer taking place across the world,
emissions patterns in many countries would appear likely
to follow the same downward trend.
‫ من المرجح أن‬، ‫ مع توقف الطيران وتوقف ماليين الرحالت حول العالم‬، ‫وفي الوقت نفسه‬
.‫تتبع أنماط االنبعاثات في العديد من البلدان نفس االتجاه النزولي‬
Clearer Water
 In Venice, famous for its winding canals, water quality
appears to have improved amid Italy's stringent‫صارم‬
coronavirus lockdown.
 Residents in the city have said the waterways are
benefiting from the lack of usual boat traffic brought on
by the hoards ‫ جحافل‬of tourists who visit each year.
 Emptied of the usual array of motorboat taxis, transport
and tourist boats which clog the canals, there has
reportedly been a sharp uptick in the clarity of the
‫بعد إفراغها من المجموعة المعتادة من سيارات األجرة بالقوارب اآللية والنقل والقوارب‬
.‫ارتفاعا حا ًدا في وضوح المياه‬
‫ ورد أن هناك‬، ‫السياحية التي تسد القنوات‬
Clearer Water
 The improvement is thought to be linked to a reduced
amount of sediment clouding the waterways, with the
decline in water traffic meaning the muddy canal floors are
no longer being churned up.
‫ مع‬، ‫ويعتقد أن التحسين مرتبط بكمية مخفضة من الرواسب تغيم المجاري المائية‬
.‫انخفاض حركة المياه مما يعني أن األرضيات الموحلة لم تعد ممتلئة‬
 The change has meanwhile reportedly offered locals clear
views of shoals of small fish, crabs and multicolored plant-life sights often obscured by busy boating movement in the
‫ ورد أن التغيير عرض على السكان المحليين إطالالت واضحة‬، ‫في غضون ذلك‬
- ‫على برك األسماك الصغيرة وسرطان البحر والحياة النباتية متعددة األلوان‬
‫غالبًا ما تحجب المشاهد حركة القوارب المزدحمة في البحيرة‬
Clearer Water
Gloria Beggiato, a local hotel owner, recently told the
Guardian Venetians feel "nature has returned and is taking
back possession of the city".
"‫“الطبيعة عادت واستعادت السيطرة على المدينة‬
"Yes, we would all like Venice to stay like this for a while,"
Beggiato said.
"‫ نود جمي ًعا أن تبقى البندقية على هذا النحو لبعض الوقت‬، ‫"نعم‬.
“I honestly believe we should take the opportunity of this
lockdown to reflect and see how we can be more
organized in the future to find a balance between the city
and tourism.“
" ‫أعتقد بصدق أننا يجب أن ننتهز فرصة هذا اإلغالق لنعكس ونرى كيف يمكننا أن نكون أكثر تنظيما في‬
‫المستقبل إليجاد توازن بين المدينة والسياحة‬."
Emptied of the motorboat taxis, transport and tourist boats which usually clog Venice's
canals, there has reportedly been a sharp uptick in the clarity of the city's waterways
‫بعد إفراغها من سيارات األجرة بالقوارب اآللية والنقل والقوارب السياحية التي عادة ما تسد قنوات البندقية‬
‫ارتفاعا حا ًدا في وضوح الطرق المائية في المدينة‬
‫ ورد أن هناك‬،
Liberated wildlife
‫الحياة البرية المحررة‬
 As in Venice, wildlife elsewhere has also taken the
opportunity presented by our widespread absence from
suburban streets and city centers to venture out and
 About animals' activities during Covid-19 lockdowns,
there have also been plenty of instances of creatures
across the world appearing to emboldened.
‫ اغتنمت الحياة البرية في أماكن أخرى الفرصة التي قدمها غيابنا الواسع النطاق من شوارع‬، ‫كما هو الحال في البندقية‬
.‫الضواحي ومراكز المدينة للمغامرة واالستكشاف‬
‫ضا الكثير من حاالت المخلوقات في جميع‬
ً ‫ كان هناك أي‬،Covid-19 ‫حول أنشطة الحيوانات خالل عمليات اإلغالق‬
.‫ بسبب افتقارنا المستمر للنشاط‬، ً‫ وربما مشوشة قليال‬، ‫أنحاء العالم التي تبدو متشجعة‬
Liberated wildlife
From a herd of goats taking over a Welsh seaside town to
deer in a Japanese city roaming the roads in search of
food, the shift in behaviors has ranged between the
beautiful and the downright bizarre.
‫من قطيع من الماعز المغيرة التي تسيطر على بلدة ساحلية ويلزية إلى أيل في مدينة يابانية‬
.‫ تراوح التحول في السلوكيات بين الجميل والغريب تما ًما‬، ‫تجوب الطرق بح ًثا عن الطعام‬
In the UK, a host of animals also appear to have been
liberated by lockdown restrictions imposed on us.
ً ‫ يبدو أن مجموعة من الحيوانات قد تم تحريرها أي‬، ‫في المملكة المتحدة‬
‫ضا من خالل قيود‬
.‫اإلغالق المفروضة علينا‬
Liberated wildlife
A herd of goats take advantage of quiet streets in Llandudno, north Wales
Liberated wildlife
In Barcelona, boars have been spotted along the city's
normally bustling avenues.
‫ تم رصد الخنازير على طول شوارع المدينة الصاخبة عادة‬، ‫في برشلونة‬
Meanwhile in Chile's capital, Santiago, a wild puma was
captured after being found wandering around the city's
deserted center during a night-time curfew. It is thought
that the animal may have ventured down into the capital
from nearby surrounding hills.
‫ تم القبض على بوما برية بعد العثور عليها تجول حول مركز المدينة‬، ‫ سانتياغو‬، ‫ في عاصمة تشيلي‬، ‫في هذه األثناء‬
‫ يعتقد أن الحيوان قد غامر في العاصمة من التالل المحيطة المجاورة‬.‫ المهجور خالل حظر التجول ليال‬.
Liberated wildlife
It's also thought wild flowers could bloom in their greatest
number for years throughout the UK this summer because of
councils cutting back on mowing services
‫ضا ويعتقد‬
ً ‫بسبب الصيف هذا المتحدة المملكة أنحاء جميع في لسنوات لها عدد بأكبر تزدهر أن يمكن البرية الزهور أن أي‬
‫القص خدمات تقطع التي المجالس‬
Trevor Dines, Plantlife's Botanical Specialist said: "An unintended
but understandable consequence of lockdown may be
reduced mowing that has the potential to benefit wild plants
and the bees, butterflies, birds, bats and bugs that depend on
them for survival."
‫ "قد تكون نتيجة الغلق غير المقصودة ولكن المفهومة الحد من القص‬:‫ اختصاصي النبات في بالنتاليف‬، ‫قال تريفور دينز‬
."‫الذي يمكن أن يفيد النباتات البرية والنحل والفراشات والطيور والخفافيش والبق التي تعتمد عليها من أجل البقاء‬
Liberated wildlife
Across the world, the lockdowns may just be showing us
how quickly the natural world around us can adapt and
thrive in our absence when given some space.
‫ قد توضح لنا عمليات اإلغالق مدى السرعة التي يمكن بها للعالم الطبيعي من حولنا التكيف‬، ‫في جميع أنحاء العالم‬
‫واالزدهار في غيابنا عند إعطاء بعض المساحة‬.
Or to put it simply, when we move out, nature can move
‫ يمكن للطبيعة أن تتحرك‬، ‫ عندما نخرج‬، ‫أو ببساطة‬.
Photos show wildlife roaming freely as humans are on coronavirus lockdown, A composite image
of lions napping on a street in South Africa and deer feeding in Yosemite Valley in April 2020
An African Penguin walks in the parking lot of an empty restaurant, close to popular Boulders
Beach, in Simonstown, in Cape Town. This beach is closed due to the continuing lockdown across
South Africa, due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Deer are seen playing around the grounds of Raby Castle in Britain. (Image: Reuters)
Deer gather outside a souvenir shop looking for treats in Nara, Japan.
A sea lion sits outside a hotel that is closed because of the new coronavirus pandemic, in San
Cristobal, Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. The majority of the island hotels are usually occupied
throughout the year, but all reservations have been cancelled through July.
