INTRODUCTI0N In this presentation, we will be looking at, comparing and presenting three specific aspects namely fashion, music and sport of two countries, being Pakistan and New York, the former being from the eastern hemisphere and the latter from the western hemisphere. The aim is to showcase the different aspects of the culture of both countries and get a clearer understanding of factors that influence them. OBJECTIVES At the end of this presentation we would be able to: Define culture Discuss the various facets of fashion, music and sports in New York and Pakistan Discuss factors that influence the differences in the cultural practice between both countries DEFINE CULTURE Culture is a complex system of meaning and behavior that defines a way of life of a given group. It is divided into two aspects, Material eg. Clothing, musical instruments, paintings, buildings, books and stationery etc and Non-material eg. values, norms and customs that people share with one another. This is further supported by Haralambos, Holborn and Healds who stated that “…it is the way of life of its members: the collection of ideas and habits which they learn, share and transmit from generation to generation. Culture develops as people interact with one another over time and it allows us to adapt to extreme environment. Thus we can say that culture is a form of organization that involves co-operation between individuals in order to produce things they need for their survival. . NEW YORK FASHION The clothes we wear and the trends we follow are often associated with superficiality and materialism. Fleeting styles come rapidly into vogue, then disappear as quickly as they came. But fashion has always been intrinsically connected to deeper elements of the American experience, from the economy and labor system to culture, religion, and class. From our underwear to our Levi's to our sneakers, what we wear has, for centuries, spoken volumes about who we are, what we do, and what we want. Whether Americans have dressed to make a political statement, to assert their class status, or simply to be irreverent, every style has carried a certain social meaning. This is in part because our culture has long ascribed great significance to individuals' public image, and because image has long been intertwined with the American capitalist economy. As Mark Twain once wrote, "Clothes make the man. Naked people have little or no influence on society."1 Then again, Twain never lived to see the rise ofPlayboy. Clothes—or the lack thereof—remain central to contemporary American culture and integral to our national history. Fashion norms have changed greatly from decade to decade. The United States has generally followed and in some cases led trends in the history of Western fashion. It has some unique regional clothing styles, such as western wear. Blue jeans were popularized as work clothes in the 1850s by merchant Levi Strauss, a German immigrant in San Francisco, and adopted by many American teenagers a century later. They are now widely worn on every continent by people of all ages and social classes. Along with mass-marketed informal wear in general, blue jeans are arguably U.S. culture's primary contribution to global fashion. As you walk the streets of New York you are sure to see a male with a blue jeans on, followed by a T-Shirt which is another popular clothing worn throughout the United States by many types of people. It can be plain and white, or colored with company logos or funny messages. T-shirts are arguably the most worn type of shirt in the United States. Certain events such as New York Fashion Week are one of the most anticipated events, where top designers showcase their line of fashionable clothing. The country is also home to the headquarters of many leading designer labels such as Ralph Lauren, Victoria secret and Calvin Klein. Labels such as Abercrombie & Fitch and Eckō cater to various niche markets, New York being the leader in trends and designer wear. CLOTHING IN PAKISTAN The term Pakistani clothing refers to the ethnic clothing that is typically worn by individuals in the country of Pakistan and by the People of Pakistani descent. Pakistani clothes express the Culture of Pakistan, the Demographics of Pakistan and Cultures from the Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan, Pashtun and Kashmir regions of the country. Dress in each regional culture reflect weather conditions, way of living and distinctive style which gives it a unique identity among all cultures. Pakistani dressing has similarities with Indian dressing because of pre-independence culture which was shared by these nations for thousand years but the religious factor was always there which makes a difference. Traditional Pakistani dressing also shares similarities between the ethnic groups of central Asia and ethnicities of the Iranian plateau such as the Turkic ethnic groups (i.e. Khazakhs, Uzbeks, Turkmens) and Iranian ethnic groups (Tajiks, Khorasani Persians and Pashtoons), that have been separate from the cultures of modern day Pakistan during the Durand agreement between Afghanistan and the British raj. With the passage of time Pakistanis are adapting modern dress and cultural clothing, especially SPORTS IN NEW YORK Sports is an important part of the culture of the United States. The four major professional sports leagues in the United States are Major League Baseball (MLB), the National Basketball Association (NBA), the National Football League (NFL), the