Uploaded by Niecolle Vico

Internet of Things Module 1

revolution. We will help you to plant the
seeds of your IoT project ideas and
discover what you need to make them
Internet of Things
In this introductory course, we will provide a
thorough overview of what the Internet of Things
is, what it can do, and where it is going. The
knowledge you gain will enable you to be part of
the IoT revolution. We will help you to plant the
seeds of your IoT project ideas and discover
what you need to make them grow.
Course Description:
The Internet of Things (IoT) is expanding at a
increasingly important for professionals to
understand what it is, how it works, and how to
harness its power to improve business. This
introductory course will enable learners to
leverage their business and/or technical
knowledge across IoT related functions in the
In the course, we will examine the concept of
IoT. We will look at the ‘things’ that make up the
Internet of Things, including how those
components are connected together, how they
communicate, and how they value add to the
data generated. We will also examine cyber
security and privacy issues, and highlight how
IoT can optimise processes and improve
efficiencies in your business.
Course Intended Learning Outcomes:
In this course you will:
Distinguish concepts on Internet of Things, end devices,
networks, programming, and security and privacy
implications of IoT
Appreciate the role of big data, cloud computing and data
analytics in a typical IoT system
Apply IoT ideas within their field and area of expertise.
Determine what constitutes an IoT solution
Design IoT proposal applicable to business
Module 1:
Overview of Internet of Things (IoT)
In this module, we will provide you with
a thorough overview of what the Internet
of Things is, what it can do, and where it
is going. The knowledge you gain will
enable you to be part of the IoT
Module 2:
The ‘things’ of the Internet of Things
In the previous module, you had a good
picture of what IoT is and its huge role in
developing the cities around the world. In
this module, we will be focusing on the two
basic things that play extremely important
roles in IoT: sensors and actuators.
Module 3:
Networking In IoT
This module presents the IoT Networking
Architecture and the various connectivity
technologies that are used in IoT
applications. The process of IoT
communication is also included in this
module together with the protocols used in
Module 4:
Languages of IoT Devices
Software applications are not only for
entertainment but also for making our data
more useful. With the increasing demand
for these software applications, several jobs
in the programming industries have opened.
This module will present the common
software used in programming an IoT
system. The types of data collected and
produced by an IoT device including their
qualities are also presented here.
Module 5:
The Internet of Things (IoT) is making for a
more convenient, efficient, and enjoyable
world, but IoT can also feature some
serious security flaws. This module
discusses the IoT challenges in security,
vulnerabilities, and privacy. The knowledge
you gain will enable you to be part of the
IoT revolution. You will be conceptualizing
an IoT solution in your field of
Lesson 1: Evolution of Internet of Things
The Internet of Things (IoT), sometimes
referred to as the Internet of Objects, will change
everything—including ourselves. This may
seem like a bold statement, but consider the
impact the Internet already has had on
education, communication, business, science,
government, and humanity. Clearly, the Internet
is one of the most important and powerful
creations in all of human history. Now consider
that IoT represents the next evolution of the
Internet, taking a huge leap in its ability to
gather, analyze, and distribute data that we can
turn into information, knowledge, and,
ultimately, wisdom. In this context, IoT becomes
immensely important.
Programmers at Carnegie Mellon University
connect a Coca-Cola vending machine to the
Internet, allowing them to check if the machine
has cold sodas before going to purchase one.
This is often cited as one of the first IoT devices.
Already, IoT projects are under way that
promise to close the gap between poor and rich,
improve distribution of the world’s resources to
those who need them most, and help us
understand our planet so we can be more
proactive and less reactive. Even so, several
barriers exist that threaten to slow IoT
development, including the transition to IPv6,
having a common set of standards, and
developing energy sources for millions—even
billions—of minute sensors.
However, as businesses, governments,
standards bodies, and academia work together
to solve these challenges, IoT will continue to
progress. The goal of this module is to educate
you in plain and simple terms so you can be well
versed in IoT and understand its potential to
change everything we know to be true today.