A man sits with a pelican in St James's Park, London, Britain. (Image: Reuters)
Swans at the setting sun in front of baroque castle 'Nymphenburg' in Munich,
A peacock with pigeons ‫ الحمام‬is seen at Tuglak Road during a nationwide
lockdown imposed in a bid to contain the coronavirus pandemic, in New Delhi.
A goat walks past a closed stored, near Trinity Square, in Llandudno, north Wales.
The World on Coronavirus lockdown
Miami, Florida
The World on Coronavirus lockdown
An empty New York Subway car i
The World on Coronavirus lockdown
A general view of an unusually quiet Civic Square at lunchtime in Wellington, New Zealand
The World on Coronavirus lockdown
A general view is seen of a closed Luna Park in Sydney, Australia
The World on Coronavirus lockdown
Bondi Beach, Australia
The World on Coronavirus lockdown
The World on Coronavirus lockdown
A view of an empty Grand Canal
Troposphere is the lowest region
of the atmosphere, extending
from the earth's surface to a
height of about 6–10 km.
‫ وتمتد‬، ‫المنطقة الدنيا من الغالف الجوي‬
10-6 ‫من سطح األرض إلى ارتفاع حوالي‬
It contains about 80% of
atmosphere and it is the part of
atmosphere in which we live,
and make weather observation
Contain 99% of the water vapor
and 75% of atmospheric gasses.
An atmosphere can be
defined as the blanket of
gas on the surface of a
mixture of gases that
surrounds the planet.
The Earth's atmosphere
contains mainly 5 layers
which are
Images show nitrogen dioxide concentrations from 14 to 25 March
2020, compared to the monthly average of concentrations from 2019.
Pollution levels in China in 2019, left, and 2020. Photograph: Guardian Visuals / ESA satellite data
Satellite images shows Italy's pollution decrease during coronavirus response
India’s Pollution
Record Dramatic
Drop Since World’s
Biggest Coronavirus
Renewable Energy
Dr. Ghani Albaali
Visiting Professor
Princes Sumaya University for Technology
Environment Technology & Managements
Solar thermal
Wind Power
Hydroelectric Power
1- Photovoltaic
2- Solar Thermal Collectors
3- Wind Power
4- Hydroelectric Power
5- Biomass
In 2006, about 18% of global final energy
consumption came from renewable. The energy
generated from natural resources such as sunlight,
wind, rain, tides, and geothermal are renewable
(naturally replenished ‫)تجديد‬.
The most promising source of renewable energy is
definitely solar energy. This is primarily because
the Sun is the most abundant ‫ وفير‬source of
renewable energy available on our planet.
At this time solar energy, despite its huge
popularity, still accounts for less than one percent
of total global energy demand, which means that
world is still far away from turning solar power into
a dominant source of energy on our planet.
The objectives of the presentation are to provide
information in renewable energy technologies with
an emphasis on integration into electricity networks
in developed and developing countries. This is in
addition to the solar water heating, where heat from
the sun is used to heat water in panels on
building’s roof.
Burbank Resident Robert Beher on the roof with his 2 kW solar PV
4 kW solar PV system at BWP employee parking area.
45 kW Solar System at Big Dog
7.3 kW Solar PV and Solar pool heater
7.3 kW Residential Ground Mount
Solar PV
Solar cell
A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device that
converts light directly into electricity by the
photovoltaic effect.
Sometimes the term solar cell is reserved for
devices intended specifically to capture energy
from sunlight.
Solar cell
Assemblies of cells are used to make solar panels,
solar modules, or photovoltaic arrays.
Photovoltaics is the field of technology and
research related to the application of solar cells in
producing electricity for practical use.
The energy generated this way is an example of
solar energy (also called solar power).
A solar cell made from a monocrystalline
silicon wafer
Albert Einstein and
photoelectric effect
Albert Einstein and Photovoltaic
In 1905, Albert Einstein described light as composed
of discrete quanta, now called photons, rather than
continuous waves. A photon above a threshold
frequency has the required energy to eject a
single electron, creating the observed effect. This
discovery led to the quantum revolution in physics
and earned Einstein the Nobel Prize in Physics in
The Photovoltaic Effect
The photovoltaic effect is the basic physical
process through which a PV cell converts sunlight
into electricity.
Sunlight is composed of photons, these photons
contain different amounts of energy that correspond
to the different wavelengths of the solar spectrum.
When photons strike a PV cell, they may be
reflected or absorbed, or they may pass right
through. The absorbed photons generate
The energy of a photon is transferred to an
electron in an atom of the semiconductor device.
With its newfound energy, the electron is able to
escape from its normal position associated with a
single atom in the semiconductor to become part
of the current in an electrical circuit.
photovoltaic cells (1)
in series form a
photovoltaic module (2).
modules assembled
together create a photovoltaic
system (3).
Silicon in crystalline form is the material most
commonly used to make photovoltaic cells
collect clean renewable
energy in the form of
sunlight and convert that
light into electricity which
can then be used to
electrical loads.
Photovoltaic panels are comprised
individual solar cells which are
composed of layers of silicon.
of several
Photovoltaic panels absorb the photons and in doing
so initiate an electric current.
The resulting energy generated from photons
striking the surface of the solar panel allows
electrons to be knocked out of their atomic orbits
and released into the electric field generated by the
solar cells which then pull these free electrons into
a directional current This entire process is known
as the Photovoltaic Effect
Three generations of solar cells
Solar Cells are classified into three generations which
indicates the order of which each became important.
At present there is concurrent research into all three
generations while the first generation technologies
are most highly represented in commercial
production, accounting for 89.6% of 2007 production.
First generation
First generation cells consist of large-area, high
quality and single junction devices.
First generation technologies involve high energy and
labor inputs which prevent any significant progress in
reducing production costs.
Single junction silicon devices are approaching the
theoretical limiting efficiency of 31% and achieve an
energy payback period of 5–7 years.
Second generation
Second generation materials have been
developed to address energy requirements
and production costs of solar cells.
The most successful second generation
materials have been amorphous silicon
‫ السيليكون غير المتبلور‬and microamorphous silicon.
These materials are applied in a thin film,
reducing material mass and therefore costs.
These technologies do hold promise of higher
conversion efficiencies, offers significantly
cheaper production costs. ‫هذذه التقنيذات تبشذر بكفذاءة‬
‫ وتوفر تكاليف إنتاج أرخص بكثير‬، ‫تحويل أعلى‬.
Third generation
Third generation technologies aim to enhance poor
electrical performance of second while maintaining
very low production costs.
Current research is targeting conversion efficiencies
of 30-60% while retaining low cost materials and
manufacturing techniques.
There are a few approaches to achieving these high
efficiencies including:
• The use of Multi-junction photovoltaic cells.
• Concentration of the incident spectrum.
• The use of thermal generation by UV light to
enhance voltage or carrier collection, or the use of
the infrared spectrum for night-time operation.
A solar farm using concentrating solar photovoltaic
technology, which combines mirrors and solar PV
cells, in CalifIt’s a 1 MW solar project, using technology
from SolFocus. The solar farm will produce 2,244
million kilowatt hours of clean power.
As a conclusion:
 Today's most common PV devices use a single
junction to create an electric field within a
semiconductor such as a PV cell.
In a single-junction PV cell, only photons whose
energy is equal to or greater than the band gap
of the cell material can free an electron for an
electric circuit.
In other words, the photovoltaic response of
single-junction cells is limited to the portion of
the sun's spectrum whose energy is above the
band gap of the absorbing material.
Lower-energy photons are not used.
 One way to get around this limitation is to use
two (or more) different cells, with more than
one band gap and more than one junction
(multi-junction), to generate a voltage.
 Multi-junction devices can achieve higher
total conversion efficiency because they can
convert more of the energy spectrum of light
to electricity.
 A multi-junction device is a stack of individual
single-junction cells in descending ‫ تنازلي‬order
of band gap (Eg). The top cell captures the
high-energy photons and passes the rest of
the photons on to be absorbed by lowerband-gap cells.
Photo generation of charge carriers
When a photon hits a piece of silicon, one of three
things can happen:
1.The photon can pass straight through the silicon this (generally) happens for lower energy photons.
2.The photon can reflect off the surface.
