Italian Unification

The End of The Concert
of Europe
Also Italian Unification!
The Concert of Europe
• After the Congress of Vienna, The Great Powers
of Europe kept things stable. This was called The
Concert of Europe.
• In 1848, a series of revolutions swept through
Europe. Everywhere from Italy to France to
• Inspired by Nationalism and Liberalism
• The Great Powers of Europe showed up and
crushed all of these revolutions.
Why Didn’t The Revolutions Work?
• The revolutionaries didn’t get enough popular
• Liberals supported capitalism and the middle class
while radicals supported communism and the
working class. They disagreed too much and
couldn’t get stuff done.
• The powers of Europe still had big armies. The
Concert of Europe works together to crush the
The Crimean War
• In 1853, Russia goes to war with the weakened
Ottoman Empire to get warm water ports.
• France and England, afraid of Russia, join with
The Ottomans against Russia.
• Russia hopes Austria will help. Austria stays out of
• Russia loses badly. England and France take land
from The Ottomans in payment for “helping”
The Concert Is Done
• Russia angry at everyone, goes
home and doesn't get involved in
Europe for the next 20 years.
• Austrian Empire loses their
former ally of Russia.
• England and France no longer
have to work together because
Russia and Austria aren’t working
together anymore.
Italian Unification: The Setup
• Most of Italy is either controlled by The
Austrian Empire or The Bourbon Royal
Family of Spain.
• They tried to unite and make their own
country, but The Concert of Europe
stopped them.
Northern Italy: The Kingdom of Piedmont
• The small nation of Piedmont
was independent, and wanted a
unified Italy.
• King Victor Emmanuel II and his
prime minister Cmillo di Cavour
want a nation with a big army to
lead the unification. Can’t beat
Austria alone.
War With Austria (1859)
• They bring in Louis-Napoleon
of France to go to war with
Austria. Offers France a
bunch of land in return.
• Beats Austria, and adds more
Italian land to Piedmont.
• A bunch of other Italian
nations nearby revolt and
join Piedmont.
Southern Italy: Revolution! (1860)
• Giuseppe Garibaldi is the father
of modern Italy
• Forms an army of thousands of
rebels to overthrow the
Spanish-led government of The
Kingdom of Two Sicilies.
• His Red Shirts completely
overthrow the government.
The Kingdom of Italy
• The now free Southern Italy
joins up with The Kingdom
of Piedmont in the north.
• Create a new Kingdom of
Italy on March 17, 1861.
Italian Independence Day!
• End up getting the last bits
of Italy from Austria and
France during The FrancoPrussian War in 1870.