A timeline of selected major events in IoT
ARPANET, the precursor to the modern
Internet, is developed and put into service by
DARPA, the U.S Defense Advanced Research
Projects agency. This is foundational to the
“Internet” part of the Internet of Things.
ARPANET is opened up to the public by
commercial providers, making it possible for
people to connect things if they want to.
John Romkey, in response to a challenge,
connected a toaster to the Internet and was able
to successfully turn it on and off, bringing us
even closer to what we think of as modern IoT
Engineers at the University of Cambridge,
upholding the now well-established tradition of
combining the Internet with appliances and
food, develops a system that takes pictures of a
coffee machine three times a minute, allowing
its status to be remotely monitored by workers.
World’s first webcam!
The first version of the long-running GPS
satellite program run by the U.S. government is
finally completed, a big step towards proving
one of the most vital components for many IoT
devices: location.
IPv6 becomes a draft standard, enabling more
devices to connect to the internet than
previously allowed by IPv4. While 32-bit IPv4
only provides enough unique identifiers for
around 4.3 billion devices, 128-bit IPv6 has
enough unique identifiers for up to 2^128, or 340
undecillion. (That’s 340 with 36 zeroes!)
This is a big year for IoT, since it’s when the
phrase was probably first used. Kevin Ashton,
the head of MIT’s Auto-ID labs, included it in a
presentation to Proctor & Gamble executives as
a way to illustrate the potential of RFID tracking
LG announces what has become one of the
quintessential IoT devices: the Internet
refrigerator. It was an interesting idea, complete
with screens and trackers to help you keep track
of what you had in your fridge, but its $20,000+
USD price tag didn’t earn it a lot of love from
Market research firm Gartner adds IoT to their
“hype cycle,” which is a graph used to measure
the popularity of a technology versus its actual
usefulness over time. As of 2018, IoT was just
coming off of the peak of inflated expectations
and may be headed for a reality check in the
trough of disillusionment before ultimately hitting
the plateau of productivity.
The phrase “Internet of Things” starts popping
up in book titles and makes scattered media
Google Glass is released – a revolutionary step
in IoT and wearable technology but possibly
ahead of its time. It flops pretty hard.
The first iPhone appears on the scene, offering
a whole new way for the general public to
interact with the world and Internet-connected
The first international IoT conference is held in
Zurich, Switzerland. The year is fitting, since it’s
also the first year that the number of Internetconnected devices grew to surpass the number
of humans on earth.
Google starts self-driving car tests, and St. Jude
Medical Center releases Internet-connected
pacemakers. St. Jude’s device will go on to
make yet more history by being the first IoT
medical device to suffer a major security breach
in 2016 (without casualties, fortunately). Also,
Bitcoin starts operation, a precursor to
blockchain technologies that are likely to be a
big part of IoT.
The Chinese government names IoT as a key
technology and announces that it is part of their
long-term development plan. In the same year
Nest releases a smart thermostat that learns
your habits and adjusts your home’s
temperature automatically, putting the “smart
home” concept in the spotlight.
Amazon releases the Echo, paving the way for
a rush into the smart home hub market. In other
news, an Industrial IoT standards consortium
form demonstrates the potential for IoT to
change the way any number of manufacturing
and supply chain processes work.
General Motors, Lyft, Tesla, and Uber are all
testing self-driving cars. Unfortunately, the first
massive IoT malware attack is also confirmed,
with the Mirai botnet assaulting IoT devices with
manufacturer-default logins, taking them over,
and using them to DDoS popular websites.
IoT development gets cheaper, easier, and
more broadly-accepted, leading to small waves
of innovation all over the industry. Self-driving
cars continue to improve, blockchains and AI
begin to be integrated into IoT platforms, and
increased smartphone/broadband penetration
continues to make IoT an attractive proposition
for the future.
Lesson 2 - Demystifying Internet of Things
This lesson will look at the different definition of
IoT to better understand these technologies as
they fit into the real world.
What is the Internet of Things?
