ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Environmental Pollution can be defined as any undesirable change in physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of any component of the environment i.e. air, water, soil which can cause harmful effects on various forms of life or property. Pollution: The term pollution can be defined as influence of any substance causing disturbance, harmful effects, and uneasiness to the organisms الكائنات الحية. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Pollutant:- Any substance causing disturbance or harmful effects or uneasiness to the organisms, then that particular substance may be called as the pollutant. TYPES OF POLLUTION WATER POLLUTION AIR POLLUTION LAND POLLUTION NOISE POLLUTION WATER POLLUTION WATER POLLUTION Water Pollution can be defined as alteration in physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of water through natural or human activities and making it unsuitable for its designated use. Fresh Water present on the earth surface is put to many uses. It is used for drinking, domestic and municipal uses, agricultural, irrigation, industries, navigation, recreation المالحة والترفيه. The used water becomes contaminated and is called waste water. SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION Most of Water Pollution is man made It may also occur naturally by addition of soil particles through erosion animal wastes and leaching of minerals from rocks. .عن طريق إضافة جزيئات التربة من خالل تآكل فضالت الحيوانات وترشيح المعادن من الصخور SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION Municipal Waste Water Industrial In-organic Pollutants Organic Pollutants Agricultural Wastes Marine Pollution التلوث البحري Thermal pollution MUNICIPAL WASTE WATER INDUSTRIAL WASTE The major source of water pollution is the waste water discharged from industries and commercial bodies, these industries are chemical, metallurgical, food processing industries, textile, paper industries. They discharge several organic and inorganic pollutants. That prove highly toxic to living beings. INDUSTRIAL WASTE INDUSTRIAL WASTE INORGANIC POLLUTANTS They include fine particles of different metals, chlorides, sulphates, oxides of iron, cadmium, acids and alkalies. .والقلويات واألحماض، والكادميوم، وأكاسيد الحديد، وكبريتات، وكلوريد، معادن مختلفة ORGANIC POLLUTANTS They Include oils, fats, phenols, organic acids grease and several other organic compounds ORGANIC POLLUTANTS Oil Spills (hard to clean up) AGRICULTURAL WASTES Chemical fertilizers and pesticides األسمدة والمبيدات الكيماوية have become essential for present day high yielding crops. AGRICULTURAL WASTES Consequently, they have become a potential source of water pollution. These fertilizers اسمدة contain major plants nutrients mainly nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium. Excess fertilizers may reach the ground water by leaching رشحor may be mixed with surface water of rivers, lakes and ponds البركby runoff and drainage الجريان السطحي والصرف. MARINE POLLUTION Ocean are the final sink of all natural and manmade pollutants. Rivers discharge their pollutants into the sea. The sewage and garbage of costal cities are also dumped into the sea. The other sources include, discharge of oils, grease, detergents, and radioactive wastes from ships. تصب األنهار.المحيط هو المغسلة النهائية لجميع الملوثات الطبيعية واالصطناعية كما يتم إلقاء مياه الصرف الصحي والقمامة في المدن الساحلية.ملوثاتها في البحر وتشمل المصادر األخرى تصريف الزيوت والشحوم والمنظفات والنفايات.في البحر المشعة من السفن. MARINE POLLUTION THERMAL POLLUTION Thermal Pollution of water is caused by the rise in temperature of water. The main source of thermal pollution are the thermal and nuclear power plants. The power generating plants use water as coolants and release hot water into the original source. Sudden rise in temperature kills fish and other aquatic animals. THERMAL POLLUTION AIR POLLUTION AIR POLLUTION Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment, into the atmosphere. A substance in the air that can cause harm to humans and the environment is known as an air pollutant. CAUSES OF AIR POLLUTION Carbon dioxide - this happens because of deforestation إزالة الغاباتand fossil fuel burning. Sulfur dioxide – Due to the burning of sulfur containing compounds of fossil fuels. Sulfur oxides - very dangerous to humans at a high concentration. Sulfur in the atmosphere is responsible for acid rain. CONSEQUENCES OF AIR POLLUTION CO2 is a good transmitter of sunlight, but it also partially restricts infrared radiation going back from the earth into space, which produces the so called greenhouse effect that prevents a drastic cooling of the Earth during the night. CO2 in atmosphere --> GLOBALWARMING LAND POLLUTION LAND POLLUTION Land pollution is the demolition of Earth's land surfaces often caused by human activities and their misuse of land resources. It occurs when waste is not disposed properly. Urbanization تحضرand industrialization are major causes of land pollution. CAUSES OF LAND POLLUTION Four main causes of land pollution: Construction Agriculture Domestic waste Industrial Waste CONSTRUCTION Buildings take up resources and land, the trees are chopped down and used to make buildings. ويتم قطع األشجار واستخدامها لصنع المباني، تشغل المباني الموارد واألراضي. Takes away the places for animals and other organisms to live. AGRICULTURE As there are more and more people inhabiting يسكنthe earth, food is in higher demand and so forests are chopped down and turned into farmland In addition, herbicides, pesticides, artificial fertilizers, animal manure are washed into the soil and pollute it. يتم غسل مبيدات األعشاب والمبيدات الحشرية واألسمدة، باإلضافة إلى ذلك االصطناعية وروث الحيوانات في التربة وتلوثها. AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC WASTE Tons of domestic waste is dumped every day. Some waste from homes, offices and industries can be recycled or burnt. There is still a lot of garbage, such as refrigerators and washing machines that are dumped in landfills مدافن النفاياتsimply because they cannot be reused in anyway, nor recycled . DOMESTIC WASTE INDUSTRIAL WASTE Plastics factories, chemical plants, oil refineries, nuclear waste disposal activity, large animal farms, coal-fired power plants محطات توليد الطاقة التي تعمل بالفحم, metals production factories and other heavy industry all contribute to land pollution. INDUSTRIAL WASTE NOISE POLLUTION NOISE POLLUTION Noise pollution is excessive, displeasing human, animal, or machine-created environmental noise that disrupts the activity or balance of human or animal life. Sound becomes undesirable when it disturbs the normal activities such as working, sleeping, and during conversations. World Health Organization WHO stated that “Noise must be recognized as a major threat to human wellbeing ”رفاهية SOURCES OF NOISE POLLUTION Transportation systems are the main source of noise pollution in urban areas. Construction of buildings, highways, and streets cause a lot of noise, due to the usage of air compressors, bulldozers, loaders, dump trucks, and pavement breakers. Industrial noise also adds to the unfavorable state of noise pollution. already Loud speakers, plumbing, boilers, generators, air conditioners, fans, and vacuum cleaners add to the existing noise pollution. EFFECTS OF NOISE POLLUTION According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency USEPA, there are direct links between noise and health. Also, noise pollution adversely affects the lives of millions of people. Noise pollution can damage physiological and psychological health. High blood pressure, stress related illness, sleep disruption, hearing loss, and productivity loss are the problems related to noise pollution. It can also cause memory loss, depression, and panic attacks نوبات الهلع severe SOLUTIONS FOR NOISE POLLUTION Planting bushes and trees in and around sound generating sources is an effective solution for noise pollution. Regular servicing and tuning of automobiles can effectively reduce the noise pollution Social awareness programs should be taken up to educate the public about the causes and effects of noise pollution. Workers should be provided with equipment such as ear plugs and earmuffs for hearing protection. SOLUTIONS FOR NOISE POLLUTION Similar to automobiles, lubrication of the machinery and servicing should be done to minimize noise generation. Soundproof doors and windows can be installed to block unwanted noise from outside. Regulations should be imposed to restrict the usage of play loudspeakers in crowded areas and public places. Factories and industries should be located far from the residential areas. WAYS TO STOP POLLUTION We believe that it is the responsible thing to do to increase recycling. It is just like doing laundry and separating blacks and colors. The residents of the country should also try and do their part and put in at least one day of litter picking up جمع القمامة. GLOBAL WARMING AND THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT GREENHOUSE EFFECT GLOBAL WARMING AND THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT GLOBAL WARMING DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GLOBAL WARMING AND THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT Global warming refers to a rise in the temperature of the surface of the earth. The Greenhouse Effect is a process by which thermal radiation from a planetary surface is absorbed by atmospheric greenhouse gases, and is re-radiated in all directions. هو عملية يتم من خاللها امتصاص اإلشعاع الحراري من سطح وإعادة إشعاعها، كوكب بواسطة غازات الدفيئة في الغالف الجوي في جميع االتجاهات SOME PROOF OF GLOBAL WARMING PORTAGE GLACIER نهر الجليدALASKA THEN…. PORTAGE GLACIER ALASKA NOW…. Definitions of Glacier Slowly moving mass or river of ice formed by the accumulation and compaction of snow on mountains or near the poles. كتلة أو نهر جليدي يتحرك ببطء يتشكل من تراكم وضغط الثلج على .الجبال أو بالقرب من القطبين COLORADO RIVER, AS OF JUNE 2002 COLORADO RIVER, AS OF December 2003 Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan Ministry of Environment Environment in Jordan: The challenges, achievements and trends Ministry of Environment’s Vision The Ministry of Environment’s vision is to be a model Ministry on national and regional level, capable of protecting and sustaining Jordan’s environmental resources and contributing to a better quality of life Ministry of Environment’s Mission The Ministry seeks to maintain and improve the quality of Jordan's environment, conserve natural resources and contribute to sustainable development through effective policies, strategies, legislation, monitoring & enforcement & by mainstreaming تعميمenvironmental concepts into all national development plans. Ministry of Environment’s Values The Ministry of Environment is committed to the following values & principles throughout its internal & external interaction: Transparency Fairness Commitment to sustainable development principles and environmental behavior Partnership towards better environment Strategic Objectives 1. To contribute to the development تنمية مستدامة. achievement of sustainable 2. To develop & implement policies & legislations السياسات والتشريعات. 3. To enhance monitoring, inspection, and enforcement of legislation. 4. To develop and implement information management programs. Strategic Objectives 5. To raise public awareness and education. 6. To promote national, regional & international cooperation. 