Uploaded by k. andr


Direct Speech
Reported Speech
“We work hard,” he said.
“We are working hard,” they said.
“We have worked hard,” they said.
“We worked hard,” they said.
“We will work hard,” they said.
“We have been working hard,” they said.
They said (that) they worked hard.
They said (that) they were working hard.
They said (that) they had worked hard.
They said (that) they had worked hard.
They said (that) they would work hard.
They said (that) they had been working
They said (that) they were going to work
They said (that) they could work harder.
They said (that) they might work harder.
They said (that) they had to/must work
They said (that) they should work harder.
They said (that) they ought to work
“We are going to work harder,” they said.
“We can work harder,” they said.
“We may work harder,” they said.
“We must work harder,” they said.
“We should work harder,” they said.
“We ought to work harder,” they said.
Changing from Direct into Reported Speech
I. Say is used in Direct Speech. It is also used in Reported Speech when say is
not followed by the person the words were spoken to.
“I can play chess,” he said. He said he could play chess.
Tell is used in Reported Speech when it is followed by the person the words
were spoken to.
“I can speak English,” he said to me. He told me he could speak English.
II. Personal pronouns and possessive adjectives change according to the context.
I said, “I am busy.” He said that he was busy.
“I will show you my new dress,” she said. She said she would show me
her new dress.
III. The conjunction that is introduced before indirect sentences.
He said (that) he was happy.
Certain words change as follows depending on the context.
Direct Speech
Reported Speech
now that
last night
that day
the next day, the following day
the day before, the previous day
the previous night
that night
Time words and tenses can change or remain the same depending on the time
reference. If the reported sentence is out of date, the tenses change. If the reported
sentence is up to date, the tenses can remain the same.
“They are leaving next week,” he said. He said they were leaving the following
week. (speech reported after they had left – out of date).
“They are leaving next week,” he said. He said they are leaving next week.
(speech reported before they have left – up to date).
When the reporting verb is in the past Reported Speech is formed according to
the rules of the sequence of tenses.
“I like music,” she said. She said she liked music.
The Tense Shift when Changing from Direct Speech
to Reported Speech
Direct Speech
Reported Speech
Present Simple
Present Continuous
Present Perfect
Past Simple
Past Continuous
Future Simple
Future Continuous
Future Perfect
Past Simple
Past Continuous
Past Perfect
Past Perfect
Past Perfect Continuous
Future in the Past
Future Continuous in the Past
Future Perfect in the Past
Direct Speech
Reported Speech
The student said, “I do my homework
in the evening.”
Mother said, “Nick is reading for his
The student said that he did his
homework in the evening.
Mother said that Nick was reading
for his exam.
Tom told me that he had finished his
course paper.
Tom told me that he had finished his
course paper the day before.
The old man said that it had been
snowing hard that week.
The girls said that they would be free after
the classes.
The pupils said that they would be writing
their test paper for two hours.
The graduate said that he would have
finished his report by the end of the week.
Tom said to me, “I have finished my
course paper.”
Tom said to me, “I finished my course
paper yesterday. ”
The old man said, “It was snowing hard
this week.”
The girls said, “We will be free after
the classes.”
The pupils said, “We will be writing our
test paper for two hours.”
The graduate said, “I will have finished
my report by the end of the week.”
The tenses do not change in Reported Speech when:
a) the reporting verb (said, told etc) is in the Present Simple, Future Simple or
Present Perfect Tense.
“The post office is near here,” he says. He says the post office is near
b) the speaker expresses general truths, permanent states and conditions.
“Water turns into ice,” he said. He said water turns into ice.
c) the speaker is reporting something immediately after it was said (up to date).
“I will ring you up,” he said. He said he will ring me up.
I. If the speaker expresses something which is believed to be true, the tenses
may change or remain unchanged. If something untrue is expressed, then the
tenses definitely change.
“She likes cherries very much,” she said. She said she likes/liked cherries
very much.
“Latvia is a poor country,” he said. He said Latvia was a poor country.
