Uploaded by J Albia


Objective Norm of Morality
- An ordinance of reason for the common good
- Promulgated by the person who takes charge of
the community
1. Natural Law
2. Divine Law or Eternal Law
3. Moral Law as revealed law (Old Testament Law
and New Testament Law or Law of the Gospel)
4. Human Law – Civil Law and Ecclesiastical Law
It refers to moral insights people are capable of
knowing by means of their reason, independently
of the verbal revelation of God
1. It is not supernatural
2. It is not positive or emanating from the
command of legislative authority
3. Found and derived from the nature of a
Natural Laws” are moral principles that are
absolute, universal, unconditional, binding on
everyone, and known (or available to be known)
by everyone through “right reason” (“natural
light of reason”)
They are prescriptive and can be disobeyed or
ignored by corrupt use of human freedom
1. Universality=Natural Law is universal. Its
primary principles are self-evident
2. Unity and Invariability=natural law is one and
the same for all: all classes of people possess
equal moral dignity as persons
3. Immutability = natural is immutable: there
cannot be any change in whatever is
fundamentally good or evil
Examples of Natural Law/s
• “Golden” or “Silver” rules (Confucius, Rabbi
Hillel, Jesus, the “Blessed One”)
• Principle of Reciprocity
• Prohibition of unjustifiable homicide
• Respect for Life
• everyone, everywhere seems to have some
versions of these
Danger: mistaking one’s own cultural or
religious habits or even prejudices for
universal natural law
Human Morality
To do good and avoid evil deeds
To kill a person
Religious Beliefs
Newton's Law of Motion states that an object
in motion remains in motion unless acted
upon by another object or force.
Newton's Second Law of Motion refers F=ma.
It is the plan flowing from God’s wisdom which
directs all actions and movements
It is the divine reason and/or will of God Himself
commanding the preservation of the natural law
It contains the divine blueprints that bring order
into the universe
People discover the Divine Law in:
• Physical laws=rule non-rational and rational
creatures Law of Gravity, Bouyancy
• Biological laws=govern the development of
living things
• Mathematical laws=govern abstract quantity
• Natural law=the participation of the eternal
law in the rational creature
It governs man’s/woman’s behavior
It contains truths and ethical principles which
guide people’s conduct on matters of right and
It is a directive ordering a person’s activity
towards the ultimate end
Genuine moral law must be good and holy
Man’s/woman’s Natural inclination to goodness
• Every human being is born with a natural
inclination to do good and avoid evil, and
with the capacity to distinguish between right
and wrong.
1. develop and enlighten the intellect
(capacity to know)
2. cultivate and motivate the will
(inclination) to aim always for the highest
good which is God
Old Testament: The Decalogue
Torah- 613 precepts and prohibitions
which are religious, social and moral in
Pentateuch=the primary commandment
is that of love for God-this alone can lead
the way to a just observance of God’s
E.g. Keep holy the Lord’s Day=we must attend
Sunday Mass.
Civil Law is the particular application of natural
law in given societies.
E.g. Law banning the firing of guns in city streets,
law prohibiting drug companies from selling
dangerous drugs, law to pay taxes, Obey traffic
Law is primarily an internal law
The New Testament repeatedly and most
earnestly warns Christians to flee from sin
and the “works of the flesh” but instead “walk
by the Spirit” and bear the fruits of virtue,
goodness and holiness (Rom. 6:12-18)
The Teachings of Christ: Beatitudes
It is a directive of obligatory, general and
stable character for the common good
promulgated by one who is in charge of a
sovereign society.
1. Human law is enforceable. Coercion is
necessary to compel lawless members of
society to obedience.
2. Human law is concerned with external
conduct only
3. Social order, which is the law’s purpose, is
guaranteed when the external conduct is
consideration for others, or fear of
4. Human law is limited to particular groups
of people. Human laws oblige only those
who are members of the community for
which the laws are enacted.
5. Human law is historically conditioned.
Human laws change with societies and
their civilizations.
6. Human law has presumptive obligatory
force. For the security and realization of
the common good, people (subjects) have
no right to disobey the law even if they
have doubts about its utility or justice.
Presumptions favors the duty to obey the
Church Law is the particular application of Divine
Law to the Christian community