3.The photon can be absorbed by the silicon, if the
photon energy is higher than the silicon band gap
value. This generates an electron-hole pair and
sometimes heat, depending on the band structure.
High efficiency cells
High efficiency solar cells are a class of solar cell
that can generate more electricity per incident solar
power unit (watt/watt).
Much of the industry is focused on the most cost
efficient technologies in terms of cost per generated
The two main strategies to bring down the cost of
photovoltaic electricity are increasing the efficiency,
and decreasing the cost of the solar cells per
generated unit of power.
High efficiency cells
The latter approach might come at the expense of
reduced efficiency, so the overall cost of the
photovoltaic electricity does not necessarily
decrease by decreasing the cost of the solar cells.
The challenge of increasing the photovoltaic
efficiency is thus of great interest, both from the
academic and economic points of view.
Polycrystalline PV cells laminated to backing material
in a PV module
General Notes
 Solar cells are often electrically connected and
encapsulated as a module (panel).
 PV modules often have a sheet of glass on the
front (sun up) side, allowing light to pass while
protecting the semiconductor wafers from the
elements (rain, hail, etc.).
 Modules are then interconnected, in series or
parallel, or both, to create an array with the desired
peak DC voltage and current.
 The power output of a solar array is measured in
watts or kilowatts.
 To make practical use of the solar-generated
energy, the electricity is most often fed into the
electricity grid using inverters.
 Batteries are used to store the energy that is not
needed immediately.
 Solar cells can also be applied to other
electronics devices to make itself power
sustainable in the sun.
 There are solar cell phone chargers, solar bike
light and solar camping lights that people can
adopt for daily use.
Charge carrier (current) separation
There are two main modes for charge carrier
separation in a solar cell:
Drift ‫ منجرف‬of carriers, driven by an electrostatic
field established across the device.
Diffusion of carriers from zones of high carrier
concentration to zones of low carrier concentration
(following a gradient of electrochemical potential).
In the widely used p-n junction solar cells, the
dominant mode of charge carrier separation is by
Charge carrier separation
The two main modes
separation in a solar cell:
Connection to an external load
Equivalent circuit of a solar cell
The symbol of a solar cell
To understand the electronic behavior of a solar cell, it
is useful to create a model which is electrically
equivalent, and is based on electrical components
whose behavior is well known.
On the left, is the equivalent circuit of a solar cell.
On the right, is the schematic representation of a
solar cell for use in circuit diagrams.
Effect of temperature on the current-voltage
characteristics of a solar cell
Solar cell efficiency factors
Energy conversion efficiency
A solar cell's energy conversion efficiency )η, "eta"),
is the percentage of power converted (from
absorbed light to electrical energy) and collected,
when a solar cell is connected to an electrical
This term is calculated using the ratio of the
maximum power point, Pm, divided by the input light
irradiance (E, in W/m2) under standard test
conditions (STC) and the surface area of the solar
cell (Ac in m2).
Maximum-power point
A solar cell may operate over a wide range of
voltages (V) and currents (I).
By increasing the resistive load on an irradiated
cell continuously from zero to a very high value
one can determine the maximum power point, the
point that maximizes V×I; that is, the load for
which the cell can deliver maximum electrical
power at that level of irradiation.
Most commercially available solar cells are capable of
producing electricity for at least twenty years without a
significant decrease in efficiency.
Current research on materials and devices
There are currently many research groups active in the
field of photovoltaics in universities and research
institutions around the world. This research can be
divided into three areas:
This research can be divided into three areas:
• Making current technology solar cells cheaper
and/or more efficient to effectively compete with
other energy sources;
• Developing new technologies based on new solar
cell architectural designs;
• Developing new materials to serve as light
absorbers and charge carriers.
Solar energy is free - it needs no fuel and
produces no waste or pollution.
In sunny countries, solar power can be used where
there is no easy way to get electricity to a remote
Handy for low-power uses such as solar powered
garden lights and battery chargers, or for helping
your home energy bills.
Doesn't work at night.
Very expensive to build solar power stations,
although the cost is coming down as technology
improves. In the meantime, solar cells cost a great
deal compared to the amount of electricity they'll
produce in their lifetime.
Can be unreliable unless you're in a very sunny
In the UK, solar power isn't much use for high-power
applications, as you need a large area of solar
panels to get a decent amount of power.
Solar cells provide the energy to run satellites that
orbit the Earth. These give us satellite TV,
telephones, navigation, weather forecasting, the
internet and all manner of other facilities.
The graphic shows a GPS satellite.
‫‪ GPS‬نظام تحديد الموقع العالمي‬
‫يتيح تحديد المواقع والمالحة‪ ،‬وخدمات ضبط الوقت للمستخدمين من كافة أنحاء العالم ‪ ،‬وعلى مدار‬
‫اليوم وفي أي مكان على سطح األرض‪ ،‬حوالي ‪ 100‬ألف رحلة طيران تجارية يتم توجيهها والتحكم‬
‫فى مسارها بواسطة هذا النظام‪ ،‬كما يستعان في المشاريع الضخمة لتحديد المسافات والمساحات كبناء‬
‫‪.‬الجسور وحفر األنفاق وبناء المدن الحديثة‪ .‬نظام تحديد المواقع الحديثة‬
‫نظام تحديد المواقع والتى ال تستطيع البشرية االستغناء عنه يعتمد أساسا ً على‬
‫حسابات أينشتاين فى النسبية الخاصة والعامة والتي صاغها قبل مائة عام‬
‫‪ Hubble Space‬تلسكوب أو مرصد هابل الفضائي مرصد فضائي يدور حول األرض‬
‫منذ ‪1990‬عام وقد أم َّد البشرية بأوضح وأفضل رؤية للكون على اإلطالق ‪Telescope‬‬
‫بعد طول معاناتها من التلسكوبات األرضية التي يقف في طريق وضوح رؤيتها الكثير من‬
‫العوائق سوا ًء جو األرض المليء باألتربة والغبار أم التلوث الضوئي والتي تؤثر في دقة‬
‫س ِّمي على إسم الفلكي « إدوين هابل »‪ .‬يدور حول األرض على أرتفاع ‪ 593‬كم‬
‫النتائج‪ُ .‬‬
‫فوق مستوى سطح البحر دوره كاملة كل ‪97‬دقيقة ‪ ،‬يحتوي هذا المرصد عدسة قطرها ‪2.4‬‬
‫م‪ .‬وتُصور باألشعة فوق البنفسجية القريبة والطيف المرئي واألشعة تحت الحمراء القريبة‪« .‬‬
‫هابل » هو المرصد الوحيد المصمم لتتم صيانته في الفضاء من قبل رواد الفضاء‪َ .‬كلِّ َ‬
‫‪.‬المرصد وكالة « ناسا » األمريكية ‪ 2.5‬مليار دوالر‬
Burbank Resident Robert Beher on the roof with his 2 kW solar PV
4 kW solar PV system at BWP employee parking area.
45 kW Solar System at Big Dog
7.3 kW Solar PV and Solar pool heater
7.3 kW Residential Ground Mount
Solar PV
Huge solar photovoltaic farm opens in France
Spread across 36 acres of the plateau of les Mees, the photovoltaic
park can generate 18.2MW and an annual supply of 26 million kWh
that will supply electricity to some 8,000 families.
Renewable Energy
Dr. Ghani Albaali
Visiting Professor
Princes Sumaya University for Technology
Environment Technology & Managements
Solar thermal
Wind Power
Hydroelectric Power
1- Photovoltaic
2- Solar thermal Collectors
3- Wind Power
4- Hydroelectric Power
5- Biomass
Solar Thermal Collector
Solar water heating
Solar water heating, where heat from the Sun is
used to heat water in glass panels on your roof.
This means you don't need to use so much gas or
electricity to heat your water at home.
Water is pumped through pipes in the panel. The
pipes are painted black, so they get hotter when
the Sun shines on them. The water is pumped in
at the bottom so that convection helps the flow of
hot water out of the top.
This helps out your central heating system, and cuts
your fuel bills. However, with the basic type of panel
shown in the diagram you must drain the water out to
stop the panels freezing in the winter. Some
manufacturers have systems that do this
In order to heat water using solar energy, a
collector is fastened to the roof of a building, or
on a wall facing the sun. In some cases, the
collector may be free-standing. The working
fluid is either pumped or driven by natural
convection through it.