National Hockey League (NHL); all four enjoy massive US media exposure and are considered the preeminent competitions in their respective sports in the world, although only basketball and baseball (and to a lesser extent hockey) have substantial followings in other nations. Sports are particularly associated with education in the United States, with most high schools and universities having organized sports. College sports competitions play an important role in the American sporting culture, and certain college sports — particularly college football and college basketball — are at least as popular as professional sports. The major sanctioning body for college sports is the NCAA. PAKISTAN SPORTS Football is the second most popular sport in Pakistan. Football has also enjoyed a powerful growth as a spectator sport, and is slowly catching up to cricket in the TV ratings (2008 statistics). The Pakistan Football Federation (PFF) is the governing body in Pakistan. Football is played mostly on the local level, primarily in Balochistan and Swat Valley. These areas provide most of the players on the Pakistani national football team. The Pakistan Football Federation Women Organizing Committee (PFFWOC) is responsible for women's football in Pakistan. In 2004, the Pakistan Premier League was established and is the first division of Pakistani football. Indian music works in patterns called ragas whereas western music is represented by notes. Ragas are specific patterns that prescribe the sequence in which a given set of notes on a given pitch are to be played. MUSIC In comparison, western music has different scales depending on a given genre in which a given set of notes are played. According to popular perception, western music is more flexible(talk about bending the rules) than Indian music. If you had to portray both on a graph, then western music would be shown as specific points on the graph whereas Indian music would be shown as lines or shapes. America is a world force that dominates the fashion industry and influences fashion culture. From pre industrial times to modern contemporary, societal trends in clothing has evolved with the changes in time . In pre industrial times men and women were more conservatively dress and women wore long dresses that covered their body and men were more neatly attired and wore tailored clothing. FACTORS INFLUENCING BOTH COUNTRIES America is a cosmopolitan country which consist of a mixture of different ethnicities because of the progression of immigrant migration overtime. The state of New York is the most concentrated part of the United States that has the largest diaspora of immigrants residing. New York is one of the states that have greater freedom of expression when it relates to their fashion, music and sports. America on the whole is a liberal country that does not conform to draconian law. Because of this New York culture and practices tend to change rapidly and the population readily adapt to these changes. Pakistan on the other hand is a country where the society is mainly made up of indigenous people. It is a very conservative country that is governed by strict laws and maintains their cultural practices from pre-industrial to modern times. Their religious belief which is mainly Islam has a major part to play in their day to day activities. Their sense of fashion is to conform to their religious belief. By women’s religious clothing we mean the dressing in which they try to cover all their body parts except face and hands while going outside from their home. Most women cover their head with Dupatta or Chadar in outdoor but religious women prefer to wear Scorf Burga or Hijab and wear lose long and full sleeve shirt. It is also a male dominated country and of recent women are now being able to partake in sports and other cultural activities. In conclusion according to the demographic area both New York and Pakistan have developed cultural practices to adjust to their environment and they have produce trends in fashion, sports and music but yet still these aspects are vastly different when compared to each other. Fashion industry . Regional and cultural variation Dress norms in the United States are generally consistent with those of other post-industrial western nations and has become largely informal since the mid 20th century. Clothing in the United States also depends on a variety of factors including location, venue, and demographic factors such as ethnicity. Blue jeans are a consistent fashion trend among all classes. a type of ethnic clothing used for cultural events found south of the United States (U.S.) The western states are commonly noted for being more informal in their manner of dress than those closer to the eastern seaboard. Furthermore, individuals belonging to certain ethnic groups such as some Native American tribal members and individuals of Scottish descent may wear clothing to represent their ethnic identity at certain events. Conspicuous consumption and a desire for quality have also lead to a strong preference for designer label clothing among many in the middle and upper classes. America is a world force that dominates the fashion industry and influences fashion culture. From pre industrial times to modern contemporary, societal trends in clothing has evolved with the changes in time . In pre industrial times men and women were more conservatively dress and women wore long dresses that covered their body and men were more neatly attired and wore tailored clothing.