Uploaded by mukolwealvin

The post-cold war world

The post-cold war world
The Cold War was from
1947 to 1991. Some scholars claimed that the end of
the Cold War was the signing of the world’s first
nuclear disarmament treaty in 1987, or the dissolution
of the Soviet Union in 1991. Nevertheless, the end of
the Cold War symbolized the victory of democracy and
capitalism and promoted the United States. And
China's rising world power. Democracy has become a
collective self-verification method for countries hoping
to gain international respect: when democracy is seen
as an important value.
The post-Cold War era
has refocused people on what was neglected during the
Cold War. The Cold War paved the way for nationalist
movements and internationalism. After the Cold War
nuclear crisis, many countries felt that it was necessary
to discuss a new form of international order and
internationalism, where countries cooperate with each
other instead of using nuclear intimidation tactics. Here
During this period, the United States became the most
powerful country in the world, and China rose from a
relatively weak developing country to a potential
superpower just getting started. In response to the rise
of China, the United States strategically sought to
"rebalance" the Asia-Pacific region. It also sees the
integration of most of Europe into one economy and
the transfer of power
The end of the Cold War also coincided with the end of
apartheid in South Africa. The decline in Cold War
tensions in the late 1980s meant that the apartheid
regime was no longer supported by the West as a
bastion against communism, and they were condemned
by the embargo. In 1990, Nelson Mandela was
liberated from prison, and the regime took measures to
end apartheid, which was formally completed in the
new elections in 1994. The United States became the
only global superpower and was able to take advantage
of this ideological victory. To consolidate its leadership
in the new world order. It is said that "the United States
and its allies are on the right side of history." [11] The
United States has also become the most important
influence on the newly connected global economy.
However, as India, China, and Japan develop to the
point where they may challenge US hegemony, this
unipolar international system is strained with the
emerging potential of a multipolar world. This created
new potential for global conflicts, ended the balance,
and mutually assured destruction in the event of a
nuclear war, which put the world in a state of "longterm peace" throughout the Cold War.
The end of the Cold War declassified many
technologies that were not restricted by the public. The
most important of these is the Internet. The legacy of
the Cold War continues to affect world affairs. After
the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the post-Cold
War world was widely regarded as unipolar, with the
United States being the only remaining superpower.
During the Cold
War, the US military expenditure was estimated at 8
trillion U.S. dollars, and nearly 100,000 Americans lost
their lives in the Korean War and the Vietnam War.
Although it is difficult to estimate the loss of life of
Soviet soldiers, as part of its gross national product, the
Soviet Union The financial cost of the United States is
much higher than that of the United States. Many
nuclear legacy can be discovered from the Cold War,
such as the availability of nuclear power and new
energy technologies, and the use of radiation to
improve medical and health. Environmental
remediation, industrial production, research science
and technology development all benefit from the
careful management and application of radiation and
other nuclear processes. Since there is no formal treaty
to end the Cold War, the former superpowers continue
to maintain, even improve or modify existing nuclear
weapons to varying degrees And delivery system. In
addition, Other countries that were not previously
recognized as nuclear-weapon states have developed
and tested nuclear explosive devices. Numerous and
beneficial uses of nuclear energy have been developed,
such as the use of nuclear energy to generate
electricity. The operation and construction of
commercial nuclear reactors continue to exist, and
global energy production has increased significantly.
The management of nuclear waste is still somewhat
unresolved, which depends largely on government
policy. However, the amount of waste generated by
nuclear power plants is relatively small, and nuclear
waste has been proven to be recyclable. Some
countries including France, Japan and Finland are
currently reprocessing nuclear waste.