7. To strengthen and develop the capacity of the ministry تعزيز وتطوير قدرات الوزارة. Sustainable Development Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while simultaneously sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services based upon which the economy and society depend. التنمية المستدامة هي المبدأ التنظيمي لتحقيق أهداف التنمية البشرية مع الحفاظ في نفس الوقت على قدرة النظم الطبيعية على توفير الموارد الطبيعية وخدمات النظام البيئي التي يعتمد عليها االقتصاد والمجتمع. Unique environmental characteristics Environmental challenges & problems Achievements and trends Unique environmental characteristics one of the Unique environmental characteristics “ Dead Sea” Unique environmental characteristics Jordan suffers from scarcity of natural resources and increasing population growth and the successive migrations, specifically with regard to water and energy and degradation of agricultural land in addition to the impact of global climate change. ، يعاني األردن من ندرة الموارد الطبيعية وزيادة النمو السكاني الطبيعي والهجرة المتتالية خاصة فيما يتعلق بالمياه والطاقة وتدهور األراضي الزراعية باإلضافة إلى تأثير تغير المناخ العالمي. Unique environmental characteristics The exploitation استغاللof nature for human services, health and strategic planning to provide the elements of growth and development refers to the need to exploit resources in the Dead Sea يشير استغالل الطبيعة للخدمات البشرية والصحة والتخطيط االستراتيجي لتوفير عناصر النمو والتنمية إلى الحاجة إلى استغالل الموارد في البحر الميت Unique environmental characteristics The gradual decrease of the level of the surface of the Dead Sea annually is an environmental issue should be taken into account so we see that the project will lead to a carrier of reddead sea to provide water, energy and maintain the level of the sea within the limits إن االنخفاض التدريجي في مستوى سطح البحر الميت سنو ًيا هو مسألة بيئية يجب أن تؤخذ لذلك نرى أن المشروع سيؤدي إلى ناقل البحر األحمر الميت لتوفير المياه، في االعتبار والطاقة والحفاظ على مستوى البحر ضمن الحدود Red Sea - Dead Sea Canal map Seawater Reverse Osmosis ناقل Environmental challenges & problems The most important challenges environmental problems in Jordan & Land degradation and biodiversity التنوع البيولوجي Water pollution Air pollution Waste and hazardous materials Coastal Areas المناطق الساحلية Environmental Management Land degradation & biodiversity The spread of desertification and drought on land suitable for cultivation. انتشار التصحر والجفاف في األراضي الصالحة للزراعة Rangeland degradation, and weak sustainability. وضعف االستدامة، تدهور المراعي. Intrusions on the forest areas in search of primary energy sources. التطفل على مناطق الغابات بحثًا عن مصادر الطاقة األولية. The accumulation agricultural areas. of pesticides residues in some تراكم بقايا المبيدات في بعض المناطق الزراعية Land degradation & biodiversity Displays some rare species of plants and organisms to extinction. تعرض بعض األنواع النادرة من النباتات والكائنات لالنقراض. Over collecting of natural plants, over-use for medical and food production. واإلفراط في استخدام المنتجات الطبية والغذائية،اإلفراط في جمع النباتات الطبيعية. Urban sprawl on agriculturally productive areas. الزحف العمراني على مناطق اإلنتاج الزراعي Land degradation & biodiversity The desire of the private sector in industrial investment and tourism in some areas of environmental excellence. رغبة القطاع الخاص في االستثمار الصناعي والسياحي في بعض مجاالت التميز البيئي. Non-site rehabilitation of quarries and crushers. إعادة تأهيل مواقع الكسارات والكسارات. Spread of flies in the Jordan Valley region because of manure and cesspits. انتشار الذباب في منطقة وادي األردن بسبب السماد والحفر االمتصاصية. Water contamination Random disposal of wastewater in some of the natural waterways & ponds on groundwater. التخلص العشوائي من المياه العادمة في بعض المجاري المائية والبرك في المياه الجوفية. Overlap of wastewater with groundwater basins. تداخل مياه الصرف مع أحواض المياه الجوفية. The absence of treatment plants for wastewater in some industrial areas. عدم وجود محطات معالجة لمياه الصرف في بعض المناطق الصناعية Air pollution High proportion of sulfur in diesel. نسبة عالية من الكبريت في الديزل. The use of lead in gasoline. استخدام الرصاص في البنزين. Polluting emissions from factories and facilities (petroleum refinery, cement plant). )االنبعاثات الملوثة من المصانع والمنشآت (مصفاة البترول ومصنع األسمنت Blowing dust contaminated by mines and quarries. نفخ الغبار الملوث بالمناجم والمحاجر. Waste and hazardous materials The absence of an integrated system for recycling in Jordan linked to economic incentives. عدم وجود نظام متكامل إلعادة التدوير في األردن مرتبط بالحوافز االقتصادية. To continue to use plastic bags. االستمرار في استخدام األكياس البالستيكية. The absence of a modern mechanism for the disposal of medical waste in the central and southern regions. عدم وجود آلية حديثة للتخلص من النفايات الطبية في المناطق الوسطى والجنوبية. Growing e-waste in the absence of sound systems to deal with it environmentally. ً تزايد المخلفات اإللكترونية في غياب األنظمة السليمة للتعامل معها بيئيا. Environmental Management The need for harmonization between economic development & environmental protection. ضرورة التنسيق بين التنمية االقتصادية وحماية البيئة. Lack of economic incentives & financial support for environmentally friendly industries. نقص الحوافز االقتصادية والدعم المالي للصناعات الصديقة للبيئة. Environmental Management The inability to cover environmental control for environmental violations. the integrated all sources of عدم القدرة على تغطية الرقابة البيئية المتكاملة لكافة مصادر المخالفات البيئية. Multiplicity of references in the licensing of facilities development. تعدد المراجع في ترخيص تطوير المنشآت. The cost of environmental degradation in Jordan In 2004, the World Bank prepared a study to calculate the cost of environmental degradation in Jordan through the use of scientific method to measure the actual expenditure was estimated to address the environmental & health impacts of environmental pollution in many sectors and the result was as follows أعد البنك الدولي دراسة لحساب تكلفة، 2004 في عام التدهور البيئي في األردن من خالل استخدام طريقة علمية لقياس اإلنفاق الفعلي تم تقديرها لمعالجة اآلثار البيئية والصحية للتلوث البيئي في العديد من القطاعات وكانت النتيجة على النحو Achievements and Trends Land and Biodiversity Achievements: Develop a system of land use in Jordan in areas of environmental excellence. Develop a network of protected areas covering 4% of the total area of Jordan. Prevent the entry of untreated manure to the Jordan Valley area. .تطوير نظام استخدام األراضي في األردن في مجاالت التميز البيئي . من إجمالي مساحة األردن٪4 تطوير شبكة من المناطق المحمية تغطي منع دخول السماد غير المعالج إلى منطقة وادي األردن Land and Biodiversity Trends: Development of productivity in the rangelands through the rehabilitation of the terrestrial environment in the Jordanian Badia (environmental compensation). The implementation of the national strategy for combating desertification & protecting biodiversity. .)تنمية اإلنتاجية في المراعي من خالل إعادة تأهيل البيئة األرضية في البادية األردنية (التعويض البيئي تنفيذ االستراتيجية الوطنية لمكافحة التصحر وحماية التنوع البيولوجي. Land and Biodiversity Trends: Rehabilitation of quarries & quarry sites in addition to environmental conditions. Contribute to the national greening of the municipalities. project for the .تأهيل المحاجر ومواقع المحاجر باإلضافة إلى الظروف البيئية المساهمة في المشروع الوطني لتخضير البلديات. Water Contamination Achievements: The establishment of a water treatment plant in Irbid. Agreement with the private sector to establish a treatment plant for industrial wastewater in Zarqa. Develop an integrated strategic program for the rehabilitation of the Zarqa River Basin. Reducing and treating the waste of olive presses in a peaceful manner environmentally. .انشاء محطة لمعالجة المياه في اربد .االتفاق مع القطاع الخاص على إنشاء محطة معالجة لمياه الصرف الصناعي في الزرقاء .تطوير برنامج استراتيجي متكامل إلعادة تأهيل حوض نهر الزرقاء ً الحد من ومعالجة مخلفات معاصر الزيتون بطريقة سلمية بيئيا Water Contamination Trends: Focus on achieving the goal of rehabilitation of the Zarqa River Basin in the plan to be implemented within 15 years. Development of an effective control program on the sources of wastewater from industrial facilities. . سنة15 التركيز على تحقيق هدف إعادة تأهيل حوض نهر الزرقاء في الخطة التي سيتم تنفيذها خالل تطوير برنامج رقابة فعال على مصادر المياه العادمة من المنشآت الصناعية. Air pollution Achievements: Electronic link in the control of emissions of the cement plant. Get rid of leaded gasoline. The installation of 12 stations within the capital and Zarqa and Irbid to monitor air quality through the establishment of an electronic network. .رابط إلكتروني في التحكم في انبعاثات مصنع األسمنت .تخلص من البنزين المحتوي على الرصاص محطة داخل العاصمة والزرقاء واربد لمراقبة جودة الهواء من خالل انشاء شبكة الكترونية12 تركيب. Air pollution Trends: Trend towards the use of low sulfur diesel. The development of specifications for exhaust emissions of vehicles. .االتجاه نحو استخدام الديزل منخفض الكبريت تطوير مواصفات انبعاثات عوادم المركبات. Waste management and hazardous materials Achievements: Coordination with the private sector to address hazardous and medical waste in the territory of the middle. Developing an integrated system to track industrial waste liquid and semi-solid in the Kingdom. Find alternatives to reduce the use of plastic bags. .التنسيق مع القطاع الخاص لمعالجة النفايات الخطرة والطبية في إقليم الوسط .تطوير نظام متكامل لتتبع المخلفات الصناعية السائلة وشبه الصلبة في المملكة البحث عن بدائل لتقليل استخدام األكياس البالستيكية Waste management and hazardous materials Trends: Rehabilitation of landfills environmental hotspots. that are considered Develop the areas of recycling through an integrated management system. The development of a national program for the management and processing of electronic waste. .إعادة تأهيل مدافن النفايات التي تعتبر من النقاط البيئية الساخنة .تطوير مجاالت إعادة التدوير من خالل نظام إدارة متكامل تطوير برنامج وطني إلدارة ومعالجة النفايات اإللكترونية. Environmental Management Achievements: Establishment of the Environmental Police. The establishment of the national program for cleaner production. Periodic inspection of industrial and artisan enterprises to ensure compliance with environmental requirements . The establishment of the Jordan Environmental Fund. .إنشاء الشرطة البيئية .إنشاء البرنامج الوطني لإلنتاج األنظف .الفحص الدوري للمنشآت الصناعية والحرفية للتأكد من االلتزام بالمتطلبات البيئية إنشاء صندوق البيئة األردني. Cleaner production is intended to minimize waste and emissions and maximize product output Environmental Management Trends: Develop the system of economic incentives to invest in environmentally friendly activities. (Renewable energy, organic agriculture ... etc). The establishment environmental Liability. of a national program of ... (الطاقة المتجددة والزراعة العضوية.تطوير نظام الحوافز االقتصادية لالستثمار في األنشطة الصديقة للبيئة .)الخ إنشاء برنامج وطني للمسئولية البيئية. Cleaner production is intended to minimize waste and emissions and maximize product output EFFECT OF COVID19 ON POLLUTION GHANI ALBAALI Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the environment The worldwide disruption caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in numerous impacts on the environment and the climate. The severe decline in planned travel has caused many regions to experience a drop in air pollution. In China, lockdowns and other measures resulted in a 25 per cent reduction in carbon emissions and 50 percent reduction in nitrogen oxides emissions, which one Earth systems scientist estimated may have saved at least 77,000 lives over two months. Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the environment However, the outbreak has also provided cover for illegal activities such as deforestation of the Amazon rainforest and poaching in Africa, hindered environmental diplomacy efforts, and created economic fallout that is predicted to slow investment in green energy technologies. ً فإن تفشي المرض قد وفر أي، ومع ذلك ضا غطاء لألنشطة غير القانونية مثل إزالة الغابات من ، وعرقل جهود الدبلوماسية البيئية، غابات األمازون المطيرة والصيد غير المشروع في إفريقيا .