The Past Simple changes into the Past Perfect or can remain the same.
II. When the reported sentence contains a time clause, the tenses do not change.
“When I was staying in London I met Ann twice,” she said.
She said she had met/met Ann twice when she was staying in London.
III. The Past Perfect and the Past Continuous usually remain the same in Reported
“I was doing my homework while my mother was cooking,” he said. He
said he was doing his homework while his mother was cooking.
IV. If the reported sentence deals with unreal past, conditional sentences or wishes,
the tenses remain the same.
“If I were you, I would apologize,” he said.
He said that if he were me, he would apologize.
Reported Questions/Indirect Questions
Direct Questions
Reported Questions
Indirect Questions
He asked me, “Did you
enjoy the party?”
He asked me, “What
time is it?”
He asked me, “What are
you doing?”
He asked me if/whether I
had enjoyed the party.
He asked me what time it
He asked me what I was
He wonders whether I
enjoyed the party.
Do you know what time
it is?
He wants to know what
I am doing.
In reported questions we use the word order of an affirmative sentence and the
question mark becomes a full stop.
To report a question we use:
a) ask + whword (who, where etc) when the direct question begins with a wh
word (a whquestion).
b) ask + if/whether when the direct question begins with an auxiliary verb (do,
have, can etc) (a yes/no question).
Pronouns, possessive adjectives, tenses, time expressions etc change as in
He said, “What are you reading?” He asked what I was reading.
He said, “Do you like sports?” He asked if/whether I liked sports.
We use indirect questions to ask for information/advice and reported questions
to report someone else’s questions, suggestions, offers or requests.
Indirect questions are introduced with:
Could you tell me …?, Do you know …?, I wonder …?, I want to know …?, I doubt …? etc.
If the indirect question starts with:
I wonder …, I want to know …, I doubt … Then the question mark is omitted.
Reported Commands/Requests/Suggestions
Direct Commands, Requests,
Reported Commands, Requests,
“Go to bed,” father said to me.
“Don’t make such a noise,” the teacher
“Please stay with us tonight,” she said
to her.
“Can I go for a walk?” he asked.
“Let’s play hockey,” they said.
Father told me to go to bed. (command)
The teacher ordered not to make such
a noise. (command)
She asked her to stay with them that
night. (request)
He asked to go for a walk. (request)
They suggested playing hockey.
Introductory Verbs
Introductory Verb
Direct Speech
Reported Speech
agree to + inf
demand требовать
“Yes, I’ll go to the shop.”
offer предлагать
threaten угрожать
“Would you like me to
help you?”
“I will ring you up.”
“No, I won’t come to see
“I punish you.”
He agreed to go to the
He demanded to be told
the truth.
He offered to help me.
claim утверждать
“I witnessed the crime.”
advise +sb+ toinf
allow разрешать
“You should consult a
“You can take my
“Please open the
“Please, please don’t hit
the dog.”
“Stand up.”
promise обещать
refuse отказываться
ask просить
beg просить, молять
command приказывать
forbid запрещать
instruct обучать
invite sb приглашать
order приказывать
“Tell me the truth.”
“Tell me everything.”
“You mustn’t come home
“Mix the eggs with the
“I’d like you to come to
the party.”
“Don’t forget to tell Ann.”
To report commands, requests, suggestions, we use an introductory verb (to
advise, to ask, to beg, to offer, to order, to suggest, to tell etc.) followed by a to
infinitive, an ing form or a that – clause according to the introductory verb.
When we report a speaker’s words we don’t just use rules mechanically, we
interpret what we hear or read, so we use proper introductory verbs like the following.
He promised to ring me up.
He refused to come to
see me.
He threatened to punish
He claimed to have
witnessed the crime.
He advised me to consult
a doctor.
He allowed me to take
his dictionary.
He asked me to open the
He begged me not to hit
the dog.
He commanded me to
stand up.
He encouraged me to tell
him everything.
He forbade us to come
home late.
He instructed me to mix
the eggs with the flour.
He invited me (to go) to
his party.
