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Architectural Roofing & Waterproofing Volume 1 2011 ( PDFDrive )(1)

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2011, Volume 1
ROOM
GROW
TO
ROOFTOP VEGETABLE GARDENS
• Waterproofing
Concrete Is
Essential
• White
Elastomeric
Roof Coatings
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A R C H I T E C T U R A L
ROOFING
&WATERPROOFING
2011, Vol. 1
2011, Volume 1
About the Cover:
16
ROOM
OM
GROW
OW
OW
TO
ROOFTOP VEGETABLE GARDENS
s 7ATERPROOlNG
#ONCRETE )S
%SSENTIAL
s 7HITE
%LASTOMERIC
2OOF #OATINGS
Subscribe to our e-Newsletter at www.ARWmag.com
Rooftop vegetable gardens like
this one on top of the Gary Comer
Youth Center in Chicago provide
new opportunities in urban environments. (Photo courtesy of American
Hydrotech, Inc.)
Features
10
Fighting for City Hall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Room to Grow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Green Shipping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
White Elastomeric Roof Coatings . . . . . . . 24
Form & Function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Waterproofing Concrete Is Essential . . . .
22
Web Exclusives
Available online at
www.arwmag.com:
New High-Performance Roofing at
George School Makes the Grade
• Cool Roofs 101
• The Value of Solar
Columns
4
Legally Speaking by Richard Alaniz . . . . . 32
Editor's Note . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
A Word From the Publisher . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Departments
6
Details: Roofing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Details: Waterproofing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Advertiser Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Roofing and Waterproofing Codes . . . . . . .
A R C H I T E C T U R A L
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2011 Vol. 1 ROOFING
&WATERPROOFING
3
{ A Word From the Publisher
New and Improved
for 2011
W
elcome to the first of three print editions of Architectural Roofing & Waterproofing this year. When we first launched ARW four
years ago, our goal was to create a platform for the architect that
focused on the unique issues and most innovative products involved in roofing,
waterproofing and building envelope systems. In 2011, we
are continuing to expand our vision, and we’re pleased to
announce the following additions and improvements:
• New Associate Publisher Liz Obloy. Liz was formerly
with BNP Media’s sister publications Environmental Design
+ Construction and Sustainable Facility, and she brings a
wealth of experience in green design and construction.
• Expanded topics and speakers for the ARW monthly
CEU webinar series. Make sure to see what’s coming at
www.arwmag.com/webinars. All ARW webinars are AIA accredited, and
some green-focused sessions are also accredited with GBCI.
• New look and expanded content for our website,
monthly e-newsletters and
print/digital editions.
• We’ll also be coming
out with a new app with
special content.
ARW is primarily a digital
technical resource. Yes, we
do print three issues per year.
But to stay in touch regularly, I invite you to sign up for
our monthly e-newsletters at
www.arwmag.com.
Q Liz Obloy is ARW 's new Associate Publisher
We want to hear from
you. Let us know if there are topics or interesting projects you’d like us
cover. If you are interested in being featured in an Architect Profile, please
contact Chris King at [email protected]
Have an amazing 2011.
Jill Bloom, Group Publisher
[email protected]
dia
Thank you to our sponsors:
A R C H I T E C T U R A L
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&WATERPROOFING
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BNP Media
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Phone: 248.362.3700 Fax: 248.362.5103
Web site: www.ARWmag.com
Group Publisher
Jill Bloom
248.244.6253 [email protected]
Associate Publisher
Liz Obloy
248.244.6423 [email protected]
Editorial
Editorial Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . John D’ Annunzio
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[email protected]
Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Chris King
248.244.6497
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Associate Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Tom Watts
248.244.1738
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Senior Art Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scott Hilling
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Sales
Sales Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Marcia L. Wright
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Production
Production Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lyn Sopala
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Circulation
Audience Development Manager . . . Jill Buchowski
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Marketing
Reprints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kristina Lorio
248.786.1579
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Marketing Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Paul Dykstra
248.786.1677
[email protected]
Corporate Directors
Publishing: Timothy A. Fausch
Publishing: John R. Schrei
Corporate Strategy: Rita M. Foumia
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Marketing: Ariane Claire
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BNP Media Helps People Succeed in Business
with Superior Information
4
A R C H I T E C T U R A L
ROOFING
2011, Vol. 1
&WATERPROOFING
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TECHNOLOGY
{ Roofing&WaterproofingCodes
RoofingCode: Section 1503
Roofing Assemblies
Section 1503.3 Coping. Parapet walls shall be properly coped with
noncombustible, weatherproof materials of a width no less than the
thickness of the parapet wall.
Code Interpretation
This code implies that a separate waterproofing material is to be
applied over the top of a parapet wall. The designer cannot leave the
masonry, concrete or wood substrate exposed to the elements. This
is a critical design and code element that is often overlooked. The
top of the parapet wall is highly vulnerable to moisture infiltration.
Waterproofing can consist of any approved waterproofing
material that is suitable to the existing substrate. Applications of sealants, flashings, masonry coverings or termination
metals are acceptable. The most common type of parapet
coping is a metal coping that is fabricated out of galvanized
metal. Metal copings applied at the perimeter of the structure must be in compliance with ANSI/SPRI ES-1, which
requires the use of tested and certified materials and states
securement requirements based on the wind zone region of
the structure.