وخلق تداعيات اقتصادية من المتوقع أن تبطئ االستثمار في تكنولوجيات الطاقة الخضراء The positive impacts on the environment since the coronavirus lockdown began From cleaner air to liberated wildlife, coronavirus lockdowns across the world appear to have had a number of positive effects on the environment. يبدو البرية الحياة إلى النظيف الهواء من، العالم أنحاء جميع في التاجية الفيروسات قفل عمليات أن المحررة البيئة على اإليجابية اآلثار من عدد لها كان. Modern life as we know it has largely been put on pause with millions of us cooped up indoors as governments try to curtail the spread of the Covid-19 pandemic. لقد تم إيقاف الحياة العصرية كما نعلمها إلى حد كبير مع وجود ماليين منا متعاونين داخل منازلهم بينما تحاول Covid-19. الحكومات الحد من انتشار جائحة Cleaner Air and Increased Visibility Cleaner air has perhaps been the single greatest positive effect of the lockdowns on the environment. ربما كان الهواء النظيف هو التأثير اإليجابي األكبر الوحيد لعمليات اإلغالق على البيئة. Citizens in Northern India are seeing the view of the Himalayan mountain range for the first time in their lives, due to the drop in air pollution caused by the country's coronavirus lockdown. بسبب انخفاض تلوث الهواء، يشهد المواطنون في شمال الهند إطاللة على سلسلة جبال الهيمااليا ألول مرة في حياتهم الناجم عن إغالق الفيروس التاجي في البالد. Cleaner Air and Increased Visibility Those living in Jalandhar in northern Punjab have shared pictures of the mountains from rooftops and empty streets, amazed by the view which has been hidden by pollution for 30 years. شارك أولئك الذين يعيشون في جاالندهار في شمال البنجاب صورًا للجبال من أسطح المنازل . عا ًما30 وقد دهشتها المنظر الذي أخفىه التلوث منذ، والشوارع الفارغة The Himalayas are visible in Northern India The Environmental Implications of Coronavirus In fact cities across the world have seen pollution levels plummet هبوط سريعas people have spent less time in vehicles, offices and factories and more time at home. Reductions in particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide have been registered in localities throughout the UK, with London and several other major cities all recording a dip in the presence of the harmful substances. The Environmental Implications of Coronavirus Elsewhere in Europe, cities including Paris, Madrid and Milan have all seen a reduction in average levels of nitrogen dioxide from March 14-25, compared with the same period last year, according to new satellite images. The images, released by the European Space Agency, show the changing density of the harmful gas - which is emitted when fossil fuels are burnt. Nitrogen dioxide Nitrogen dioxide is part of a group of gaseous air pollutants produced as a result of road traffic and other fossil fuel combustion processes. Its presence in air contributes to the formation and modification of other air pollutants, such as ozone and particulate matter, and to acid rain The Environmental Coronavirus Implications of While in China, where the Covid-19 pandemic originated, carbon emissions fell by around 25 per cent over a four-week period at the beginning of this year as authorities shuttered factories and people were instructed to stay home, according to an analysis carried out for the climate website Carbon Brief. Meanwhile, with aviation grinding to a halt and millions of commutes no longer taking place across the world, emissions patterns in many countries would appear likely to follow the same downward trend. من المرجح أن، مع توقف الطيران وتوقف ماليين الرحالت حول العالم، وفي الوقت نفسه .تتبع أنماط االنبعاثات في العديد من البلدان نفس االتجاه النزولي Clearer Water In Venice, famous for its winding canals, water quality appears to have improved amid Italy's stringentصارم coronavirus lockdown. Residents in the city have said the waterways are benefiting from the lack of usual boat traffic brought on by the hoards جحافلof tourists who visit each year. Emptied of the usual array of motorboat taxis, transport and tourist boats which clog the canals, there has reportedly been a sharp uptick in the clarity of the water. بعد إفراغها من المجموعة المعتادة من سيارات األجرة بالقوارب اآللية والنقل والقوارب ً .ارتفاعا حا ًدا في وضوح المياه ورد أن هناك، السياحية التي تسد القنوات Clearer Water The improvement is thought to be linked to a reduced amount of sediment clouding the waterways, with the decline in water traffic meaning the muddy canal floors are no longer being churned up. مع، ويعتقد أن التحسين مرتبط بكمية مخفضة من الرواسب تغيم المجاري المائية .انخفاض حركة المياه مما يعني أن األرضيات الموحلة لم تعد ممتلئة The change has meanwhile reportedly offered locals clear views of shoals of small fish, crabs and multicolored plant-life sights often obscured by busy boating movement in the Lagoon. ورد أن التغيير عرض على السكان المحليين إطالالت واضحة، في غضون ذلك - على برك األسماك الصغيرة وسرطان البحر والحياة النباتية متعددة األلوان غالبًا ما تحجب المشاهد حركة القوارب المزدحمة في البحيرة Clearer Water Gloria Beggiato, a local hotel owner, recently told the Guardian Venetians feel "nature has returned and is taking back possession of the city". "“الطبيعة عادت واستعادت السيطرة على المدينة "Yes, we would all like Venice to stay like this for a while," Beggiato said. " نود جمي ًعا أن تبقى البندقية على هذا النحو لبعض الوقت، "نعم. “I honestly believe we should take the opportunity of this lockdown to reflect and see how we can be more organized in the future to find a balance between the city and tourism.“ " أعتقد بصدق أننا يجب أن ننتهز فرصة هذا اإلغالق لنعكس ونرى كيف يمكننا أن نكون أكثر تنظيما في المستقبل إليجاد توازن بين المدينة والسياحة." Emptied of the motorboat taxis, transport and tourist boats which usually clog Venice's canals, there has reportedly been a sharp uptick in the clarity of the city's waterways بعد إفراغها من سيارات األجرة بالقوارب اآللية والنقل والقوارب السياحية التي عادة ما تسد قنوات البندقية ً ارتفاعا حا ًدا في وضوح الطرق المائية في المدينة ورد أن هناك، Liberated wildlife الحياة البرية المحررة As in Venice, wildlife elsewhere has also taken the opportunity presented by our widespread absence from suburban streets and city centers to venture out and explore. About animals' activities during Covid-19 lockdowns, there have also been plenty of instances of creatures across the world appearing to emboldened. اغتنمت الحياة البرية في أماكن أخرى الفرصة التي قدمها غيابنا الواسع النطاق من شوارع، كما هو الحال في البندقية .الضواحي ومراكز المدينة للمغامرة واالستكشاف ضا الكثير من حاالت المخلوقات في جميع ً كان هناك أي،Covid-19 حول أنشطة الحيوانات خالل عمليات اإلغالق . بسبب افتقارنا المستمر للنشاط، ً وربما مشوشة قليال، أنحاء العالم التي تبدو متشجعة Liberated wildlife From a herd of goats taking over a Welsh seaside town to deer in a Japanese city roaming the roads in search of food, the shift in behaviors has ranged between the beautiful and the downright bizarre. من قطيع من الماعز المغيرة التي تسيطر على بلدة ساحلية ويلزية إلى أيل في مدينة يابانية . تراوح التحول في السلوكيات بين الجميل والغريب تما ًما، تجوب الطرق بح ًثا عن الطعام In the UK, a host of animals also appear to have been liberated by lockdown restrictions imposed on us. ً يبدو أن مجموعة من الحيوانات قد تم تحريرها أي، في المملكة المتحدة ضا من خالل قيود .اإلغالق المفروضة علينا Liberated wildlife A herd of goats take advantage of quiet streets in Llandudno, north Wales Liberated wildlife In Barcelona, boars have been spotted along the city's normally bustling avenues. تم رصد الخنازير على طول شوارع المدينة الصاخبة عادة، في برشلونة Meanwhile in Chile's capital, Santiago, a wild puma was captured after being found wandering around the city's deserted center during a night-time curfew. It is thought that the animal may have ventured down into the capital from nearby surrounding hills. تم القبض على بوما برية بعد العثور عليها تجول حول مركز المدينة، سانتياغو، في عاصمة تشيلي، في هذه األثناء يعتقد أن الحيوان قد غامر في العاصمة من التالل المحيطة المجاورة. المهجور خالل حظر التجول ليال. Liberated wildlife It's also thought wild flowers could bloom in their greatest number for years throughout the UK this summer because of councils cutting back on mowing services ضا ويعتقد ً بسبب الصيف هذا المتحدة المملكة أنحاء جميع في لسنوات لها عدد بأكبر تزدهر أن يمكن البرية الزهور أن أي القص خدمات تقطع التي المجالس Trevor Dines, Plantlife's Botanical Specialist said: "An unintended but understandable consequence of lockdown may be reduced mowing that has the potential to benefit wild plants and the bees, butterflies, birds, bats and bugs that depend on them for survival." "قد تكون نتيجة الغلق غير المقصودة ولكن المفهومة الحد من القص: اختصاصي النبات في بالنتاليف، قال تريفور دينز ."الذي يمكن أن يفيد النباتات البرية والنحل والفراشات والطيور والخفافيش والبق التي تعتمد عليها من أجل البقاء Liberated wildlife Across the world, the lockdowns may just be showing us how quickly the natural world around us can adapt and thrive in our absence when given some space. قد توضح لنا عمليات اإلغالق مدى السرعة التي يمكن بها للعالم الطبيعي من حولنا التكيف، في جميع أنحاء العالم واالزدهار في غيابنا عند إعطاء بعض المساحة. Or to put it simply, when we move out, nature can move in. يمكن للطبيعة أن تتحرك، عندما نخرج، أو ببساطة. Photos show wildlife roaming freely as humans are on coronavirus lockdown, A composite image of lions napping on a street in South Africa and deer feeding in Yosemite Valley in April 2020 An African Penguin walks in the parking lot of an empty restaurant, close to popular Boulders Beach, in Simonstown, in Cape Town. This beach is closed due to the continuing lockdown across South Africa, due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Deer are seen playing around the grounds of Raby Castle in Britain. (Image: Reuters) Deer gather outside a souvenir shop looking for treats in Nara, Japan. A sea lion sits outside a hotel that is closed because of the new coronavirus pandemic, in San Cristobal, Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. The majority of the island hotels are usually occupied throughout the year, but all reservations have been cancelled through July. A man sits with a pelican in St James's Park, London, Britain. (Image: Reuters) Swans at the setting sun in front of baroque castle 'Nymphenburg' in Munich, Germany. A peacock with pigeons الحمامis seen at Tuglak Road during a nationwide lockdown imposed in a bid to contain the coronavirus pandemic, in New Delhi. A goat walks past a closed stored, near Trinity Square, in Llandudno, north Wales. The World on Coronavirus lockdown Miami, Florida The World on Coronavirus lockdown An empty New York Subway car i The World on Coronavirus lockdown A general view of an unusually quiet Civic Square at lunchtime in Wellington, New Zealand The World on Coronavirus lockdown A general view is seen of a closed Luna Park in Sydney, Australia The World on Coronavirus lockdown Bondi Beach, Australia The World on Coronavirus lockdown The World on Coronavirus lockdown A view of an empty Grand Canal Troposphere is the lowest region of the atmosphere, extending from the earth's surface to a height of about 6–10 km. وتمتد، المنطقة الدنيا من الغالف الجوي 10-6 من سطح األرض إلى ارتفاع حوالي كيلومترات It contains about 80% of atmosphere and it is the part of atmosphere in which we live, and make weather observation Contain 99% of the water vapor and 75% of atmospheric gasses. An atmosphere can be defined as the blanket of gas on the surface of a planet. The Earth's atmosphere is the mixture of gases that surrounds the planet. The Earth's atmosphere contains mainly 5 layers which are troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere and exosphere. Images show nitrogen dioxide concentrations from 14 to 25 March 2020, compared to the monthly average of concentrations from 2019. Pollution levels in China in 2019, left, and 2020. Photograph: Guardian Visuals / ESA satellite data Satellite images shows Italy's pollution decrease during coronavirus response India’s Pollution Record Dramatic Drop Since World’s Biggest Coronavirus Renewable Energy Dr. Ghani Albaali Visiting Professor Princes Sumaya University for Technology Environment Technology & Managements Photovoltaic Solar thermal Wind Power Hydroelectric Power Biomass 1- Photovoltaic 2- Solar Thermal Collectors 3- Wind Power 4- Hydroelectric Power 5- Biomass In 2006, about 18% of global final energy consumption came from renewable. The energy generated from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal are renewable (naturally replenished )تجديد. The most promising source of renewable energy is definitely solar energy. This is primarily because the Sun is the most abundant وفيرsource of renewable energy available on our planet. At this time solar energy, despite its huge popularity, still accounts for less than one percent of total global energy demand, which means that world is still far away from turning solar power into a dominant source of energy on our planet. The objectives of the presentation are to provide information in renewable energy technologies with an emphasis on integration into electricity networks in developed and developing countries. This is in addition to the solar water heating, where heat from the sun is used to heat water in panels on building’s roof. Burbank Resident Robert Beher on the roof with his 2 kW solar PV system 4 kW solar PV system at BWP employee parking area. 45 kW Solar System at Big Dog Productions 7.3 kW Solar PV and Solar pool heater 7.3 kW Residential Ground Mount Solar PV Solar cell A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device that converts light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect. Sometimes the term solar cell is reserved for devices intended specifically to capture energy from sunlight. Solar cell Assemblies of cells are used to make solar panels, solar modules, or photovoltaic arrays. Photovoltaics is the field of technology