Hormone
Classes
Thyroid
Amines
(tyrosine)
Adrenal
cortex Long term
stress
response
Adrenal
medulla short term
stress
(80%epi
20%norepi)
Pancreas
Hypothalamus
release
TRH (thyrotropinreleasing hormone
Pituitary
Target organs
Anter- Thyrotrophs
->TSH (thyroidstimulating hormone)
Thyroid Gland
->Thyroid hormones (T3,
T4)
Function
Most cells in body:
-increase metabolism
-Growth and dev.
-permission: increase catecholamine effect
Steroid
CRH (corticotropin – Anter- corticotrophs
Adrenal Gland (cortex)
Respond increased during stressful
(cholesterol)
releasing Hormone) ->ACTH
 Cortisol
-metabolism: maintain blood glucose level
(adrenocorticotropic
(glucocorticoid)
for energy ( protein catabolism, glucose
h.)
neogenesis, triglyceride breakdown,
uptake)
-vasculature: vasoconstriction (BP
-Immune & reproductive: decrease (not
wanna waste energy)
-CNS: increase emotional memories
Mineralocorticoids bind to MRs regulate Na+ K+ in ECF by Renin- Angiotensin
-> aldosterone & vasculature: vasoconstriction -> Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion (Na+ and H20 retention)
->increase blood volume and pressure
-response to low blood volume and high K+ levels
Amines:
-SNS
-alpha: vasoconstriction, insulin intake
Catecholamines 1. glycogen broken down to glucose. Blood glucose
- Beta: vasodilation, glucagon release
(tyrosine)
2. BP
3. breathing rate
4. metabolic rate
5. change blood flow patterns -> alertness & digestive and kidney
activity
Endocrine
Beta: insulin
Alpha: Glucagon
(internal
(anabolic)
(catabolic)
hormone)
Low blood glucose
High Blood Glucose
-Muscle: increase uptake (glycogen synthesis, -Muscle: decrease uptake (glycogen catabolism, protein catabolism,
amino acid uptake, protein synthesis)
amino acid release, fatty acid uptake and use)
- Adipocytes: increase uptake (triglyceride
- Adipocytes: decrease uptake (triglyceride catabolism, release
synthesis)
glycerol and fatty acid)
Growth
hormone
Parathyroid
Exocrine
(external
digestive)
peptide
-Liver: decrease gluconeogenesis (glycogen
synthesis, triglyceride synthesis, NO KETONE
synthesis)
**control: plasma glucose, plasma a.a,
incretins, PNS, SNS
-Liver: Increase gluconeogenesis, glycogen catabolism, KETONE
synthesis and release
GHRH (growth
hormone- releasing
hormone)
Liver
 IGF-1
Ante- somatotroph
 GH
SNS: extreme stress -> release epi from adrenal medulla
(ex: fasting over 24h).
-growth (IGF-1)
-Protein synthesis
-increase glucose and lipid, but preserve
muscles ( gluconeogenesis, lipolysis,
uptake)
Opposite insulin, main anabolic, some catabolic (BUILD proteins but break down fat and carbs)
Bone growth: (L34)GH and main Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1), thyroid h. (T3), insulin, sex h. (Estrogen and testosterone).
Cortisol (-)
-increase Ca2+ reabsorption in kidneys
-increase osteoclast
-increase formation of vitamin D -> increase uptake of Ca2+ in GI tract
-decrease Ca2+ by inhibit osteoclast
- secretion ONLY HIGH Ca2+ level
Calcitonin
(from
parafollicular
of thyroid)
Prolactin
Inhibit by dopamine unless new mother needs it (breastfeed or sucking)- milk production
Oxytocin
Milk delivery and uterine constraction
Vasopressin Low Water (high blood plasma osmolarity) -release ADH, increase thirst –AQPR 2-> Na+ and H2O retention
AVP/ADH
Steroids and thyroid: protein bound and intracellular receptor -> gene transcription -> slow
Peptides and catecholamines: free (unbound), plasma protein receptors (GPCR)-> second message -> fast