“The Internet of Things (IoT) is a system of
interrelated computing devices, mechanical and
digital machines, objects, animals or people that
are provided with unique identifiers and the
ability to transfer data over a network without
requiring human-to-human or human-tocomputer interaction.”
The Internet of Things, or IoT, refers to the
billions of physical devices around the world that
are now connected to the internet, all collecting
and sharing data.
The Internet of Things (IoT) describes the
network of physical objects—“things”—that are
embedded with sensors, software, and other
technologies for the purpose of connecting and
exchanging data with other devices and
systems over the internet. These devices range
sophisticated industrial tools. With more than 7
billion connected IoT devices today, experts are
expecting this number to grow to 10 billion by
2020 and 22 billion by 2025.
Lesson 3 - Application of IoT in Society
The impact of technology on business is
prominent. With a major shift in the
technological world, businesses need to adapt
to trending technologies to stay ahead. It has
bridged the gap between digital and physical
Smart Home
Smart home technology, also often referred to
as home automation or domotics (from the Latin
"domus" meaning home), provides homeowners
security, comfort, convenience and energy
efficiency by allowing them to control smart
devices, often by a smart home app on their
smartphone or other networked device. A part of
the internet of things (IoT), smart home systems
and devices often operate together, sharing
consumer usage data among themselves and
automating actions based on the homeowners'
Wearable Technology
Wearable technology, also known as
"wearables", is a category of electronic devices
that can be worn as accessories, embedded in
clothing, implanted in the user's body, or even
tattooed on the skin. The devices are hands-free
gadgets with practical uses, powered by
microprocessors and enhanced with the ability
to send and receive data via the Internet.
Smarter cities
More than half of the world's population now
lives in cities—up from just 34% in the 1960s.
By mid-century that figure could reach 66%
according to the United Nations. Cities are major
contributors to climate change, and some are
already feeling its impact through rising sea
levels and increasingly severe weather events.
But cities are also great incubators for IoTbased systems that make urban life more
transportation systems, safe street lighting and
energy-efficient buildings.
In Barcelona, a citywide WiFi and information
network linked to sensors, software and a data
analytics platform has enabled the city to
provide smart water technology, automated
street lighting, remote-controlled irrigation for
parks and fountains, “on-demand” waste
pickups, digital bus routes and smart parking
meters. These IoT-enabled urban services have
dramatically reduced traffic jams and pollution,
as well as water, light and energy usage.
Smarter cities
Many other cities are also putting the Internet of
Things to work. Chicago is testing a city-wide
network of sensors called the “Array of
Things” The sensors serve as a sort of fitness
tracker for the city, collecting data on air quality,
climate, traffic and other metrics. The
information is sent to an open data portal where
user groups can consume it for a range of
Las Vegas is using the Internet of Things to
improve traffic flow, while in South Korea, the
entire smart city of Songdo is built around the
Internet of Things. Songdo’s networks are
designed to ensure its buildings, transportation
system and infrastructure are as efficient as
Smart Farming
Smart Farming is a farming management
concept using modern technology to increase
the quantity and quality of agricultural products.
Farmers in the 21st century have access to
GPS, soil scanning, data management, and
Internet of Things technologies. By precisely
measuring variations within a field and adapting
the strategy accordingly, farmers can greatly
increase the effectiveness of pesticides and
fertilizers, and use them more selectively.
Similarly, using Smart Farming techniques,
farmers can better monitor the needs of
individual animals and adjust their nutrition
correspondingly, thereby preventing disease
and enhancing herd health.
Autonomous Car
An autonomous car is a vehicle capable of
sensing its environment and operating without
human involvement. A human passenger is not
required to take control of the vehicle at any
time, nor is a human passenger required to be
present in the vehicle at all. An autonomous car
can go anywhere a traditional car goes and do
everything that an experienced human driver
The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)
currently defines 6 levels of driving automation
ranging from Level 0 (fully manual) to Level 5
(fully autonomous). These levels have been
adopted by the U.S. Department of