The collector could be made of a simple glass
topped insulated box with a flat solar absorber
made of sheet metal attached to copper pipes
and painted black, or a set of metal tubes
surrounded by an evacuated (near vacuum)
glass cylinder.
In some cases, before the solar energy is
absorbed, a parabolic mirror is used to
concentrate sunlight on the tube.
A simple water heating system would pump
cold water to a collector to be heated.
The heated water flows back to a collection
This type of collector can provide enough
hot water for an entire family.
Heat is stored in a hot water tank.
The volume of this tank will be larger with
solar heating systems in order to allow for
bad weather.
The working fluid for the absorber may be the
hot water from the tank, but more commonly
(at least in pumped systems) is a separate
loop of fluid containing anti-freeze and a
corrosion inhibitor ‫ المانع‬which delivers heat to
the tank through a heat exchanger
(commonly a coil of copper tubing within the
Some fabricants have 2 sheets of metal
stamped to produce a circulation zone.
Because the heat exchange area is greater
they may be marginally more efficient than
traditional absorbers.
Another lower-maintenance concept is the
'drain-back': no anti-freeze is required;
instead all the piping is sloped to cause
water to drain back to the tank. The tank is
not pressurized and is open to atmospheric
pressure. As soon as the pump shuts off,
flow reverses and the pipes empty by the
time when freezing could occur.
Usable amounts of domestic hot water
were only available in the summer months,
on cloudless days, between April and
Solar water heating systems can be classified in
different ways:
The type of collector used.
The location of the collector - roof mount,
ground mount, wall mount.
The location of the storage tank in relation to the
The requirement for a pump.
The method of heat transfer - open-loop or
closed-loop (via heat exchanger).
Photovoltaic thermal hybrid solar collectors can
be designed to produce both hot water and
Solar thermal collector
Types of solar collectors for heat
Flat plate and evacuated tube solar collectors in this
section are typically used to collect heat for
domestic hot water.
Flat plate
Solar thermal system for water heating - these are
deployed on flat roofs.
Evacuated tube
These collectors have multiple evacuated glass tubes
which heat up solar absorbers and, ultimately, solar
working fluid. The vacuum within the evacuated tubes
reduce convection and conduction heat losses,
allowing them to reach considerably higher
temperatures than most flat-plate collectors.
However, they are more expensive than flat
panels, but generally of a less cost to repair in the
event of damage.
Evacuated heat tubes perform better than flat plate
collectors in cold climates because they only rely on
the light they receive and not the outside
Tubes come in different levels of quality.
High quality units can efficiently absorb diffuse
solar radiation present in cloudy conditions
and are unaffected by wind. They also have the
same performance in similar light conditions
summer and winter.
For a given absorber area, evacuated tubes can
maintain their efficiency over a wide range of
ambient temperatures and heating requirements.
In extremely hot climates, flat-plate collectors
will generally be a more cost-effective solution
than evacuated tubes. Evacuated tube collectors
are well suited to extremely cold ambient
temperatures and work well in situations of
consistently low-light.
"Thermomax" panel
advanced type of
solar water heating
panel. The suppliers
claim that in the UK
it can supply 90% of
a typical home's hot
water needs from
April to November
This "Thermomax" panel is made of a set of glass
Each contains a metal plate with a blue coating to help
it absorb solar energy from IR to UV, so that even in
diffuse sunlight you get a decent output.
The air has been removed from the glass tubes to
reduce heat loss, rather like a thermos flask.
Up the back of the metal plate is a "heat pipe", which
looks like a copper rod but contains a liquid that
transfers heat very quickly to the top of the glass tube.
A water pipe runs across the top of the whole thing and
picks up the heat from the tubes.
Pool or unglazed
This type of collector is much like a flatplate collector, except that it has no
glazing/transparent cover.
It is used extensively for pool heating, as it
works quite well when the desired output
temperature (that is, when it is warm
As the ambient temperature gets cooler,
these collectors become ineffective.
Asphalt Solar Collector
An asphalt solar collector collects heat
using fluid circulating through an array of
pipes embedded in the surface of a road.
Black roads tend to absorb the heat of the
sun up to the point when they radiate heat
as quickly as they are absorbing it: the
surface temperature of roads in direct
sunshine can often reach 15°C higher than
the ambient air temperature.
Asphalt Solar Collector
The marginal extra cost of adding solar
collection to a planned road is less than the
cost of buying dedicated solar thermal
Types of solar collectors for electric generation
Solar thermal collector
•A solar thermal collector is specifically
intended to collect heat: that is, to absorb
sunlight to provide heat.
•Although the term may be applied to simple
solar hot water panels, it is usually used to
denote more complex installations.
•There are various types of thermal collectors,
such as solar parabolic, solar trough and
solar towers.
•These type of collectors are generally used in
solar power plants where solar heat is used
to generate electricity by heating water to
produce steam which drives a turbine
connected to an electrical generator.
Parabolic dish
It is the most powerful type of collector which
concentrates sunlight at a single, focal point, via
one or more parabolic dishes focuses light. This
geometry may be used in solar furnace and
solar power plants.
There are two key phenomena to understand
the design of a parabolic dish.
First is that the shape of a parabola is defined
such that incoming rays which are parallel to
the dish's axis will be reflected toward the
The second key is that the light rays from the
sun arriving at the earth's surface are almost
completely parallel. So if dish can be aligned
with its axis pointing at the sun, almost all of
the incoming radiation will be reflected towards
the focal point of the dish
Most losses are due to imperfections in the
parabolic shape and imperfect reflection.
Losses between the dish and its focal point
are minimal, as the dish is generally
designed specifically to be small enough
that this factor is insignificant on a clear,
sunny day.
If the local weather is hazy, or foggy, it may
reduce the efficiency of a parabolic dish
Parabolic Trough
This type of collector is
generally used in solar
power plants.
A trough-shaped parabolic
concentrate sunlight on an
insulated tube (Dewar tube)
or heat pipe, placed at the
focal point, containing fluid
which transfers heat from the
collectors to the boilers in
the power station.
System designs
During the day the sun has different positions. If the
mirrors or lenses do not move, then the focus of the
mirrors or lenses changes. Therefore it seems
unavoidable that there needs to be a tracking
system that follows the position of the sun (for solar
photovoltaics a solar tracker is only optional). The
tracking system increases the cost and complexity.
With this in mind, different designs can be
distinguished in how they concentrate the light and
track the position of the sun.
Parabolic trough designs
Sketch of a parabolic trough design. A change of
position of the sun parallel to the receiver does not
require adjustment of the mirrors.
Full-scale parabolic trough systems consist of many
such troughs laid out in parallel over a large area of
Parabolic trough power plants reflects the direct solar
radiation onto a pipe containing a fluid (also called a
receiver, absorber or collector) running the length of
the trough. However, a change of position of the sun
parallel to the trough does not require adjustment of
the mirrors, since the light is simply concentrated
elsewhere on the receiver. Thus the trough design
does not require tracking on a second axis.
The receiver may be enclosed in a glass vacuum
chamber. The vacuum significantly reduces
convective heat loss.
The fluid containing the heat is transported to a heat
engine where about a third of the heat is converted to
Power tower
A power tower is a large tower surrounded by small
rotating (tracking) mirrors called heliostats. These
mirrors align themselves and focus sunlight on the
receiver at the top of tower, collected heat is transferred
to a power station below.
Power tower
1. Free pollution, Environment friendly.
2. Very
temperatures are suitable for electricity
generation using conventional methods like
steam turbine.
3. Good efficiency. By concentrating sunlight current
systems can get better efficiency than simple
solar cells.
4. A larger area can be covered by using relatively
inexpensive mirrors rather than using expensive
solar cells.
5. Concentrated light can be redirected to a suitable
location via optical fiber cable. For example
illuminating buildings, like here (Hybrid solar
6. Heat storage for power production during cloudy
and overnight conditions can be accomplished,
often by underground tank storage of heated
1. Concentrating systems require sun tracking to
maintain sunlight focus at the collector.
