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Psychology For Accountants

Question 5 (a)
McClelland’s achievement motivation theory proposes that the three needs important in work
motivation which are need for achievement, need for power and need for affiliation. These
needs can be measured with a projective test known as the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT).
Additionally, McClelland’s theory is briefly described with emphasis on managers’ motivation,
to which his research has a number of characteristics including a commitment to measurement
of human motives, a strong conviction that the TAT is a superior method for the study of
motives and a focus on three fundamental motivational systems.
Question 5(b)
There are three needs in McClelland’s theory are:
1) Needs of Power.
A desire to control other people, to influence their behaviour, or to be responsible for
other people and their work. The needs of power associates with people who have a
high need for power also strive to have control over their surroundings, tangible
resources that are available and even others people. They like to be in charge, and
have the need of acquiring, exercising and maintaining their power or influential on
others. They also known for the outstanding work performance.
2) Needs of Achievement
A desire to do better than other people or more effectively, to solve problems, to
master difficult tasks. This particular needs relate to the nature of people who have a
high need for achievement are those want to take responsibility, searching solutions
to problems, seeking challenges, and are willing to work hard to reach ultimate goals.
People who are motivated by high achievement tend to get better money incentive
and promotion because they are continuously trying to find the best way of doing their
work. This effort is the achievement need.
3) Needs of Affiliation
A desire to establish and maintain friendly and close relationships with other people.
Need for affiliation is regarding the desire for affection, acceptant and firming friendly
relationships. People who have a high affiliation need look at the organisation as an
opportunity to establish new and fulfilling relationships. They are likely to be motivated
by jobs or tasks that often offer interaction with other colleagues.