and research related to the application of solar cells in producing electricity for practical use. The energy generated this way is an example of solar energy (also called solar power). A solar cell made from a monocrystalline silicon wafer Albert Einstein and Photovoltaic photoelectric effect Albert Einstein and Photovoltaic In 1905, Albert Einstein described light as composed of discrete quanta, now called photons, rather than continuous waves. A photon above a threshold frequency has the required energy to eject a single electron, creating the observed effect. This discovery led to the quantum revolution in physics and earned Einstein the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921. The Photovoltaic Effect The photovoltaic effect is the basic physical process through which a PV cell converts sunlight into electricity. Sunlight is composed of photons, these photons contain different amounts of energy that correspond to the different wavelengths of the solar spectrum. When photons strike a PV cell, they may be reflected or absorbed, or they may pass right through. The absorbed photons generate electricity. The energy of a photon is transferred to an electron in an atom of the semiconductor device. With its newfound energy, the electron is able to escape from its normal position associated with a single atom in the semiconductor to become part of the current in an electrical circuit. Single photovoltaic cells (1) Connected in series form a photovoltaic module (2). Several modules assembled together create a photovoltaic system (3). Silicon in crystalline form is the material most commonly used to make photovoltaic cells Photovoltaic panels collect clean renewable energy in the form of sunlight and convert that light into electricity which can then be used to provide power for electrical loads. Photovoltaic panels are comprised individual solar cells which are composed of layers of silicon. of several themselves Photovoltaic panels absorb the photons and in doing so initiate an electric current. The resulting energy generated from photons striking the surface of the solar panel allows electrons to be knocked out of their atomic orbits and released into the electric field generated by the solar cells which then pull these free electrons into a directional current This entire process is known as the Photovoltaic Effect Three generations of solar cells Solar Cells are classified into three generations which indicates the order of which each became important. At present there is concurrent research into all three generations while the first generation technologies are most highly represented in commercial production, accounting for 89.6% of 2007 production. First generation First generation cells consist of large-area, high quality and single junction devices. First generation technologies involve high energy and labor inputs which prevent any significant progress in reducing production costs. Single junction silicon devices are approaching the theoretical limiting efficiency of 31% and achieve an energy payback period of 5–7 years. Second generation Second generation materials have been developed to address energy requirements and production costs of solar cells. The most successful second generation materials have been amorphous silicon السيليكون غير المتبلورand microamorphous silicon. These materials are applied in a thin film, reducing material mass and therefore costs. These technologies do hold promise of higher conversion efficiencies, offers significantly cheaper production costs. هذذه التقنيذات تبشذر بكفذاءة وتوفر تكاليف إنتاج أرخص بكثير، تحويل أعلى. Third generation Third generation technologies aim to enhance poor electrical performance of second while maintaining very low production costs. Current research is targeting conversion efficiencies of 30-60% while retaining low cost materials and manufacturing techniques. There are a few approaches to achieving these high efficiencies including: • The use of Multi-junction photovoltaic cells. • Concentration of the incident spectrum. • The use of thermal generation by UV light to enhance voltage or carrier collection, or the use of the infrared spectrum for night-time operation. A solar farm using concentrating solar photovoltaic technology, which combines mirrors and solar PV cells, in CalifIt’s a 1 MW solar project, using technology from SolFocus. The solar farm will produce 2,244 million kilowatt hours of clean power. As a conclusion: Today's most common PV devices use a single junction to create an electric field within a semiconductor such as a PV cell. In a single-junction PV cell, only photons whose energy is equal to or greater than the band gap of the cell material can free an electron for an electric circuit. In other words, the photovoltaic response of single-junction cells is limited to the portion of the sun's spectrum whose energy is above the band gap of the absorbing material. Lower-energy photons are not used. One way to get around this limitation is to use two (or more) different cells, with more than one band gap and more than one junction (multi-junction), to generate a voltage. Multi-junction devices can achieve higher total conversion efficiency because they can convert more of the energy spectrum of light to electricity. A multi-junction device is a stack of individual single-junction cells in descending تنازليorder of band gap (Eg). The top cell captures the high-energy photons and passes the rest of the photons on to be absorbed by lowerband-gap cells. Photo generation of charge carriers When a photon hits a piece of silicon, one of three things can happen: 1.The photon can pass straight through the silicon this (generally) happens for lower energy photons. 2.The photon can reflect off the surface. 3.The photon can be absorbed by the silicon, if the photon energy is higher than the silicon band gap value. This generates an electron-hole pair and sometimes heat, depending on the band structure. High efficiency cells High efficiency solar cells are a class of solar cell that can generate more electricity per incident solar power unit (watt/watt). Much of the industry is focused on the most cost efficient technologies in terms of cost per generated power. The two main strategies to bring down the cost of photovoltaic electricity are increasing the efficiency, and decreasing the cost of the solar cells per generated unit of power. High efficiency cells The latter approach might come at the expense of reduced efficiency, so the overall cost of the photovoltaic electricity does not necessarily decrease by decreasing the cost of the solar cells. The challenge of increasing the photovoltaic efficiency is thus of great interest, both from the academic and economic points of view. Polycrystalline PV cells laminated to backing material in a PV module General Notes Solar cells are often electrically connected and encapsulated as a module (panel). PV modules often have a sheet of glass on the front (sun up) side, allowing light to pass while protecting the semiconductor wafers from the elements (rain, hail, etc.). Modules are then interconnected, in series or parallel, or both, to create an array with the desired peak DC voltage and current. The power output of a solar array is measured in watts or kilowatts. To make practical use of the solar-generated energy, the electricity is most often fed into the electricity grid using inverters. Batteries are used to store the energy that is not needed immediately. Solar cells can also be applied to other electronics devices to make itself power sustainable in the sun. There are solar cell phone chargers, solar bike light and solar camping lights that people can adopt for daily use. Charge carrier (current) separation There are two main modes for charge carrier separation in a solar cell: Drift منجرفof carriers, driven by an electrostatic field established across the device. Diffusion of carriers from zones of high carrier concentration to zones of low carrier concentration (following a gradient of electrochemical potential). In the widely used p-n junction solar cells, the dominant mode of charge carrier separation is by drift. Charge carrier separation The two main modes separation in a solar cell: for charge carrier Connection to an external load Equivalent circuit of a solar cell The symbol of a solar cell To understand the electronic behavior of a solar cell, it is useful to create a model which is electrically equivalent, and is based on electrical components whose behavior is well known. On the left, is the equivalent circuit of a solar cell. On the right, is the schematic representation of a solar cell for use in circuit diagrams. Effect of temperature on the current-voltage characteristics of a solar cell Solar cell efficiency factors Energy conversion efficiency A solar cell's energy conversion efficiency )η, "eta"), is the percentage of power converted (from absorbed light to electrical energy) and collected, when a solar cell is connected to an electrical circuit. This term is calculated using the ratio of the maximum power point, Pm, divided by the input light irradiance (E, in W/m2) under standard test conditions (STC) and the surface area of the solar cell (Ac in m2). Maximum-power point A solar cell may operate over a wide range of voltages (V) and currents (I). By increasing the resistive load on an irradiated cell continuously from zero to a very high value one can determine the maximum power point, the point that maximizes V×I; that is, the load for which the cell can deliver maximum electrical power at that level of irradiation. Lifespan Most commercially available solar cells are capable of producing electricity for at least twenty years without a significant decrease in efficiency. Current research on materials and devices There are currently many research groups active in the field of photovoltaics in universities and research institutions around the world. This research can be divided into three areas: This research can be divided into three areas: • Making current technology solar cells cheaper and/or more efficient to effectively compete with other energy sources; • Developing new technologies based on new solar cell architectural designs; • Developing new materials to serve as light absorbers and charge carriers. Advantages Solar energy is free - it needs no fuel and produces no waste or pollution. In sunny countries, solar power can be used where there is no easy way to get electricity to a remote place. Handy for low-power uses such as solar powered garden lights and battery chargers, or for helping your home energy bills. Disadvantages Doesn't work at night. Very expensive to build solar power stations, although the cost is coming down as technology improves. In the meantime, solar cells cost a great deal compared to the amount of electricity they'll produce in their lifetime. Can be unreliable unless you're in a very sunny climate. In the UK, solar power isn't much use for high-power applications, as you need a large area of solar panels to get a decent amount of power. Solar cells provide the energy to run satellites that orbit the Earth. These give us satellite TV, telephones, navigation, weather forecasting, the internet and all manner of other facilities. The graphic shows a GPS satellite. GPSنظام تحديد الموقع العالمي يتيح تحديد المواقع والمالحة ،وخدمات ضبط الوقت للمستخدمين من كافة أنحاء العالم ،وعلى مدار اليوم وفي أي مكان على سطح األرض ،حوالي 100ألف رحلة طيران تجارية يتم توجيهها والتحكم فى مسارها بواسطة هذا النظام ،كما يستعان في المشاريع الضخمة لتحديد المسافات والمساحات كبناء .الجسور وحفر األنفاق وبناء المدن الحديثة .نظام تحديد المواقع الحديثة نظام تحديد المواقع والتى ال تستطيع البشرية االستغناء عنه يعتمد أساسا ً على حسابات أينشتاين فى النسبية الخاصة والعامة والتي صاغها قبل مائة عام Hubble Spaceتلسكوب أو مرصد هابل الفضائي مرصد فضائي يدور حول األرض منذ 1990عام وقد أم َّد البشرية بأوضح وأفضل رؤية للكون على اإلطالق Telescope بعد طول معاناتها من التلسكوبات األرضية التي يقف في طريق وضوح رؤيتها الكثير من العوائق سوا ًء جو األرض المليء باألتربة والغبار أم التلوث الضوئي والتي تؤثر في دقة س ِّمي على إسم الفلكي « إدوين هابل » .يدور حول األرض على أرتفاع 593كم النتائجُ . فوق مستوى سطح البحر دوره كاملة كل 97دقيقة ،يحتوي هذا المرصد عدسة قطرها 2.4 م .وتُصور باألشعة فوق البنفسجية القريبة والطيف المرئي واألشعة تحت الحمراء القريبة« . ف هابل » هو المرصد الوحيد المصمم لتتم صيانته في الفضاء من قبل رواد الفضاءَ .كلِّ َ .