The End of The Concert of Europe Also Italian Unification! The Concert of Europe • After the Congress of Vienna, The Great Powers of Europe kept things stable. This was called The Concert of Europe. • In 1848, a series of revolutions swept through Europe. Everywhere from Italy to France to Germany. • Inspired by Nationalism and Liberalism • The Great Powers of Europe showed up and crushed all of these revolutions. Why Didn’t The Revolutions Work? • The revolutionaries didn’t get enough popular support. • Liberals supported capitalism and the middle class while radicals supported communism and the working class. They disagreed too much and couldn’t get stuff done. • The powers of Europe still had big armies. The Concert of Europe works together to crush the revolutions. The Crimean War • In 1853, Russia goes to war with the weakened Ottoman Empire to get warm water ports. • France and England, afraid of Russia, join with The Ottomans against Russia. • Russia hopes Austria will help. Austria stays out of it. • Russia loses badly. England and France take land from The Ottomans in payment for “helping” them. The Concert Is Done • Russia angry at everyone, goes home and doesn't get involved in Europe for the next 20 years. • Austrian Empire loses their former ally of Russia. • England and France no longer have to work together because Russia and Austria aren’t working together anymore. Italian Unification: The Setup • Most of Italy is either controlled by The Austrian Empire or The Bourbon Royal Family of Spain. • They tried to unite and make their own country, but The Concert of Europe stopped them. Northern Italy: The Kingdom of Piedmont • The small nation of Piedmont was independent, and wanted a unified Italy. • King Victor Emmanuel II and his prime minister Cmillo di Cavour want a nation with a big army to lead the unification. Can’t beat Austria alone. War With Austria (1859) • They bring in Louis-Napoleon of France to go to war with Austria. Offers France a bunch of land in return. • Beats Austria, and adds more Italian land to Piedmont. • A bunch of other Italian nations nearby revolt and join Piedmont. Southern Italy: Revolution! (1860) • Giuseppe Garibaldi is the father of modern Italy • Forms an army of thousands of rebels to overthrow the Spanish-led government of The Kingdom of Two Sicilies. • His Red Shirts completely overthrow the government. The Kingdom of Italy • The now free Southern Italy joins up with The Kingdom of Piedmont in the north. • Create a new Kingdom of Italy on March 17, 1861. Italian Independence Day! • End up getting the last bits of Italy from Austria and France during The FrancoPrussian War in 1870.