2. Inability to provide power in diffused light
conditions. Solar Cells are able to provide some
output even if the sky becomes a little bit cloudy,
but power output from concentrating systems drop
drastically in cloudy conditions.
In California, the Solar One power station uses the
Sun's heat to make steam, and drive a generator to
make electricity. The station looks a little like the
Odeillo solar furnace, except that the mirrors are
arranged in -circles around the "power tower".
As the Sun moves across the sky, the mirrors turn to
keep the rays focused on the tower, where oil is
heated to 3,000 degrees Celsius, The heat from the oil
is used to generate steam, which then drives a turbine,
which in turn drives a generator capable of providing
10kW of electrical power.
Solar One was very expensive to build, but
as fossil fuels run out and become more
expensive, solar power stations may
become a better option.
The solar furnace at Odeillo in France can reach
temperatures up to 3,800 degrees Celsius.
Solar process heating systems are designed to
provide large quantities of hot water or space heating
for nonresidential buildings.
Evaporation ponds are shallow ponds that
concentrate dissolved solids through evaporation.
The use of evaporation ponds to obtain salt from
sea water is one of the oldest applications of solar
energy. Evaporation ponds represent one of the
largest commercial applications of solar energy in
use today.
Solar water heating can reduce CO2 emissions by 1
ton/year (if replacing natural gas for hot water heating)
or 3 ton/year (if replacing electric hot water heating).
Solar cooker
The Solar Bowl above the Solar Kitchen in Auroville,
India concentrates sunlight on a movable receiver to
produce steam for cooking. (WHAT KIND OF HEAT
Solar cookers use sunlight for cooking, drying and
pasteurization. Solar cooking offsets fuel costs,
reduces demand for fuel or firewood, and improves
air quality by reducing or removing a source of
The Solar Kitchen in Auroville, India uses a unique
concentrating technology known as the solar bowl.
The solar bowl uses a fixed spherical reflector with a
receiver which tracks the focus of light as the Sun
moves across the sky. The solar bowl's receiver
reaches temperature of 150°C that is used to
produce steam that helps cook 2,000 daily meals.
Concentrating solar cookers use reflectors to
concentrate light on a cooking container.
These designs cook faster and at higher
temperatures (up to 350 °C) but require direct light
to function properly.
1. Low-temperature collectors
Of the 2,000,000 m2 of solar thermal collectors
produced in the United States in 2006,
1,500,000 m2 were of the low-temperature variety.
Low-temperature collectors are generally installed
to heat swimming pools, although they can also be
used for space heating. Collectors can use air or
water as the medium to transfer the heat to its
2. Medium-temperature collectors
solar water heating
These collectors used to produce approximately 50%
and more of the hot water needed for residential
and commercial use in the United States.
The payback time for a typical household in US is 4
to 9 years, depending on the state.
A crew of one plumber and two assistants with minimal
training can install a system per day. The typical
installation has negligible maintenance costs.
3. High-temperature collectors
Dish designs
A parabolic solar dish concentrating the sun's rays on
the heating element of an engine. The entire unit acts
as a solar tracker.
A dish system uses a large, reflective, parabolic dish
(similar in shape to satellite television dish).
The advantage of a dish system is that it can achieve
much higher temperatures due to the higher
concentration of light. Higher temperatures lead to
better conversion to electricity and the dish system is
very efficient on this point.
However, there are also some disadvantages. Heat to
electricity conversion requires moving parts and that
result in maintenance.
Second, the (heavy) engine is part of the moving
structure, which requires a rigid frame and strong
tracking system.
Furthermore, parabolic mirrors are used instead of flat
mirrors and tracking must be dual-axis.
3. Trough designs
Concentrated solar power plant using parabolic trough
The fluid-filled pipes can reach temperatures of 150
to 220 degrees Celsius when the fluid is not
Power tower designs
Solar power tower
Flat mirrors focus the
light on the top of the
tower. The white surfaces
below the receiver are
used for calibrating the
mirror positions. Power
Towers (also known as
plants or 'heliostat' power
plants) use an array of flat,
moveable mirrors (called
heliostats) to focus the
sun's rays upon a collector
tower (the receiver).
The advantage of this design above the parabolic
trough design is the higher temperature. Thermal
energy at higher temperatures can be converted to
electricity more efficiently and can be more cheaply
stored for later use.
The disadvantage is that each mirror must have its
own dual-axis control, while in the parabolic trough
design one axis can be shared for a large array of
In June 2008, eSolar, a Pasadena produce 245
megawatts of power. eSolar's proprietary suntracking software coordinates the movement of
24,000 1 meter-square mirrors per 1 tower using
optical sensors to adjust and calibrate the mirrors in
real time.
Renewable Energy
Dr. Ghani Albaali
Visiting Professor
Princes Sumaya University for Technology
Environment Technology & Managements
Solar thermal
Wind Power
Hydroelectric Power
1- Photovoltaic
2- Solar thermal Collectors
3- Wind Power
4- Hydroelectric Power
5- Biomass
Wind power
Three blades are the most common design for
modern wind turbines
Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a
useful form of energy, such as electricity, using wind
Wind power
At the end of 2008, worldwide the capacity of windpowered generators was 121.2 gigawatts (GW).
In 2008, wind power produced about 1.5% of
worldwide electricity usage; and is growing rapidly,
having doubled in the three years between 2005 and
Several countries have achieved relatively high
levels of wind power, such as 19% of stationary
electricity production in Denmark, 11% in Spain and
Portugal, and 7% in Germany and the Republic of
Ireland in 2008.
As of May 2009, eighty countries around the world
are using wind power on a commercial basis.
Large-scale wind farms are connected to the electric
power transmission network; smaller facilities are
used to provide electricity to isolated locations.
Wind energy as a power source is attractive as an
alternative to fossil fuels, because it is plentiful,
renewable, widely distributed, cleans, and
produces no greenhouse gas emissions.
However, the construction of wind farms is not
universally welcomed due to their visual impact and
other effects on the environment.
The Earth is heated by the sun, such that the poles
receive less energy from the sun than the equator
‫ ;خط اإلستواء‬along with this, dry land heats up (and
cools down) more quickly than the seas do.
The differential heating drives a global atmospheric
convection system reaching from the Earth's surface
to the stratosphere ‫ طبقة الغالف الجوي العليا‬which acts as
a virtual ceiling.
Most of the energy stored in these wind movements
can be found at high altitudes where continuous wind
speeds of over 160 km/h (100 mph) occur.
The total amount of economically extractable
power available from the wind is considerably
more than present human power use from all
An estimated 72 TW of wind power on the Earth
potentially can be commercially viable, compared to
about 15 TW average global power consumption
from all sources in 2005. Not all the energy of the
wind flowing past a given point can be recovered.
Electricity generation
Typical components of a wind turbine (gearbox, rotor
shaft and brake assembly) being lifted into position.
Grid management
Induction generators, often used for wind power
projects, require reactive power for excitation so
substations used in wind-power collection systems.
Different types of wind turbine generators behave
differently during transmission grid disturbances, so
extensive modeling for a wind farm is required by
predictable stable behavior during system.
According to a 2007 Stanford University study
published in the Journal of Applied Meteorology and
Climatology, interconnecting ten or more wind farms
can allow an average of 33% of the total energy
produced to be used as reliable, base load electric
power, as long as minimum criteria are met for wind
speed and turbine height.
At present, a few grid systems have penetration
of wind energy above 5%:
• Denmark (values over 19%),
• Spain and Portugal (values over 11%),
• Germany and the Republic of Ireland (values
over 6%).
The Danish grid is heavily interconnected to the
European electrical grid, and it has solved grid
management problems by exporting almost half
of its wind power to Norway. The correlation
between electricity export and wind power
production is very strong.
Electricity generated from wind power can be
highly variable at several different timescales: from
hour to hour, daily, and seasonally. Annual variation
also exists, but is not as significant.
Wind power can be replaced by other power
stations during low wind periods. Transmission
networks must already cope with outages of
generation plant and daily changes in electrical
In the UK, demand for electricity is higher in winter
than in summer, and so are wind speeds.
A report from Denmark noted that their wind
power network was without power for 54 days
during 2002. Wind power advocates argue that
these periods of low wind can be dealt with by
simply restarting existing power stations that have
been held in readiness.