المرصد وكالة « ناسا » األمريكية 2.5مليار دوالر Burbank Resident Robert Beher on the roof with his 2 kW solar PV system 4 kW solar PV system at BWP employee parking area. 45 kW Solar System at Big Dog Productions 7.3 kW Solar PV and Solar pool heater 7.3 kW Residential Ground Mount Solar PV Huge solar photovoltaic farm opens in France Spread across 36 acres of the plateau of les Mees, the photovoltaic park can generate 18.2MW and an annual supply of 26 million kWh that will supply electricity to some 8,000 families. Renewable Energy Dr. Ghani Albaali Visiting Professor Princes Sumaya University for Technology Environment Technology & Managements Photovoltaic Solar thermal Wind Power Hydroelectric Power Biomass 1- Photovoltaic 2- Solar thermal Collectors 3- Wind Power 4- Hydroelectric Power 5- Biomass Solar Thermal Collector Solar water heating Solar water heating, where heat from the Sun is used to heat water in glass panels on your roof. This means you don't need to use so much gas or electricity to heat your water at home. Water is pumped through pipes in the panel. The pipes are painted black, so they get hotter when the Sun shines on them. The water is pumped in at the bottom so that convection helps the flow of hot water out of the top. This helps out your central heating system, and cuts your fuel bills. However, with the basic type of panel shown in the diagram you must drain the water out to stop the panels freezing in the winter. Some manufacturers have systems that do this automatically. In order to heat water using solar energy, a collector is fastened to the roof of a building, or on a wall facing the sun. In some cases, the collector may be free-standing. The working fluid is either pumped or driven by natural convection through it. The collector could be made of a simple glass topped insulated box with a flat solar absorber made of sheet metal attached to copper pipes and painted black, or a set of metal tubes surrounded by an evacuated (near vacuum) glass cylinder. In some cases, before the solar energy is absorbed, a parabolic mirror is used to concentrate sunlight on the tube. A simple water heating system would pump cold water to a collector to be heated. The heated water flows back to a collection tank. This type of collector can provide enough hot water for an entire family. Heat is stored in a hot water tank. The volume of this tank will be larger with solar heating systems in order to allow for bad weather. The working fluid for the absorber may be the hot water from the tank, but more commonly (at least in pumped systems) is a separate loop of fluid containing anti-freeze and a corrosion inhibitor المانعwhich delivers heat to the tank through a heat exchanger (commonly a coil of copper tubing within the tank). Some fabricants have 2 sheets of metal stamped to produce a circulation zone. Because the heat exchange area is greater they may be marginally more efficient than traditional absorbers. Another lower-maintenance concept is the 'drain-back': no anti-freeze is required; instead all the piping is sloped to cause water to drain back to the tank. The tank is not pressurized and is open to atmospheric pressure. As soon as the pump shuts off, flow reverses and the pipes empty by the time when freezing could occur. Usable amounts of domestic hot water were only available in the summer months, on cloudless days, between April and October. Types Solar water heating systems can be classified in different ways: The type of collector used. The location of the collector - roof mount, ground mount, wall mount. The location of the storage tank in relation to the collector. The requirement for a pump. The method of heat transfer - open-loop or closed-loop (via heat exchanger). Photovoltaic thermal hybrid solar collectors can be designed to produce both hot water and electricity. Solar thermal collector Types of solar collectors for heat Flat plate and evacuated tube solar collectors in this section are typically used to collect heat for domestic hot water. Flat plate Solar thermal system for water heating - these are deployed on flat roofs. Evacuated tube These collectors have multiple evacuated glass tubes which heat up solar absorbers and, ultimately, solar working fluid. The vacuum within the evacuated tubes reduce convection and conduction heat losses, allowing them to reach considerably higher temperatures than most flat-plate collectors. However, they are more expensive than flat panels, but generally of a less cost to repair in the event of damage. Evacuated heat tubes perform better than flat plate collectors in cold climates because they only rely on the light they receive and not the outside temperature. Tubes come in different levels of quality. High quality units can efficiently absorb diffuse solar radiation present in cloudy conditions and are unaffected by wind. They also have the same performance in similar light conditions summer and winter. For a given absorber area, evacuated tubes can maintain their efficiency over a wide range of ambient temperatures and heating requirements. In extremely hot climates, flat-plate collectors will generally be a more cost-effective solution than evacuated tubes. Evacuated tube collectors are well suited to extremely cold ambient temperatures and work well in situations of consistently low-light. "Thermomax" panel Here's a more advanced type of solar water heating panel. The suppliers claim that in the UK it can supply 90% of a typical home's hot water needs from April to November This "Thermomax" panel is made of a set of glass tubes. Each contains a metal plate with a blue coating to help it absorb solar energy from IR to UV, so that even in diffuse sunlight you get a decent output. The air has been removed from the glass tubes to reduce heat loss, rather like a thermos flask. Up the back of the metal plate is a "heat pipe", which looks like a copper rod but contains a liquid that transfers heat very quickly to the top of the glass tube. A water pipe runs across the top of the whole thing and picks up the heat from the tubes. Pool or unglazed This type of collector is much like a flatplate collector, except that it has no glazing/transparent cover. It is used extensively for pool heating, as it works quite well when the desired output temperature is near the ambient temperature (that is, when it is warm outside). As the ambient temperature gets cooler, these collectors become ineffective. Asphalt Solar Collector An asphalt solar collector collects heat using fluid circulating through an array of pipes embedded in the surface of a road. Black roads tend to absorb the heat of the sun up to the point when they radiate heat as quickly as they are absorbing it: the surface temperature of roads in direct sunshine can often reach 15°C higher than the ambient air temperature. Asphalt Solar Collector The marginal extra cost of adding solar collection to a planned road is less than the cost of buying dedicated solar thermal panels. Types of solar collectors for electric generation Solar thermal collector Solar Thermal Collector Dish •A solar thermal collector is specifically intended to collect heat: that is, to absorb sunlight to provide heat. •Although the term may be applied to simple solar hot water panels, it is usually used to denote more complex installations. •There are various types of thermal collectors, such as solar parabolic, solar trough and solar towers. •These type of collectors are generally used in solar power plants where solar heat is used to generate electricity by heating water to produce steam which drives a turbine connected to an electrical generator. Parabolic dish Solar Parabolic Dish It is the most powerful type of collector which concentrates sunlight at a single, focal point, via one or more parabolic dishes focuses light. This geometry may be used in solar furnace and solar power plants. There are two key phenomena to understand the design of a parabolic dish. First is that the shape of a parabola is defined such that incoming rays which are parallel to the dish's axis will be reflected toward the focus. The second key is that the light rays from the sun arriving at the earth's surface are almost completely parallel. So if dish can be aligned with its axis pointing at the sun, almost all of the incoming radiation will be reflected towards the focal point of the dish Most losses are due to imperfections in the parabolic shape and imperfect reflection. Losses between the dish and its focal point are minimal, as the dish is generally designed specifically to be small enough that this factor is insignificant on a clear, sunny day. If the local weather is hazy, or foggy, it may reduce the efficiency of a parabolic dish significantly. Parabolic Trough This type of collector is generally used in solar power plants. A trough-shaped parabolic reflector is used to concentrate sunlight on an insulated tube (Dewar tube) or heat pipe, placed at the focal point, containing fluid which transfers heat from the collectors to the boilers in the power station. System designs During the day the sun has different positions. If the mirrors or lenses do not move, then the focus of the mirrors or lenses changes. Therefore it seems unavoidable that there needs to be a tracking system that follows the position of the sun (for solar photovoltaics a solar tracker is only optional). The tracking system increases the cost and complexity. With this in mind, different designs can be distinguished in how they concentrate the light and track the position of the sun. Parabolic trough designs Sketch of a parabolic trough design. A change of position of the sun parallel to the receiver does not require adjustment of the mirrors. Full-scale parabolic trough systems consist of many such troughs laid out in parallel over a large area of land. Parabolic trough power plants reflects the direct solar radiation onto a pipe containing a fluid (also called a receiver, absorber or collector) running the length of the trough. However, a change of position of the sun parallel to the trough does not require adjustment of the mirrors, since the light is simply concentrated elsewhere on the receiver. Thus the trough design does not require tracking on a second axis. The receiver may be enclosed in a glass vacuum chamber. The vacuum significantly reduces convective heat loss. The fluid containing the heat is transported to a heat engine where about a third of the heat is converted to electricity. Power tower A power tower is a large tower surrounded by small rotating (tracking) mirrors called heliostats. These mirrors align themselves and focus sunlight on the receiver at the top of tower, collected heat is transferred to a power station below. Power tower Advantages 1. Free pollution, Environment friendly. 2. Very high temperatures reached. High temperatures are suitable for electricity generation using conventional methods like steam turbine. 3. Good efficiency. By concentrating sunlight current systems can get better efficiency than simple solar cells. 4. A larger area can be covered by using relatively inexpensive mirrors rather than using expensive solar cells. 5. Concentrated light can be redirected to a suitable location via optical fiber cable. For example illuminating buildings, like here (Hybrid solar lighting). 6. Heat storage for power production during cloudy and overnight conditions can be accomplished, often by underground tank storage of heated fluids. Disadvantages 1. Concentrating systems require sun tracking to maintain sunlight focus at the collector. 