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Hanseatic League

-Hanseatic League:
Medieval commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market to
wns developed in the Baltic and North Sea region from the 1200s. The Hanseatic
League was an alliance of more than 100 northern European cities that banded
together for mutual trade protection and economic opportunity.
-Trans-Saharan trade route: Trades composed mainly of gold and salt, later along
with other Islamic products (main city Timbuktu) still flourished in this region due to
two specific factors, being oases and use of camels.
-Silk Road: Basic, China-Arabia-Europe with other countries e.g. India SE Asia and
Africa too. Has role in bringing cultures and peoples in contact with each other, and
facilitating exchange between them. On a practical level, merchants had to learn the
languages and customs of the countries. On a cultural and scientific level, the silk
road promoted the diffusion and interactions of cultures, traditions, along with
scientific knowledges and technologies, influencing other civilization growths.
-Cultural Interaction: Cultural interaction was a vital aspect of material exchange.
This includes the diffusion of religions (Islam and Christianity, along with some
Buddhist and Hinduist merchants from India), cultural customs, humanistic thoughts,
traditions, and languages.
-dhows: Traders from Arabia, Gujarat, and other coastal areas used triangle-sailed
dhows to harness the seasonal monsoon winds. Special type of ship.
-domestication of the camel: Domestication of the camel helped bring coastal trade
goods such as silk, porcelain, spices, incense, and ivory to inland empires. camels are
native to Africa and can travel long distances without needing to stop for water.
Together with oases these two helped support and popularize Trans-Saharan trade.
-exchange of religions: Islam to South Asia, North Africa, and other major parts of the
Arab sphere of influence; Christianity in Europe and other scattered parts (ports
mainly) around the world, e.g. Hormuz, Ethiopia); Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism
spread by great Indian merchants around S, E and SE Asia.
-Muslim trade: The rise of the Umayyad (661–750 CE) and Abbasid (750–1258)
caliphates on the Arabian Peninsula provided a powerful western node for the trade
routes. In addition, Islam valued merchants—the Prophet Muhammad himself was a
trader and caravan leader—and wealthy Muslim cities created an enormous demand
for luxury goods.
-Chinese role in Indian Ocean: The Tang (618–907) and Song (960–1279) dynasties in
China also emphasized trade and industry, developing strong trade ties along the landbased Silk Roads, and encouraging maritime trade. The Song rulers even created a
powerful imperial navy to control piracy on the eastern end of the route.
For centuries, China had mostly allowed foreign traders to come to it. After all,
everyone wanted Chinese goods, and foreigners were more than willing to take the
time and trouble of visiting coastal China to procure fine silks, porcelain, and other
items. In 1405, however, the Yongle Emperor of China's new Ming Dynasty sent out
the first of seven expeditions to visit all of the empire's major trading partners around
the Indian Ocean. The Ming treasure ships under Admiral Zheng He traveled all the
way to East Africa, bring back emissaries and trade goods from across the region.