‫فتذذرات الريذذام المنخفضذذة هذذذه يمكذذن التعامذذل معهذذا ببسذذاطة عذذن طريذذق‬
‫إعادة تشغيل محطات الطاقة الحالية التي تم االحتفاظ بها في حالة استعداد‬
Denmark generates nearly one-fifth of its
electricity with wind turbines—the highest
percentage of any country—and is ninth in the
world in total wind power generation.
Denmark is prominent in the manufacturing and
use of wind turbines, with a commitment made in
the 1970s to eventually produce half of the
country's power by wind.
‫ حيث التزمت فيي‬، ‫تشتهر الدنمارك في تصنيع واستخدام توربينات الرياح‬
‫السبعينيات بإنتاج نصف طاقة البالد في النهاية بواسطة الرياح‬.
Wind power usage
Wind power by country
Installed wind power capacity (MW)
Unite States
United Kingdom
New Zealand
South Korea
Costa Rica
Rest of Europe
Rest of
Rest of Asia
Rest of Africa
& Middle East
Rest of
World total
Small-scale wind power
This wind turbine charges a
12 V battery to run 12 V
Small-scale wind power is the name given to
wind generation systems with the capacity to
produce up to 50 kW of electrical power.
Isolated communities, that may otherwise rely on
diesel generators may use wind turbines to
displace diesel fuel consumption.
Small-scale wind power
Individuals may purchase these systems to
reduce or eliminate their dependence on grid
electricity for economic or other reasons, or to
reduce their carbon footprint.
Wind turbines have been used for household
electricity generation in conjunction with battery
storage over many decades in remote areas.
Environmental effects of wind power
Compared to the environmental effects of
traditional energy sources, the environmental
effects of wind power are relatively minor.
Wind power consumes no fuel, and emits no air
pollution, unlike fossil fuel power sources.
The impact made on the environment is very little
when compared to what is gained.
Danger to birds and bats has been a concern in
some locations. However, studies show that the
number of birds killed by wind turbines is negligible
compared to the number that die as a result of
other human activities, and especially the
environmental impacts of using non-clean power
Fossil fuel generation kills around twenty times as
many birds per unit of energy produced than windfarms.
Wind energy as a power source is attractive as an
alternative to fossil fuels, because it is plentiful,
renewable, widely distributed, clean, and produces no
greenhouse gas emission.
There are now many thousands of wind turbines
operating, with a total nameplate capacity of
121,188 MWp of which wind power in Europe
accounts for 55% (2008).
81% of wind power installations are in the US and
World wind generation capacity more than
quadrupled between 2000 and 2006, doubling about
every three years.
The top five countries in terms of new installations
climbed to 73% by 2008 as those countries are the
United States, Germany, Spain, China, and India which
have seen substantial capacity growth during 20062008.
Relative cost of electricity by
generation source
When comparing renewable and conventional power
sources several internal cost factors have to be
Capital costs ‫( المال رأس تكاليف‬including waste
disposal and decommissioning costs for nuclear
energy ‫) النووية للطاقة التفكيك تكاليف‬
Operating and maintenance costs
Fuel costs (for fossil fuel and biomass sources, and
which may be negative for wastes)
Expected annual hours run
The fins are 30m long
Low Speed Shaft
Hydroelectric Power
Hydroelectric power - energy from falling water
We have used running
water as an energy source
for thousands of years.
Nowadays there are many
stations, providing around
electricity. The name comes
from "hydro", the Greek
word for water.
How it works
Water is allowed to flow through tunnels in the dam,
to turn turbines and thus drive generators.
Notice that the dam is much thicker at the bottom
than at the top, because the pressure of the water
increases with depth.
Hydro-electric power stations can produce a great
deal of power very cheaply.
"Hoover Dam", on the Colorado river, supplied much of
the electricity for the city of Las Vegas.
Although there are many suitable sites around the
world, hydro-electric dams are very expensive to build.
However, once the station is built, the water comes free
of charge, and there is no waste or pollution.
The Sun evaporates water from the sea and lakes,
which forms clouds and falls as rain in the mountains,
keeping the dam supplied with water. For free.
Gravitational potential energy is stored in the water
above the dam.
Because of the great height of the water, it will arrive at
the turbines at high pressure, which means that we
can extract a great deal of energy from it. The water
then flows away downriver as normal.
In mountainous countries such as Switzerland and
New Zealand, hydro-electric power provides more
than half of the country's energy needs.
An alternative is to build the station next to a fastflowing river. However with this arrangement the
flow of the water cannot be controlled, and water
cannot be stored for later use.
Hydro-electric power is Renewable.
Is it renewable?
The Sun provides the water by evaporation from
the sea, and will keep on doing so.
Hydroelectricity is electricity generated by
hydropower, i.e., the production of power through
use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing
Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed, the
project produces no direct waste, and has a
considerably lower output level of the
greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) than fossil
fuel powered energy plants.
It is the most widely used form of renewable energy.
Worldwide, hydroelectricity supplied an estimated
816 GWe in 2005. This was approximately 20% of
the world's electricity, and accounted for about 88%
of electricity from renewable sources.
The Three Gorges Dam, the largest hydro-electric
power station in the world.
Most hydroelectric power comes from the potential
energy ‫ الطاقة الكامنة‬of dammed water driving a water
turbine and generator. In this case the energy
extracted from the water depends on the volume
and on the difference in height between the source
and the water's outflow.
At times of low electrical demand, excess generation
capacity is used to pump water into the higher
reservoir. When there is higher demand, water is
released back into the lower reservoir ‫ خزان‬through a
Hydroelectric plants with no reservoir capacity are
called run-of-the-river plants, since it is not then
possible to store water.
Energy Resources
Hydroelectric power: Summary
Hydro-electric power means getting energy from
flowing water
Usually we build a dam, and let the water turn
turbines & generators as it goes through pipes in
the dam
No pollution, no fuel needed, no waste
Expensive to build
Building a dam means flooding a lot of land
Electricity generation
Hydraulic turbine and
electrical generator
Hydroelectric dam in cross section
Electricity generation
Small-scale hydro-electric plants
Although large hydroelectric installations generate
most of the world's hydroelectricity, some situations
require small hydro plants. These are defined as
plants producing up to 10 megawatts, or projects
up to 30 megawatts in North America.
A small hydro plant may be connected to a
distribution grid or may provide power only to an
isolated community or a single home.
Small hydro projects generally do not require the
protracted ‫مطول‬
economic, engineering and
environmental studies associated with large projects,
and often can be completed much more quickly.
Small-scale hydro-electric plants
A small hydro development may be installed along
with a project for flood control, irrigation or other
purposes, providing extra revenue for project costs.
Small hydro schemes are particularly popular in
China, which has over 50% of world small hydro
 Once the dam is built, the
energy is virtually free.
 No waste
 Much more reliable than
wind, solar or wave power.
Water can be stored above the dam ready in
Hydro-electric power stations can increase to full
power very quickly, unlike other power stations.
Electricity can be generated constantly ‫ ثابت بشكل‬.
Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Since hydroelectric dams do not burn fossil
fuels, they do not directly produce carbon
dioxide (a greenhouse gas). While some carbon
dioxide is produced during manufacture and
construction of the project, this is a tiny fraction
of the operating emissions of equivalent fossilfuel electricity generation.
The major advantage of hydroelectricity is elimination
of the cost of fuel. The cost of operating a
hydroelectric plant is nearly immune to increases in
the cost of fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas or coal,
and no imports are needed.
Hydroelectric plants also tend to have longer
economic lives than fuel-fired generation, with some
plants now in service which were built 50 to 100 years
Operating labor cost is also usually low, as plants are
automated and have few personnel on site during
normal operation.
Related activities
Reservoirs created by hydroelectric schemes
often provide facilities for water sports, and
become tourist attractions in themselves.
In some countries, aquaculture ‫ االستزراع المائي‬in
reservoirs is common. Multi-use dams installed
for irrigation support agriculture with a relatively
constant water supply.
Large hydro dams can control floods, which
would otherwise affect people living downstream
‫ المصب‬of the project.
Disadvantages (General)
The dams are very expensive to build.
However, many dams are also used for flood control
or irrigation, so building costs can be shared.