2. Inability to provide power in diffused light conditions. Solar Cells are able to provide some output even if the sky becomes a little bit cloudy, but power output from concentrating systems drop drastically in cloudy conditions. In California, the Solar One power station uses the Sun's heat to make steam, and drive a generator to make electricity. The station looks a little like the Odeillo solar furnace, except that the mirrors are arranged in -circles around the "power tower". As the Sun moves across the sky, the mirrors turn to keep the rays focused on the tower, where oil is heated to 3,000 degrees Celsius, The heat from the oil is used to generate steam, which then drives a turbine, which in turn drives a generator capable of providing 10kW of electrical power. Solar One was very expensive to build, but as fossil fuels run out and become more expensive, solar power stations may become a better option. Odeillo Furnace The solar furnace at Odeillo in France can reach temperatures up to 3,800 degrees Celsius. Solar process heating systems are designed to provide large quantities of hot water or space heating for nonresidential buildings. Evaporation ponds are shallow ponds that concentrate dissolved solids through evaporation. The use of evaporation ponds to obtain salt from sea water is one of the oldest applications of solar energy. Evaporation ponds represent one of the largest commercial applications of solar energy in use today. Solar water heating can reduce CO2 emissions by 1 ton/year (if replacing natural gas for hot water heating) or 3 ton/year (if replacing electric hot water heating). Cooking Solar cooker The Solar Bowl above the Solar Kitchen in Auroville, India concentrates sunlight on a movable receiver to produce steam for cooking. (WHAT KIND OF HEAT TRANSFER ?) Solar cookers use sunlight for cooking, drying and pasteurization. Solar cooking offsets fuel costs, reduces demand for fuel or firewood, and improves air quality by reducing or removing a source of smoke The Solar Kitchen in Auroville, India uses a unique concentrating technology known as the solar bowl. The solar bowl uses a fixed spherical reflector with a receiver which tracks the focus of light as the Sun moves across the sky. The solar bowl's receiver reaches temperature of 150°C that is used to produce steam that helps cook 2,000 daily meals. Concentrating solar cookers use reflectors to concentrate light on a cooking container. These designs cook faster and at higher temperatures (up to 350 °C) but require direct light to function properly. 1. Low-temperature collectors Of the 2,000,000 m2 of solar thermal collectors produced in the United States in 2006, 1,500,000 m2 were of the low-temperature variety. Low-temperature collectors are generally installed to heat swimming pools, although they can also be used for space heating. Collectors can use air or water as the medium to transfer the heat to its destination. 2. Medium-temperature collectors solar water heating These collectors used to produce approximately 50% and more of the hot water needed for residential and commercial use in the United States. The payback time for a typical household in US is 4 to 9 years, depending on the state. A crew of one plumber and two assistants with minimal training can install a system per day. The typical installation has negligible maintenance costs. 3. High-temperature collectors Dish designs A parabolic solar dish concentrating the sun's rays on the heating element of an engine. The entire unit acts as a solar tracker. A dish system uses a large, reflective, parabolic dish (similar in shape to satellite television dish). The advantage of a dish system is that it can achieve much higher temperatures due to the higher concentration of light. Higher temperatures lead to better conversion to electricity and the dish system is very efficient on this point. However, there are also some disadvantages. Heat to electricity conversion requires moving parts and that result in maintenance. Second, the (heavy) engine is part of the moving structure, which requires a rigid frame and strong tracking system. Furthermore, parabolic mirrors are used instead of flat mirrors and tracking must be dual-axis. 3. Trough designs Concentrated solar power plant using parabolic trough design. The fluid-filled pipes can reach temperatures of 150 to 220 degrees Celsius when the fluid is not circulating. Power tower designs Solar power tower Flat mirrors focus the light on the top of the tower. The white surfaces below the receiver are used for calibrating the mirror positions. Power Towers (also known as 'central tower' power plants or 'heliostat' power plants) use an array of flat, moveable mirrors (called heliostats) to focus the sun's rays upon a collector tower (the receiver). The advantage of this design above the parabolic trough design is the higher temperature. Thermal energy at higher temperatures can be converted to electricity more efficiently and can be more cheaply stored for later use. The disadvantage is that each mirror must have its own dual-axis control, while in the parabolic trough design one axis can be shared for a large array of mirrors. In June 2008, eSolar, a Pasadena produce 245 megawatts of power. eSolar's proprietary suntracking software coordinates the movement of 24,000 1 meter-square mirrors per 1 tower using optical sensors to adjust and calibrate the mirrors in real time. Renewable Energy Dr. Ghani Albaali Visiting Professor Princes Sumaya University for Technology Environment Technology & Managements Photovoltaic Solar thermal Wind Power Hydroelectric Power Biomass 1- Photovoltaic 2- Solar thermal Collectors 3- Wind Power 4- Hydroelectric Power 5- Biomass Wind power Three blades are the most common design for modern wind turbines Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as electricity, using wind turbines. Wind power At the end of 2008, worldwide the capacity of windpowered generators was 121.2 gigawatts (GW). In 2008, wind power produced about 1.5% of worldwide electricity usage; and is growing rapidly, having doubled in the three years between 2005 and 2008. Several countries have achieved relatively high levels of wind power, such as 19% of stationary electricity production in Denmark, 11% in Spain and Portugal, and 7% in Germany and the Republic of Ireland in 2008. As of May 2009, eighty countries around the world are using wind power on a commercial basis. Large-scale wind farms are connected to the electric power transmission network; smaller facilities are used to provide electricity to isolated locations. Wind energy as a power source is attractive as an alternative to fossil fuels, because it is plentiful, renewable, widely distributed, cleans, and produces no greenhouse gas emissions. However, the construction of wind farms is not universally welcomed due to their visual impact and other effects on the environment. The Earth is heated by the sun, such that the poles receive less energy from the sun than the equator ;خط اإلستواءalong with this, dry land heats up (and cools down) more quickly than the seas do. The differential heating drives a global atmospheric convection system reaching from the Earth's surface to the stratosphere طبقة الغالف الجوي العلياwhich acts as a virtual ceiling. Most of the energy stored in these wind movements can be found at high altitudes where continuous wind speeds of over 160 km/h (100 mph) occur. The total amount of economically extractable power available from the wind is considerably more than present human power use from all sources. An estimated 72 TW of wind power on the Earth potentially can be commercially viable, compared to about 15 TW average global power consumption from all sources in 2005. Not all the energy of the wind flowing past a given point can be recovered. Electricity generation Typical components of a wind turbine (gearbox, rotor shaft and brake assembly) being lifted into position. Grid management Induction generators, often used for wind power projects, require reactive power for excitation so substations used in wind-power collection systems. Different types of wind turbine generators behave differently during transmission grid disturbances, so extensive modeling for a wind farm is required by transmission system operators to ensure predictable stable behavior during system. According to a 2007 Stanford University study published in the Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, interconnecting ten or more wind farms can allow an average of 33% of the total energy produced to be used as reliable, base load electric power, as long as minimum criteria are met for wind speed and turbine height. At present, a few grid systems have penetration of wind energy above 5%: • Denmark (values over 19%), • Spain and Portugal (values over 11%), • Germany and the Republic of Ireland (values over 6%). The Danish grid is heavily interconnected to the European electrical grid, and it has solved grid management problems by exporting almost half of its wind power to Norway. The correlation between electricity export and wind power production is very strong. Electricity generated from wind power can be highly variable at several different timescales: from hour to hour, daily, and seasonally. Annual variation also exists, but is not as significant. Wind power can be replaced by other power stations during low wind periods. Transmission networks must already cope with outages of generation plant and daily changes in electrical demand. In the UK, demand for electricity is higher in winter than in summer, and so are wind speeds. A report from Denmark noted that their wind power network was without power for 54 days during 2002. Wind power advocates argue that these periods of low wind can be dealt with by simply restarting existing power stations that have been held in readiness. فتذذرات الريذذام المنخفضذذة هذذذه يمكذذن التعامذذل معهذذا ببسذذاطة عذذن طريذذق إعادة تشغيل محطات الطاقة الحالية التي تم االحتفاظ بها في حالة استعداد Denmark generates nearly one-fifth of its electricity with wind turbines—the highest percentage of any country—and is ninth in the world in total wind power generation. Denmark is prominent in the manufacturing and use of wind turbines, with a commitment made in the 1970s to eventually produce half of the country's power by wind. حيث التزمت فيي، تشتهر الدنمارك في تصنيع واستخدام توربينات الرياح السبعينيات بإنتاج نصف طاقة البالد في النهاية بواسطة الرياح. Wind power usage Wind power by country Installed wind power capacity (MW) Nation 2005 2006 2007 2008 Unite States 9,149 11,603 16,818 25,237 Germany 18,415 20,622 22,247 23,933 Spain 10,028 11,615 15,145 16,543 China 1,260 2,604 6,050 12,121 India 4,430 6,270 8,000 9,655 Italy 1,718 2,123 2,726 3,736 France 757 1,567 2,454 3,404 United Kingdom 1,332 1,963 2,389 3,288 Denmark 3,136 3,140 3,129 3,160 Portugal 1,022 1,716 2,150 2,862 Canada 683 1,459 1,856 2,369 Nation 2005 2006 2007 2008 Netherlands Japan Australia Sweden 1,219 1,061 708 510 1,560 1,394 817 572 1,747 1,538 824 788 2,225 1,880 1,494 1,067 Ireland 496 745 805 1,245 Austria Greece Poland Turkey Norway Belgium Egypt Taiwan Brazil New Zealand South Korea Bulgaria 819 573 83 20 267 167 145 104 29 169 98 6 965 746 153 51 314 193 230 188 237 171 173 20 982 871 276 146 333 287 310 282 247 322 191 35 995 990 472 333 428 384 390 358 338 325 278 158 Nation Czech Republic Finland Morocco Hungary Ukraine Mexico Iran Costa Rica Rest of Europe Rest of Americas Rest of Asia Rest of Africa & Middle East Rest of Oceania World total (MW) 2005 2006 2007 2008 28 50 116 150 82 64 18 77 3 23 71 129 86 124 61 86 88 48 74 163 110 114 65 89 87 66 74 140 125 127 90 85 82 74 109 109 38 38 31 31 12 12 59,091 74,223 93,849 121,188 Small-scale wind power Microgeneration This wind turbine charges a 12 V battery to run 12 V appliances. Small-scale wind power is the name given to wind generation systems with the capacity to produce up to 50 kW of electrical power. Isolated communities, that may otherwise rely on diesel generators may use wind turbines to displace diesel fuel consumption. Small-scale wind power Micro-generation Individuals may purchase these systems to reduce or eliminate their dependence on grid electricity for economic or other reasons, or to reduce their carbon footprint. Wind turbines have been used for household electricity generation in conjunction with battery storage over many decades in remote areas. Environmental effects of wind power Compared to the environmental effects of traditional energy sources, the environmental effects of wind power are relatively minor. Wind power consumes no fuel, and emits no air pollution, unlike fossil fuel power sources. The impact made on the environment is very little when compared to what is gained. Danger to birds and bats has been a concern in some locations. However, studies show that the number of birds killed by wind turbines is negligible compared to the number that die as a result of other human activities, and especially the environmental impacts of using non-clean power sources. Fossil fuel generation kills around twenty times as many birds per unit of energy produced than windfarms. Wind energy as a power source is attractive as an alternative to fossil fuels, because it is plentiful, renewable, widely distributed, clean, and produces no greenhouse gas emission. There are now many thousands of wind turbines operating, with a total nameplate capacity of 121,188 MWp of which wind power in Europe accounts for 55% (2008). 