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Extracting metals from ores lesson notes

Extracting metals from ores
The least reactive metals are the easiest to
extract, the most reactive metals are hardest to
Extracting gold and silver
• These two elements are found in nature in their pure forms. So there
is no need to prurify them. You can even find them in stream beds by
using a pan.
• Metals like iron and copper are found in oxide forms and purified by
using more reactive elements. For these elements, carbon is used.
Iron oxide+ carbon iron+ carbon dioxide
Copper oxide+ carbon carbon dioxide + copper.
Zinc oxide +carbon zinc + carbon dioxide
• Lead is found in nature as lead sulphide. We need to use two
Lead sulphide+ oxygen lead oxide + sulphur dioxide
Lead oxide+ carbon  carbon dioxide+ lead.
Aluminium and group 1 and group 2 elements are more reactive than
carbon, therefore they cannot purified by using carbon. Instead
electrolysis is used to purify them.
Magnesium, calcium, sodium, potassium and aluminium belongs to this
Electrolysis is simply passing an electricity from the solution of the
Example: generally there are two ways of extracting metals.
One way is heating with carbon and the other way is Electrolysis.
Write which method we need to use to extract aluminium and write the reason for that.
Ex: metal oxide + carbon carbon dioxide + metal
Reduction with carbon means heating together with carbon.