Building a large dam will flood a very large area
upstream ‫التّيار ض ّد‬, causing problems for animals that
used to live there.
Finding a suitable site can be difficult - the impact on
residents and the environment may be unacceptable.
Water quality and quantity downstream can be
affected, which can have an impact on plant life.
Environmental Damage
Greenhouse Gas Emissions
The reservoirs of power plants in tropical regions
may produce substantial amounts of methane and
carbon dioxide. This is due to plant material in
flooded areas decaying in an anaerobic
environment, and forming methane, a very potent
greenhouse gas.
‫قد تنتج خزانات محطات الطاقة في المناطق االستوائية كميات كبيرة من‬
‫ ويرجع ذلك إلى تدهور المواد النباتية في‬.‫الميثان وثاني أكسيد الكربون‬
‫ وهو غاز دفيئة‬، ‫ وتشكيل غاز الميثان‬، ‫المناطق المغمورة في بيئة ال هوائية‬
‫قوي جدًا‬.
Environmental Damage
Hydroelectric projects can be disruptive to
surrounding aquatic ecosystems. ‫يمكن أن تتسبب المشاريع‬
‫الكهرومائية في تعطيل النظم البيئية المائية المحيطة بالموقع وأمامه‬
Reduced Some fishes populations by preventing
access to spawning grounds upstream. ‫منع الوصول إلى‬
‫مناطق التفريخ أعلى النهر‬
Some fishes spawn are also harmed on their
migration to sea when they must pass through
Environmental Damage Cont.
Demolition of dams because of its impact on fish. ‫في‬
‫بعض الحاالت تم هدم السدود بسبب تأثيره على األسماك‬
Generation of hydroelectric power changes the
downstream river environment. ‫يؤدي توليد الطاقة الكهرومائية‬
‫إلى تغيير بيئة األنهار‬.
Water exiting a turbine usually contains very little
suspended sediment, which can lead to loss of
riverbanks. Since turbine gates are often opened
intermittently. ‫عادة ما تحتوي المياه الخارجة من التوربين على القليل‬
.‫ والتي يمكن أن تؤدي إلى فقدان ضفاف األنهار‬، ‫جدًا من الرواسب المعلقة‬
‫نظرا ألن بوابات التوربين غالبًا ما يتم فتحها بشكل متقطع‬
ً .
Environmental Damage Cont.
Depending on the location, water exiting from
turbines is typically much warmer than the pre-dam
water, which can change aquatic faunal
populations, including endangered species.
‫ عادة ما تكون المياه الخارجة من التوربينات أكثر‬، ‫اعتمادًا على الموقع‬
‫ والتي يمكن أن تغير مجموعات الحيوانات‬، ‫دفئًا من مياه ما قبل السد‬
‫ بما في ذلك األنواع المهددة باالنقراض‬، ‫المائية‬
Environmental Damage
Population Relocation
Another disadvantage of hydroelectric dams is the
need to relocate the people living where the
reservoirs are planned.
In February 2008, it was estimated that 40-80
million people worldwide had been physically
displaced as a direct result of dam construction.
Environmental Damage
Dam Failures
Failures of large dams, while rare, are potentially
serious — the Banqiao Dam failure in Southern
China resulted in the deaths of 171,000 people and
left millions homeless.
Dams may be subject to enemy bombardment
during wartime, sabotage and terrorism. Smaller
dams and micro hydro facilities are less vulnerable
to these threats.
The creation of a dam in a geologically
inappropriate location may cause disasters
Comparison with Other Methods of Power
Hydroelectricity eliminates the flue gas emissions
from fossil fuel combustion, including pollutants
such as sulfur dioxide, nitric oxide, carbon
monoxide, dust, and mercury in the coal.
‫تزيل الطاقة الكهرومائية انبعاثات غازات المداخن من احتراق الوقود‬
‫ بما في ذلك الملوثات مثل ثاني أكسيد الكبريت وأكسيد‬، ‫األحفوري‬
‫النيتريك وأول أكسيد الكربون والغبار والزئبق في الفحم‬.
Hydroelectricity also avoids the hazards of coal
mining and the indirect health effects of coal
emissions. ‫ضا مخاطر تعدين الفحم‬
ً ‫تتجنب الطاقة الكهرومائية أي‬
‫واآلثار الصحية غير المباشرة النبعاثات الفحم‬.
Comparison with Other Methods of Power
Compared to nuclear power, hydroelectricity
generates no nuclear waste, has none of the dangers
associated with uranium mining, nor nuclear leaks.
Unlike uranium, hydroelectricity is also a renewable
energy source.
‫ ال تولد الطاقة الكهرومائية أي نفايات نووية‬، ‫بالمقارنة مع الطاقة النووية‬
.‫ وال تسرب نووي‬، ‫ وليس لديها أي مخاطر مرتبطة بتعدين اليورانيوم‬،
‫مصدرا للطاقة‬
ً ‫ تعد الطاقة الكهرومائية أي‬، ‫على عكس اليورانيوم‬
Compared to wind farms, hydroelectricity power
plants have a more predictable load factor. If the
project has a storage reservoir, it can be dispatched
to generate power when needed. Hydroelectric
plants can be easily regulated to follow variations in
power demand.
Unlike fossil-fueled combustion turbines, construction
of a hydroelectric plant requires a long lead-time for
site studies, hydrological studies, and environmental
impact assessment. Hydrological data up to 50 years
or more is usually required to determine the best sites
and operating regimes for a large hydroelectric plant.
‫ يتطلب بناء‬، ‫على عكس توربينات االحتراق التي تعمل بالوقود األحفوري‬
، ‫ والدراسات الهيدرولوجية‬، ‫محطة كهرومائية مهلة طويلة لدراسات الموقع‬
50 ‫ عادة ما تكون البيانات الهيدرولوجية التي تصل إلى‬.‫وتقييم األثر البيئي‬
‫عا ًما أو أكثر مطلوبة لتحديد أفضل المواقع وأنظمة التشغيل لمحطة كهرومائية‬
New hydro sites tend to be far from population centers
and require extensive transmission lines.
Hydroelectric generation depends on rainfall in the
watershed, and may be significantly reduced in years
of low rainfall or snowmelt. Long-term energy yield
may be affected by climate change. Utilities that
primarily use hydroelectric power may spend
additional capital to build extra capacity to ensure
sufficient power is available in low water years.
، ‫يعتمد توليد الطاقة الكهرومائية على هطول األمطار في مستجمعات المياه‬
.‫وقد ينخفض بشكل كبير في سنوات انخفاض هطول األمطار أو ذوبان الجليد‬
‫ قد تنفق المرافق التي‬.‫قد يتأثر عائد الطاقة على المدى الطويل بتغير المناخ‬
ً ‫تستخدم الطاقة الكهرومائية في المقام األول رأس‬
‫ماال إضافيًا لبناء سعة‬
‫إضافية لضمان توفر طاقة كافية في سنوات المياه المنخفضة‬.
Countries with the Most Hydro-electric
The ranking of hydro-electric capacity is either by
actual annual energy production or by installed
capacity power rating.
‫يتم تصنيف السعة الكهرومائية إما من خالل إنتاج الطاقة السنوي الفعلي أو‬
‫من خالل تصنيف قدرة السعة المركبة‬.
A hydro-electric plant rarely operates at its full
power rating over a full year; the ratio between
annual average power and installed capacity rating
is the capacity factor. ‫نادرا ما تعمل محطة كهرومائية بكامل‬
‫طاقتها على مدى عام كامل ؛ النسبة بين متوسط الطاقة السنوي وتصنيف‬
‫السعة المركبة هي عامل السعة‬.
The installed capacity is the sum of all generator
nameplate power ratings.
Countries with the Most Hydro-electric
The top six dams, in descending ‫ تنازلي‬order of their
annual electricity generation, are:
1. Three Gorges Dam in China,
2. Itaipu Dam on the border of Paraguay and
3. Guri Dam in Venezuela,
4. Tucurui dam in Brazil,
5. Sayano-Shushenskaya Dam in Russia
6. Krasnoyarsk hydroelectric dam, also in Russia
Countries with the Most Hydro-electric
Brazil, Canada, Norway, Switzerland and
Venezuela are the only countries in the world
where the majority of the internal electric energy
production is from hydroelectric power.