81% of wind power installations are in the US and Europe. World wind generation capacity more than quadrupled between 2000 and 2006, doubling about every three years. The top five countries in terms of new installations climbed to 73% by 2008 as those countries are the United States, Germany, Spain, China, and India which have seen substantial capacity growth during 20062008. Relative cost of electricity by generation source When comparing renewable and conventional power sources several internal cost factors have to be considered: Capital costs ( المال رأس تكاليفincluding waste disposal and decommissioning costs for nuclear energy ) النووية للطاقة التفكيك تكاليف Operating and maintenance costs Fuel costs (for fossil fuel and biomass sources, and which may be negative for wastes) Expected annual hours run WIND TURBINE The fins are 30m long ROTOR MAIN SHAFT Low Speed Shaft WIND FARM DESERT WIND POWER OFFSHORE WIND TURBINE TURBINES WATER WIND FARM WORKERS POWER GENERATOR BETWEEN 300-20KW Hydroelectric Power Hydroelectric power - energy from falling water Introduction We have used running water as an energy source for thousands of years. Nowadays there are many hydro-electric power stations, providing around 20% of the world's electricity. The name comes from "hydro", the Greek word for water. How it works Water is allowed to flow through tunnels in the dam, to turn turbines and thus drive generators. Notice that the dam is much thicker at the bottom than at the top, because the pressure of the water increases with depth. Hydro-electric power stations can produce a great deal of power very cheaply. "Hoover Dam", on the Colorado river, supplied much of the electricity for the city of Las Vegas. Although there are many suitable sites around the world, hydro-electric dams are very expensive to build. However, once the station is built, the water comes free of charge, and there is no waste or pollution. The Sun evaporates water from the sea and lakes, which forms clouds and falls as rain in the mountains, keeping the dam supplied with water. For free. Gravitational potential energy is stored in the water above the dam. Because of the great height of the water, it will arrive at the turbines at high pressure, which means that we can extract a great deal of energy from it. The water then flows away downriver as normal. In mountainous countries such as Switzerland and New Zealand, hydro-electric power provides more than half of the country's energy needs. An alternative is to build the station next to a fastflowing river. However with this arrangement the flow of the water cannot be controlled, and water cannot be stored for later use. Hydro-electric power is Renewable. Is it renewable? The Sun provides the water by evaporation from the sea, and will keep on doing so. Hydroelectricity Hydroelectricity is electricity generated by hydropower, i.e., the production of power through use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed, the project produces no direct waste, and has a considerably lower output level of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) than fossil fuel powered energy plants. Hydroelectricity It is the most widely used form of renewable energy. Worldwide, hydroelectricity supplied an estimated 816 GWe in 2005. This was approximately 20% of the world's electricity, and accounted for about 88% of electricity from renewable sources. The Three Gorges Dam, the largest hydro-electric power station in the world. Most hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy الطاقة الكامنةof dammed water driving a water turbine and generator. In this case the energy extracted from the water depends on the volume and on the difference in height between the source and the water's outflow. At times of low electrical demand, excess generation capacity is used to pump water into the higher reservoir. When there is higher demand, water is released back into the lower reservoir خزانthrough a turbine. Hydroelectric plants with no reservoir capacity are called run-of-the-river plants, since it is not then possible to store water. Energy Resources Hydroelectric power: Summary Hydro-electric power means getting energy from flowing water Usually we build a dam, and let the water turn turbines & generators as it goes through pipes in the dam Renewable No pollution, no fuel needed, no waste Expensive to build Building a dam means flooding a lot of land Electricity generation Hydraulic turbine and electrical generator Hydroelectric dam in cross section Electricity generation Hydraulic turbine and electrical generator Small-scale hydro-electric plants Although large hydroelectric installations generate most of the world's hydroelectricity, some situations require small hydro plants. These are defined as plants producing up to 10 megawatts, or projects up to 30 megawatts in North America. A small hydro plant may be connected to a distribution grid or may provide power only to an isolated community or a single home. Small hydro projects generally do not require the protracted مطول economic, engineering and ّ environmental studies associated with large projects, and often can be completed much more quickly. Small-scale hydro-electric plants A small hydro development may be installed along with a project for flood control, irrigation or other purposes, providing extra revenue for project costs. Small hydro schemes are particularly popular in China, which has over 50% of world small hydro capacity. Advantages (General) Once the dam is built, the energy is virtually free. No waste produced. or pollution Much more reliable than wind, solar or wave power. Water can be stored above the dam ready in demand. Hydro-electric power stations can increase to full power very quickly, unlike other power stations. Electricity can be generated constantly ثابت بشكل. Advantages Greenhouse Gas Emissions Since hydroelectric dams do not burn fossil fuels, they do not directly produce carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas). While some carbon dioxide is produced during manufacture and construction of the project, this is a tiny fraction of the operating emissions of equivalent fossilfuel electricity generation. Advantages Economics The major advantage of hydroelectricity is elimination of the cost of fuel. The cost of operating a hydroelectric plant is nearly immune to increases in the cost of fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas or coal, and no imports are needed. Hydroelectric plants also tend to have longer economic lives than fuel-fired generation, with some plants now in service which were built 50 to 100 years ago. Operating labor cost is also usually low, as plants are automated and have few personnel on site during normal operation. Advantages Related activities Reservoirs created by hydroelectric schemes often provide facilities for water sports, and become tourist attractions in themselves. In some countries, aquaculture االستزراع المائيin reservoirs is common. Multi-use dams installed for irrigation support agriculture with a relatively constant water supply. Large hydro dams can control floods, which would otherwise affect people living downstream المصبof the project. Disadvantages (General) The dams are very expensive to build. However, many dams are also used for flood control or irrigation, so building costs can be shared. Building a large dam will flood a very large area upstream التّيار ض ّد, causing problems for animals that used to live there. Finding a suitable site can be difficult - the impact on residents and the environment may be unacceptable. Water quality and quantity downstream can be affected, which can have an impact on plant life. Disadvantages Environmental Damage Greenhouse Gas Emissions The reservoirs of power plants in tropical regions may produce substantial amounts of methane and carbon dioxide. This is due to plant material in flooded areas decaying in an anaerobic environment, and forming methane, a very potent greenhouse gas. قد تنتج خزانات محطات الطاقة في المناطق االستوائية كميات كبيرة من ويرجع ذلك إلى تدهور المواد النباتية في.الميثان وثاني أكسيد الكربون وهو غاز دفيئة، وتشكيل غاز الميثان، المناطق المغمورة في بيئة ال هوائية قوي جدًا. Disadvantages Environmental Damage Hydroelectric projects can be disruptive to surrounding aquatic ecosystems. يمكن أن تتسبب المشاريع الكهرومائية في تعطيل النظم البيئية المائية المحيطة بالموقع وأمامه Reduced Some fishes populations by preventing access to spawning grounds upstream. منع الوصول إلى مناطق التفريخ أعلى النهر Some fishes spawn are also harmed on their migration to sea when they must pass through turbines. Disadvantages Environmental Damage Cont. Demolition of dams because of its impact on fish. في بعض الحاالت تم هدم السدود بسبب تأثيره على األسماك Generation of hydroelectric power changes the downstream river environment. يؤدي توليد الطاقة الكهرومائية إلى تغيير بيئة األنهار. Water exiting a turbine usually contains very little suspended sediment, which can lead to loss of riverbanks. Since turbine gates are often opened intermittently. عادة ما تحتوي المياه الخارجة من التوربين على القليل . والتي يمكن أن تؤدي إلى فقدان ضفاف األنهار، جدًا من الرواسب المعلقة نظرا ألن بوابات التوربين غالبًا ما يتم فتحها بشكل متقطع ً . Disadvantages Environmental Damage Cont. Depending on the location, water exiting from turbines is typically much warmer than the pre-dam water, which can change aquatic faunal populations, including endangered species. عادة ما تكون المياه الخارجة من التوربينات أكثر، اعتمادًا على الموقع والتي يمكن أن تغير مجموعات الحيوانات، دفئًا من مياه ما قبل السد بما في ذلك األنواع المهددة باالنقراض، المائية Environmental Damage Population Relocation Another disadvantage of hydroelectric dams is the need to relocate the people living where the reservoirs are planned. In February 2008, it was estimated that 40-80 million people worldwide had been physically displaced as a direct result of dam construction. Disadvantages Environmental Damage Dam Failures Failures of large dams, while rare, are potentially serious — the Banqiao Dam failure in Southern China resulted in the deaths of 171,000 people and left millions homeless. Dams may be subject to enemy bombardment during wartime, sabotage and terrorism. Smaller dams and micro hydro facilities are less vulnerable to these threats. The creation of a dam in a geologically inappropriate location may cause disasters Comparison with Other Methods of Power Generation Hydroelectricity eliminates the flue gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion, including pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, dust, and mercury in the coal. تزيل الطاقة الكهرومائية انبعاثات غازات المداخن من احتراق الوقود بما في ذلك الملوثات مثل ثاني أكسيد الكبريت وأكسيد، األحفوري النيتريك وأول أكسيد الكربون والغبار والزئبق في الفحم. Hydroelectricity also avoids the hazards of coal mining and the indirect health effects of coal emissions. ضا مخاطر تعدين الفحم ً تتجنب الطاقة الكهرومائية أي واآلثار الصحية غير المباشرة النبعاثات الفحم. Comparison with Other Methods of Power Generation Compared to nuclear power, hydroelectricity generates no nuclear waste, has none of the dangers associated with uranium mining, nor nuclear leaks. Unlike uranium, hydroelectricity is also a renewable energy source. ال تولد الطاقة الكهرومائية أي نفايات نووية، بالمقارنة مع الطاقة النووية . وال تسرب نووي، وليس لديها أي مخاطر مرتبطة بتعدين اليورانيوم، مصدرا للطاقة ضا ً تعد الطاقة الكهرومائية أي، على عكس اليورانيوم ً المتجددة. Compared to wind farms, hydroelectricity power plants have a more predictable load factor. If the project has a storage reservoir, it can be dispatched to generate power when needed. Hydroelectric plants can be easily regulated to follow variations in power demand. Unlike fossil-fueled combustion turbines, construction of a hydroelectric plant requires a long lead-time for site studies, hydrological studies, and environmental impact assessment. Hydrological data up to 50 years or more is usually required to determine the best sites and operating regimes for a large hydroelectric plant. يتطلب بناء، على عكس توربينات االحتراق التي تعمل بالوقود األحفوري ، والدراسات الهيدرولوجية، محطة كهرومائية مهلة طويلة لدراسات الموقع 50 عادة ما تكون البيانات الهيدرولوجية التي تصل إلى.