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Hazard Assessment

Hazard Assessment
Why Hazard Assessment?
 29
CFR Part 1910. Subpart I
 Increases Awareness of Workplace
 Provides opportunity to identify and
control workplace hazards
 Can lead to increased productivity
 May prevent an Occupational Injury or
What is PPE?
Equipment worn by an
employee that is designed
to prevent injury or illness
from a specific hazard.
Before PPE
– Change Work Practices
– Change Hazardous Duties
– Cease Hazardous Duties
– Sound insulation
– Guards
– Tools
Administrative Changes !
For Example.... Vs
 Working
off Ladder
 Oil based paint
 Sand blasting in
 Jackhammering
 Gloved hand
 Working
off Scaffold
 Water based paint
 Sand blasting in
 Hole Ram
 Hot Sticks
Engineering Controls
 Machine
 Sound deadening/dampening
 Shielding
Controlling Hazards
PPE devices alone should not be
relied on to provide protection
against hazards, but should be
used in conjunction with guards,
engineering controls, and sound
work practices .
Assessment and Selection
It is necessary to consider certain general
guidelines for assessing the foot, head, eye
and face, and hand hazard situations that exist
in an occupational operation or process, and
to match the protective devices to the
particular hazard. It is the responsibility of the
supervisor to exercise common sense and
appropriate expertise to accomplish these
Assessment Guidelines.
Conduct a walk through survey of the
areas in question. The purpose of the
survey (or field observation) is to
identify sources of hazards to workers
and co workers.
Hazard Sources
sources of MOTION
sources of EXTREME temperatures
types of chemical exposures
sources of harmful dust
sources of light radiation
sources of falling objects or potential for dropping objects
sources of sharp objects
sources or rolling or pinching objects
layout of workplace and location of co workers
any electrical hazards
In addition....
injury/ accident data should be
reviewed to help identify problem
Organize data
Following the walkthrough survey, it is
necessary to organize the data and information
for use in the assessment of hazards. The
objective is to prepare for an analysis of the
hazards in the environment to enable proper
selection of protective equipment.
Analyze data
 Having
gathered and organized data on a
workplace, an estimate of the potential for
injuries should be made. Each of the basic
hazards should be reviewed and a
determination made as to the type, level of
risk. and seriousness of potential injury from
each of the hazards found in the area.
 The possibility of exposure to several
hazards simultaneously should be
Selection guidelines
 Become
familiar with the potential
hazards and the type of protective
equipment that is available, and what it
can do; i.e.., splash protection, impact
protection, etc.
 Compare the hazards associated with
the environment; i.e.., impact velocities,
masses, projectile shape, radiation
intensities, with the capabilities of the
available protective equipment
Selection guidelines (cont.)
 Select
the protective equipment which
ensures a level of protection greater
than the minimum required to protect
employees from the hazards.
 Fit the user with the protective device
and give instructions on care and use of
the PPE.
Selection Note
 It
is very important that end users be
made aware of all warning labels for
and limitations of their PPE
Reassessment of hazards
It is the responsibility of the supervisor to
reassess the workplace hazard situation
as necessary, by identifying and
evaluating new equipment and
processes, reviewing accident records,
and reevaluating the suitability of
previously selected PPE
Job Safety Analysis
The breaking down into its component
parts of any method or procedure to
determine the hazards connected with
each key step and the requirements for
performing it safely.
Job Safety Analysis Priorities
Severity Potential
History of Disabling
Frequency of Accidents
Job Safety Analysis
 Job
means “task”
 (Changing a tire not auto mechanic)
 “key” steps
 too detailed becomes cumbersome
 not enough detail becomes useless
Break job down into key steps
 making
the breakdown so detailed That
an unnecessarily large number of steps
 making the job breakdown so general
that basic steps are not recorded
Key Steps TOO MUCH
Changing a Flat Tire
Pull off road
Put car in “park”
Set brake
Activate emergency flashers
Open door
Get out of car
Walk to trunk
Put key in lock
Open trunk
Remove jack
Remove Spare tire
Changing a Flat Tire
 Park
 take off flat tire
 put on spare tire
 drive away
Key Job Steps JUST RIGHT
Changing a Flat tire
 Park
car, set brake
 remove jack & tire
from trunk
 loosen log nuts
 jack up car
 remove tire
 set new tire
 jack down car
 tighten
lug nuts
 store tire & jack
 Parking
– Struck by Traffic
 Removing
tire & jack
– Back Strain
– bang head on trunk
 Loosen
lug nuts
– back/arm strain
– slip & fall
 Jacking
up car
– car could fall off jack
 Setting
new tire
– fingers pinched
– back strain
 Tighten
– back strain
– slip & fall
Work Observation
 Select
experienced worker(s) who will
cooperate and participate in the JSA
 Explain purpose of JSA
 Observe the employee perform the job
and write down basic steps
 Completely describe each step
 Note deviations (Very Important!)
Job Safety Analysis
Identify Hazards &
Potential Accidents
 Search
for Hazards
 Produced by Work
 Produced by Environment
 Repeat job observation as many times
as necessary to identify all hazards
Develop Solutions
 Find
a new way to do job
 Change physical conditions that create
 Change the work procedure
 Reduce frequency
New way to do job
 Determine
the work goal of the job, and
then analyze the various ways of
reaching this goal to see which way is
 Consider work saving tools and
Change in physical conditions
 Tools,
materials, equipment layout or
 Study change carefully for other
benefits (costs, time savings)
Change in work procedures
 What
should the worker do to eliminate
the hazard
 How should it be done?
 Document changes in detail
Reduce frequency
 What
can be done to reduce the
frequency of the job??
 Identify parts that cause frequent
repairs - change
 Reduce vibration save machine parts
What effects??
 A job
that has been redesigned may
affect other jobs or work processes.
 Check or reobserve the new process
once it has been redesigned