The end of the Cold War is usually related to the fall
of the Berlin Wall, the end of the European bloc
confrontation, the withdrawal of the Soviet Union from
Eastern Europe and the dissolution of the former Soviet
Republic. Of the two main powers of the hostile group,
only one, the United States, survived. However, as we
have painfully realized today, this will never lead to the
triumphant progress of freedom, democracy, and the
capitalist system under Washington's undisputed
hegemony. Instead, it now shows us two other results:
the split into new fault lines after the old East-West
conflict and the rise of China and India. Since the
1960s, the role of Communist China as an opponent of
the Soviet Union has been discussed. Although China
has a nuclear arsenal since 1964, Mao Zedong and the
"Great Leap Forward" under the Cultural Revolution
have hindered the global political offensive. This was
only the beginning of Deng Xiaoping's economic
liberalization since 1979, which promoted China's
status as a major economic power in Asia. On the one
hand, the country relies on trade with others; however,
this has not prevented China from maintaining its
economic and territorial interests through increasingly
powerful policies including military expansion. The
situation in India is different. Since Manmohan Singh,
Minister of Finance in 1991, its economy has been free
and open. Only after the Indian variant of the "third
way" between capitalism and socialism proved to be a
dead end, is the decisive here The process only started
after the end of the Cold War. However, although
China is undoubtedly a powerful country now, India is
still becoming a major country. In the second half of
the 1970s, political Islam also experienced an
unforeseen revival. Belief in the future survival of
secular Arab countries in North Africa and the Middle
East was deeply shaken by the Iranian revolution under
Ayatollah Khomeini, who wiped out the Shah’s regime
and established itself permanently. In neighboring
Afghanistan, fundamentalist Islamic forces began to
spread even before the Soviet invasion in 1979 and
gained support under Soviet occupation, especially
from the United States. At that time, no one could feel
that this would produce the radical Islamism of our
time. Its extremist regime has expanded to Africa
through the Middle East and threatened Europe and the
United States through terrorist attacks. Nevertheless,
the origin of these realities still exists
Post-Cold War Europe is history. In less than a decade,
President Vladimir Putin turned Russia into a powerful
international player due to soaring oil prices. Russia’s
dependence on Western credit has turned into Europe’s
dependence on Russian natural gas. Since the
beginning of this century, Russia’s military budget has
increased six times, and Russia’s intelligence network
has penetrated all corners of Europe. Russia has
regained its influence in Central Asia and has
established a strategic cooperative relationship with
China within the framework of the Shanghai
Cooperation Organization. Today, the general mood in
Moscow is "the rise of Russia, the fall of the United
States, and the rise of Europe. Russia, formerly Pluto in
the Western solar system, has fallen out of its orbit due
to its determination to find its own system." In Asia in
the late Cold War.
The rhetoric of EU-Russia cooperation and partnership
cannot conceal the fact that mutual suspicion,
misunderstanding, frustration and bigotry are
beginning to determine the dynamics of Russia-EU
relations. On the one hand, Russia opposes the
independence of Kosovo supported by the West. On
the other hand, it opposes the proposal to establish a
US anti-missile defense system in Poland and the
Czech Republic. On the other hand, Brussels is
increasingly worried about Russia’s aggressive energy
policy in Europe, by bringing back memories of the
Cold War. To poison this relationship. "The Soviet
Union is easier to deal with than Russia today," said a
senior French diplomat. "Sometimes the Soviet Union
is difficult, but you know they are hindered in order to
achieve their goals. Now Russia tries to systematically
stop the West on every subject, Obviously there is no
purpose. "2 From the perspective of the West, Russia
has transformed from a partner to a rival in the making.
The mixture of mercantilism and messianism at the
core of the Kremlin's new foreign policy terrified
Putin’s latest self-confident foreign policy was most
powerfully expressed in the speech of the Russian
President at the Munich Security Conference last
February, and it depends on two key assumptions and a
strategic calculation. The first assumption is that US
global hegemony is unsustainable and the decline of
US power is irreversible. Russians tend to view the
current US global power crisis as an analogy to the
1980 Soviet power crisis. The Russian media regarded
the collapse of Iraq as "Afghanistan for the United
States." Washington's conflict with European allies
after the US invasion of Iraq was conceptualized as the
dismantling of the informal American empire in
Europe. The recent US mortgage and banking crisis is
seen as a signal of weak fundamentals of the US
economy. The second hypothesis is that the European
Union poses a threat to Russia's interests through its
existence as a postmodern empire. However, in
Russia's view, the EU is a temporary phenomenon
precisely because of its postmodernity. Russia's
European strategy is based on the expectation that
sovereign nation-states will determine the future of
This explains Moscow's pressure on bilateral relations
with European powers (sovereign states) and its
increasing reluctance to deal with the European Union.
In the early days of his presidency, Vladimir Putin
tended to view the EU as a benevolent competitor and
a strategic ally for Moscow's desire for a multipolar
world. But the Orange Revolution in Ukraine became
Russia's 9/11; it had a revolutionary impact on Russia's
foreign policy thinking. Moscow is aware that the
European Union is the only major country with
unstable borders, and the urge to expand its principles
and systems has been included in the European project.
In response to the outbreak of the "color revolutions" in
Georgia and Ukraine and the United States' recognition
of regime change as a legitimate policy goal, Putin
adopted the concept of sovereign democracy-security is
understood as absolute sovereignty-because outside,
the safer you are.
British diplomat Robert Cooper wrote when summing
up the European consensus, "What ended in 1989", not
just the Cold War or even the Second World War.
What ended in Europe (but probably only in Europe)
was the political system of three centuries: the balance
of power and the impulse of empire. "4