وتقييم األثر البيئي عا ًما أو أكثر مطلوبة لتحديد أفضل المواقع وأنظمة التشغيل لمحطة كهرومائية كبيرة. New hydro sites tend to be far from population centers and require extensive transmission lines. Hydroelectric generation depends on rainfall in the watershed, and may be significantly reduced in years of low rainfall or snowmelt. Long-term energy yield may be affected by climate change. Utilities that primarily use hydroelectric power may spend additional capital to build extra capacity to ensure sufficient power is available in low water years. ، يعتمد توليد الطاقة الكهرومائية على هطول األمطار في مستجمعات المياه .وقد ينخفض بشكل كبير في سنوات انخفاض هطول األمطار أو ذوبان الجليد قد تنفق المرافق التي.قد يتأثر عائد الطاقة على المدى الطويل بتغير المناخ ً تستخدم الطاقة الكهرومائية في المقام األول رأس ماال إضافيًا لبناء سعة إضافية لضمان توفر طاقة كافية في سنوات المياه المنخفضة. Countries with the Most Hydro-electric Capacity The ranking of hydro-electric capacity is either by actual annual energy production or by installed capacity power rating. يتم تصنيف السعة الكهرومائية إما من خالل إنتاج الطاقة السنوي الفعلي أو من خالل تصنيف قدرة السعة المركبة. A hydro-electric plant rarely operates at its full power rating over a full year; the ratio between annual average power and installed capacity rating is the capacity factor. نادرا ما تعمل محطة كهرومائية بكامل ً طاقتها على مدى عام كامل ؛ النسبة بين متوسط الطاقة السنوي وتصنيف السعة المركبة هي عامل السعة. The installed capacity is the sum of all generator nameplate power ratings. Countries with the Most Hydro-electric Capacity The top six dams, in descending تنازليorder of their annual electricity generation, are: 1. Three Gorges Dam in China, 2. Itaipu Dam on the border of Paraguay and Brazil, 3. Guri Dam in Venezuela, 4. Tucurui dam in Brazil, 5. Sayano-Shushenskaya Dam in Russia 6. Krasnoyarsk hydroelectric dam, also in Russia Countries with the Most Hydro-electric Capacity Brazil, Canada, Norway, Switzerland and Venezuela are the only countries in the world where the majority of the internal electric energy production is from hydroelectric power. Paraguay not only produces 100% its electricity from hydroelectric dams, but exports 90% of its production to Brazil and to the Argentine. Norway produces 98-99% of its electricity from hydroelectric. Sustainable Development Sustainable Development Definitions: Sustainable development means basing developmental and environmental policies on a comparison of costs and benefits and on careful economic analysis that will strengthen environmental protection and lead to rising and sustainable levels of welfare (World Bank, 1992). Sustainable Development: Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. (Brundtland Commission definition) Our Common future, WCED, 1987 Definitions: Sustainable Development: Improving the quality of human life while living within the carrying capacity of supporting ecosystems. Sustainable Development: The natural resources of the environment (natural ecosystems), must be safeguarded for the benefit of present and future generations through careful planning or managements, as appropriate. (Stockholm Declaration, Principle 2, 1972) Ways to Achieve Sustainability Leave everything in the pristine state, or return it to its pristine state. Develop so as to not overwhelm the carrying capacity of the system. Sustainability will take care of itself as economic growth proceeds. Polluter and victim can arrive at an efficient solution by themselves. Ways to Achieve Sustainability Let the markets take care of it. Internalize the externalities. Reinvest rents for nonrenewable resources (weak and strong sustainability). Leave future generations the options or the capacity to be as well off as we are. Sustainable Development Dimensions The economic approach: Maximize income while maintaining constant or increasing stock of capital. The ecological approach: Maintain the resilience and robustness of biological and physical systems. The socio-cultural approach: Maintain the stability of social and cultural systems. Sustainable Development Pillars Sustainable Development, Environment, and Poverty Sustainable Development Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. (Brundtland Commission definition) Ethical principle: the responsibility of present generations to future generations. Legal elements of the concept: • The need to preserve natural resources for the benefit of the future generations. • The aim of exploiting natural resources in a sustainable manner. • The equitable use of the natural resources. • The need to ensure that environmental considerations are integrated into economic and another development plans. Sustainable Development Principals Rio Declaration 1992 Principles (Earth Summit) It defines the rights of the people to be involved in the development of their economies, and the responsibilities of human beings to safeguard the common environment. People are entitled to a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature. Development today must not threaten the needs of present and future generations. Nations have the right to exploit their own resources, but without causing environmental damage beyond their borders. Environmental protection shall constitute an integral part of the development process. Rio Declaration 1992 Principles (Earth Summit) Eradicating poverty and reducing disparities in living standards in different parts of the world are essential if we are to achieve sustainable development whilst meeting the needs of the majority of the people. Environmental issues are best handled with the participation of all Concerned citizens. The polluter should, in principle, bear the cost of pollution. Sustainable development requires better scientific understanding of the problems. Nations should share knowledge and technologies to achieve the goal of sustainability. Agenda 21 It provides guidelines to deal with the problems of poverty, hunger, resource consumption and the deterioration of ecosystems Is the blueprint for sustainability in the 21st century. Provides options for combating the deterioration of land, air and water, whilst conserving habitats and their diversity. Deals with poverty, over consumption, health and education. Agenda 21 Promotes roles for all. Everyone – governments, business, trade unions, scientists, teachers, indigenous people and youth – have roles to play in achieving sustainable development and should be involved in the decision making processes. Encourages the reduction of environmentally and socially detrimental processes, but within a framework which allows economic success. Sustainable Development Principles Principle of preventive action The precautionary principle The polluter-pays principle Principle of common but differentiated responsibility Principle of sustainable development The principle of international cooperation: Good neighborliness Principle of Preventive Action The obligation requiring the prevention of damage to the environment, or to otherwise reduce, limit or control activities which might cause such damage. It requires action to be taken at an early stage, and if possible, before damage actually occurred. This principle has been started by the 1972 Stockholm Declaration. The preventive approach is endorsed by the large number of international environmental treaties, aiming to prevent for example; - pollution of the seas by oil, radioactive waste, hazardous waste and substances, - river pollution; radioactive pollution of the atmosphere; air pollution; The Precautionary Principle The PP is a proactive approach to environmental problems "When an activity raises threats of harm to human health or the environment, precautionary measures should be taken even if some cause-and-effect relationships are not fully established scientifically." from the January 1998 Wingspread Statement on the Precautionary Principle This Principle began to appear instruments in the mid-1980s. in international legal It provides guidance where there is scientific uncertainty or highly threatening environmental issue. The Precautionary Principle The core of this principle is reflected in Principle 15 of the Rio Declaration. Bergen ECE on sustainable Development (7) and Precautionary Principle: In order to achieve sustainable development, policies must be based on the precautionary principle…” Most of international treatise and Acts are based on this principle The Polluter-Pays Principle (PPP) It requires that the costs of pollution be borne by those who cause it. It aims at determining how the costs of pollution prevention and control must be allocated: the polluter must pay. "The principle to be used for allocating costs of pollution prevention and control measures to encourage rational use of scarce environmental resources and to avoid distortions in international trade and investment is the so-called PolluterPays Principle.“ OECD Council. The Polluter-Pays Principle (PPP) It has been reaffirmed in Rio Declaration Principle 16: "National authorities should endeavor to promote the internalization of environmental costs and the use of economic instruments, taking into account the approach that the polluter should, in principle, bear the cost of pollution, with due regard to the public interest and without distorting international trade and investment.“ It is applicable at the domestic level and not at international level. PPP Implementation Approaches: Command & Control: regulations and on-going inspection programs Market-based: pollution taxes, tradable pollution permits, subsidies …etc Common but Differentiated Responsibility Principle Principle 7 of the Rio Declaration states: "In view of the different contributions to global environmental degradation, States have common but differentiated responsibilities. The developed countries acknowledge the responsibility that they bear in the international pursuit of sustainable development in view of the pressures their societies place on the global environment and of the technologies and financial resources they command." Common but Differentiated Responsibility Principle It evolved from the notion: of the “common heritage of mankind” Common responsibility describes the shared obligations of two or more States towards the protection of a particular environmental resource. Common responsibility is likely to apply where the resource is shared, under the control of no state, or under the sovereign control of a state, but subject to a common legal interest (such as biodiversity n termed a common. Common but Differentiated Responsibility Principle Differentiated responsibility of States for the protection of the environment is widely accepted in treaty and other State practices. It translates into differentiated environmental standards set on the basis of a range of factors, including special needs and circumstances, future economic development of countries, and historic contributions to the creation of an environmental problem. The Stockholm Declaration emphasized the need to consider the applicability of standards which are valid for the most advanced countries but which may be inappropriate and of unwarranted social cost for the developing countries. Common but Differentiated Responsibility Principle The principle recognizes historical differences in the contributions of developed and developing States to global environmental problems, and differences in their respective economic and technical capacity to tackle these problems. Despite their common responsibilities, important differences exist between the stated responsibilities of developed and developing countries. In summary, States have common responsibilities to protect the environment and promote sustainable development, but due to different social, economic, and ecological situations, countries must shoulder different responsibilities. The Principle of International Cooperation & Good Neighborliness • Principle 24 Stockholm Declaration. • Principle 27 Rio Declaration: ‘States and people shall co-operate in good faith and in a spirit of partnership in the fulfilment of the principles embodied in this Declaration and in the further development of international law in the field of sustainable development’. The Principle of International Cooperation & Good Neighborliness This principle is affirmed in all international environmental agreements and treaties. It reflects a general political commitment to international cooperation in matters concerning the protection of the environment. • Principle 7 of the 1987 UNEP Draft Principles:” Exchange of information, notification, consultation, and other forms of cooperation regarding shared natural resources are carried out on the basis of the principle of good faith and spirit of good neighborliness….