Paraguay not only produces 100% its electricity
from hydroelectric dams, but exports 90% of its
production to Brazil and to the Argentine.
Norway produces 98-99% of its electricity from
Sustainable Development
Sustainable Development
Sustainable development means basing developmental
and environmental policies on a comparison of costs and
benefits and on careful economic analysis that will
strengthen environmental protection and lead to rising
and sustainable levels of welfare (World Bank, 1992).
Sustainable Development: Development that meets the
needs of the present without compromising the ability of
future generations to meet their own needs. (Brundtland
Commission definition) Our Common future, WCED, 1987
Sustainable Development: Improving the quality of human
life while living within the carrying capacity of supporting
Sustainable Development: The natural resources of the
environment (natural ecosystems), must be safeguarded
for the benefit of present and future generations through
careful planning or managements, as appropriate.
(Stockholm Declaration, Principle 2, 1972)
Ways to Achieve Sustainability
 Leave everything in the pristine state, or return it to its
pristine state.
 Develop so as to not overwhelm the carrying capacity
of the system.
 Sustainability will take care of itself as economic growth
 Polluter and victim can arrive at an efficient solution by
Ways to Achieve Sustainability
 Let the markets take care of it.
 Internalize the externalities.
 Reinvest rents for nonrenewable resources (weak and strong
 Leave future generations the options or the capacity to be
as well off as we are.
Sustainable Development Dimensions
 The economic approach: Maximize income while
maintaining constant or increasing stock of capital.
 The ecological approach: Maintain the resilience and
robustness of biological and physical systems.
 The socio-cultural approach: Maintain the stability of
social and cultural systems.
Sustainable Development Pillars
Sustainable Development, Environment, and Poverty
Sustainable Development
Development that meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their
own needs. (Brundtland Commission definition)
Ethical principle: the responsibility of present generations to future generations.
Legal elements of the concept:
• The need to preserve natural resources for the benefit of the
future generations.
• The aim of exploiting natural resources in a sustainable
• The equitable use of the natural resources.
• The need to ensure that environmental considerations are
integrated into economic and another development plans.
Sustainable Development Principals
Rio Declaration 1992 Principles (Earth Summit)
It defines the rights of the people to be involved in the
development of their economies, and the responsibilities of
human beings to safeguard the common environment.
 People are entitled to a healthy and productive life in
harmony with nature.
 Development today must not threaten the needs of present
and future generations.
 Nations have the right to exploit their own resources, but
without causing environmental damage beyond their
 Environmental protection shall constitute an integral part of
the development process.
Rio Declaration 1992 Principles (Earth Summit)
 Eradicating poverty and reducing disparities in living
standards in different parts of the world are essential if
we are to achieve sustainable development whilst
meeting the needs of the majority of the people.
 Environmental issues are best handled with the
participation of all Concerned citizens.
 The polluter should, in principle, bear the cost of
 Sustainable development requires better scientific
understanding of the problems.
 Nations should share knowledge and technologies to
achieve the goal of sustainability.
Agenda 21
It provides guidelines to deal with the problems of poverty,
hunger, resource consumption and the deterioration of
 Is the blueprint for sustainability in the 21st century.
 Provides options for combating the deterioration of land,
air and water, whilst conserving habitats and their
 Deals with poverty, over consumption, health and
Agenda 21
 Promotes roles for all. Everyone – governments, business,
trade unions, scientists, teachers, indigenous people and
youth – have roles to play in achieving sustainable
development and should be involved in the decision
making processes.
 Encourages the reduction of environmentally and
socially detrimental processes, but within a framework
which allows economic success.
Sustainable Development Principles
 Principle of preventive action
 The precautionary principle
 The polluter-pays principle
 Principle of common but differentiated responsibility
 Principle of sustainable development
 The principle of international cooperation: Good
Principle of Preventive Action
 The obligation requiring the prevention of damage to the
environment, or to otherwise reduce, limit or control activities which
might cause such damage.
 It requires action to be taken at an early stage, and if possible,
before damage actually occurred.
 This principle has been started by the 1972 Stockholm Declaration.
 The preventive approach is endorsed by the large number of
international environmental treaties, aiming to prevent for example;
- pollution of the seas by oil, radioactive waste, hazardous waste
and substances,
- river pollution; radioactive pollution of the atmosphere; air pollution;
The Precautionary Principle
The PP is a proactive approach to environmental problems
"When an activity raises threats of harm to human health or the
environment, precautionary measures should be taken even if
some cause-and-effect relationships are not fully established
from the January 1998 Wingspread Statement on the Precautionary Principle
 This Principle began to appear
instruments in the mid-1980s.
 It provides guidance where there is scientific uncertainty or
highly threatening environmental issue.
The Precautionary Principle
 The core of this principle is reflected in Principle 15 of the Rio
 Bergen ECE on sustainable Development (7) and
Precautionary Principle: In order to achieve sustainable
development, policies must be based on the precautionary
Most of international treatise and Acts are based on this principle
The Polluter-Pays Principle (PPP)
 It requires that the costs of pollution be borne by those who
cause it.
 It aims at determining how the costs of pollution prevention
and control must be allocated: the polluter must pay.
 "The principle to be used for allocating costs of pollution
prevention and control measures to encourage rational use
of scarce environmental resources and to avoid distortions in
international trade and investment is the so-called PolluterPays Principle.“ OECD Council.
The Polluter-Pays Principle (PPP)
 It has been reaffirmed in Rio Declaration Principle 16:
"National authorities should endeavor to promote the
internalization of environmental costs and the use of
economic instruments, taking into account the approach
that the polluter should, in principle, bear the cost of pollution,
with due regard to the public interest and without distorting
international trade and investment.“
 It is applicable at the domestic level and not at international
PPP Implementation Approaches:
 Command & Control:
regulations and on-going inspection programs
 Market-based:
pollution taxes, tradable pollution permits, subsidies
Common but Differentiated Responsibility Principle
 Principle 7 of the Rio Declaration states:
"In view of the different contributions to global
environmental degradation, States have common but
differentiated responsibilities. The developed countries
acknowledge the responsibility that they bear in the
international pursuit of sustainable development in view
of the pressures their societies place on the global
environment and of the technologies and financial
resources they command."
Common but Differentiated Responsibility Principle
 It evolved from the notion: of the “common heritage
of mankind”
 Common responsibility describes the shared
obligations of two or more States towards the
protection of a particular environmental resource.
Common responsibility is likely to apply where the
resource is shared, under the control of no state, or
under the sovereign control of a state, but subject to
a common legal interest (such as biodiversity n
termed a common.
Common but Differentiated Responsibility Principle
Differentiated responsibility of States for the protection of the
environment is widely accepted in treaty and other State
practices. It translates into differentiated environmental
standards set on the basis of a range of factors, including
special needs and circumstances, future economic
development of countries, and historic contributions to the
creation of an environmental problem. The Stockholm
Declaration emphasized the need to consider the
applicability of standards which are valid for the most
advanced countries but which may be inappropriate and of
unwarranted social cost for the developing countries.
Common but Differentiated Responsibility Principle
 The principle recognizes historical differences in the
contributions of developed and developing States to global
environmental problems, and differences in their respective
economic and technical capacity to tackle these problems.
Despite their common responsibilities, important differences exist
between the stated responsibilities of developed and
developing countries.
 In summary, States have common responsibilities to
protect the environment and promote sustainable
development, but due to different social, economic,
and ecological situations, countries must shoulder
different responsibilities.
The Principle of International Cooperation &
Good Neighborliness
• Principle 24 Stockholm Declaration.
• Principle 27 Rio Declaration:
‘States and people shall co-operate in good faith
and in a spirit of partnership in the fulfilment of the
principles embodied in this Declaration and in the
further development of international law in the field of
sustainable development’.
The Principle of International Cooperation &
Good Neighborliness
 This principle is affirmed in all international environmental
agreements and treaties.
 It reflects a general political commitment to international
cooperation in matters concerning the protection of the
• Principle 7 of the 1987 UNEP Draft Principles:” Exchange of
information, notification, consultation, and other forms of
cooperation regarding shared natural resources are carried
out on the basis of the principle of good faith and spirit of
good neighborliness….