He ordered me not to
forget to tell Ann.
urge убеждать
“You may speak to the
“Don’t forget to turn the
gas off.”
“Try to be patient.”
warn предупреждать
“Don’t leave your room.”
want хотеть
accuse sb of + ing form
apologize for
admit (to) признавать
“I’d like you to be polite.”
“You behaved as if you
were guilty.”
“I’m sorry I offended you.”
boast about хвастаться
complain to sb about
“I’m the best football
“You are always
deny отрицать
“No, I didn’t tell a lie.”
insist on настаивать
“You must buy that coat.”
suggest предлагать
“Let’s go to the theatre.”
agree + thatclause
claim заявлять
“Yes, she’s very clever.”
complain жаловаться
exclaim восклицать
“You don’t think about
“I have never heard
about it.”
“It’s a problem.”
explain объяснять
“It’s your mistake.”
inform sb сообщать
“Pete is sick.”
promise обещать
“I won’t be late.”
permit разрешать
remind напоминать
deny отрицать
“Yes, I was wrong.”
“I saw the accident.”
He permitted/allowed me
to speak to the doctor.
He reminded me to turn
the gas off.
He urged me to try to be
He warned me not to
leave my room.
He wanted me to be polite.
He accused me of
behaving as if I were guilty.
He apologized for
offending me.
He admitted (to) being
He boasted about being
the best football player.
He complained to me
about my being
He denied telling/having
told a lie.
He insisted on my buying
that coat.
He suggested going to
the theatre.
He agreed that she was
very clever.
He claimed that he had
seen the accident.
He complained that I
didn’t think about him.
He denied that he had
ever heard about it.
He exclaimed that it was
a problem.
He explained that it was
my mistake.
He informed that Pete
was sick.
He promised that he
wouldn’t be late.
“That’s how I got a
He asked himself, “How
old is she?”
He asked himself,
“Where is my umbrella?”
He asked himself, “Why
is she so nervous?”
He asked himself, “What
is the right answer?”
He asked himself, “Shall
I invite them?”
He asked himself,
“Where shall I go?”
He asked himself, “What
shall I do first?”
He asked himself, “How
shall I tell her?”
He explained to me how
he had got a prize.
He wondered how old
she was.
He wondered where his
umbrella was.
He wondered why she
was so nervous.
He wondered what the
right answer was.
He wondered whether to
invite them.
He wondered whether he
should invite them.
He wondered where to go.
He wondered what to do
He wondered how to tell
explain to sb + how
wonder where/what
why/how + clause
задавать (себе) вопрос
(when the subject of the
introductory verb is not
the same as the subject
in the indirect question)
wonder + whether + to
inf or clause
wonder where/what/
how + toinf
(when the subject of the
infinitive is the same as
the subject of the verb)
Exercise I
Turn the following sentences into Reported Speech.
1. “I am busy,” he said. 2. “I saw the film you recommended last night,” she said
to her. 3. “I didn’t agree with you,” Lucy said. 4. “I invited some boys to my
birthday party,” Nick said. 5. “I’m going to Spain next week,” he said. 6. “Water
freezes below 0 oC,” he said. 7. “I have saved enough money to buy a present for
my mother,” she said. 8. “I will come to see you tomorrow,” Lucy said to me.
9. “If I finish my work this evening, I’ll go out,” he said to her. 10. “I have brought
some fruit,” she said. 11. “I will reach the top of the mountain,” the traveller
said. 12. “I saw him yesterday but he didn’t recognize me,” she said to her.
Exercise II
Turn the following sentences into Reported Speech.
1. “I won’t go to the party,” she said to her friend. 2. “Ann has gone away,” Tom
said. 3. “I’m hungry,” he said to his mother. 4. “I’m working tomorrow,” Mike
said. 5. “He’s never written home before,” Kate said to her friend. 6. “The sun
is a big star,” the teacher explained. 7. “Your spelling has become better,” the
teacher said. 8. “This place is not vacant,” the passenger said. 9. “I have changed
my mind and I intend to spend the evening at home,” she said to me over the