WaterproofingCode: Section 1807
Dampproofing and Waterproofing
1807.4.1 Floor base course. Floors of basements, except as provided for in Section 1807.1.1, shall be placed over a floor base
course not less than 4 inches (102 mm) in thickness that consists
of gravel or crushed stone containing not more than 10 percent of
material that passes through a No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve.
Exception: Where a site is located in well-drained gravel or
sand/gravel mixture soils, a floor base course is not required.
Code Interpretation
This section implies that a base course a minimum of four
6
(4) inches (102 mm) thick is required under all basement
floors. The base course shall consist of gravel or crushed stone
that does not allow more than 10 percent passage through a
No. 4 sieve, which is 4.75 mm.
The only exception to this is if the basement floor is located
in an area that is well drained through gravel or a sand and
gravel mixture.
Section 1807.1.1 defines a basement this way: “a basement is
considered a story above grade plane if any portion of the basement wall is located above the ground level.” AR&W
A R C H I T E C T U R A L
ROOFING
2011, Vol. 1
&WATERPROOFING
www.arwmag.com
Announcing
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Solar panels (which are dark in color
by nature) can create areas of high
temperatures up to 190°F on adjacent
roof surfaces. Other highly reflective
architectural structures (such as mirrored
glass) can act as solar magnifiers and
concentrate sunlight onto nearby roof
surfaces. This concentrated sunlight can
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GAF scientists have created the
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That means more protection for your
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Not eligible for Well Roof™ Advantage Guarantee extension.
See guarantee for complete coverage and restrictions
©2011 GAF Materials Corporation 1/11
{ Details: Roofing
Coping-to-Wall Termination
SHEET METAL
Z-FLASHING LAPPING
TOP SADDLE FLANGE
Approx.
6"
METAL WALL CLADDING
SHEET METAL SADDLE
FLASHING (Set In 2
Continuous Beads of Sealant)
SLOPED TOP PARAPET WALL
(e.g. Beveled Siding, Nail Or
Screw to Wood Nailer.)
BASE FLASHING MEMBRANE
(See Other Details For
Description Of Different Substrate
Conditions and Parapet Heights.)
COUNTERFLASHING
RAGGLE SET
COUNTERFLASHING
A
FABRICATED SHEET
METAL SADDLE
FLASHING
SHEET METAL
COPING
SURFACE-MOUNTED
COUNTERFLASHING
critical and often overlooked design detail is at the
termination of a parapet coping at a wall. The most
common mistake at this intersection is to allow the
metal coping to but up to the wall without the application of
termination metal. The omittance of the termination metal
leaves an opening at the top of the coping and allows for moisture infiltration at the space between the parapet wall and the
structural wall. The installation of the coping-to-wall termination provides waterproofing protection and allows for differential movement between the two construction components.
Prior to the installation of the parapet coping, a metal
f lashing material shall be adhered to the structural wall.
The metal flashing shall lap the parapet wall. The top of the
8
NOTES:
1. Dimensions shown are recommended
minimums and are intended to be
approximate to allow for reasonable
tolerances due to field conditions.
2. Attach top of membrane wall flashing
approximately 6" O.C.
3. See Appendix A for gauge or thickness
guide for sheet metal flashing.
4. Continuous cleats are recommended
when flashing face dimension exceeds
3 inches and in areas deemed high
wind zone as categorized by local
building code.
5. Certain components as depicted in
these details may not be provided by
the roofing contractor.
6. Pre-flashing the coping-to-wall
termination with membrane flashing
(e.g. with self-adhering membrane) is
suggested prior to installation of
sheet metal saddle flashing.
Q Coping-to-wall detail courtesy of
the Western States Roofing Contractors Association.
metal flashing shall be terminated with a counterflashing
that is either surface mounted or set in a reglet.
The metal coping is then applied over the completed wall
f lashing and secured in accordance with local wind zone
requirements. (Perimeter metal coping materials must be in
compliance with ANSI/SPRI ES-1 requirements.) A prefabricated sheet metal saddle flashing is applied at the junction
of the structural wall and parapet wall to terminate exposed
openings. The saddle flashing shall be set in two continuous
beads of sealant.
A bead of continuous sealant shall be applied at the top
of the counterf lashing and the seams of the sheet metal
saddle flashing. AR&W
A R C H I T E C T U R A L
ROOFING
2011, Vol. 1
&WATERPROOFING
www.arwmag.com
{
Details: Waterproofing
Plaza Drain Flashing
T
he waterproofing substrate must be properly prepared prior to the application of the plaza drain
f lashing material. Any openings and /or defects
ACCEPTABLE CONCRETE, ASPHALT, PAVER,
in the substrate must be properly repaired. An excellent
OR TILE OVERBURDEN
source for designers is the inclusion of ASTM D-5295 as
a standard for the identification and repair of any conANGLED RESIN FILL @ ALL MEMBRANE
crete defects. In addition to the substrate preparation,
TERMINATION POINTS (TYP.)
some manufacturers require that primer be applied
KEMPEROL FIELD MEMBRANE EXTENDED
over the drain bowl to aid in the adhesion of the
6" MIN. OVER KEMPEROL DRAIN FLASHING.
waterproofing membrane.
(1) PLY KEMPEROL MEMBRANE FLASHING-EXTEND
Apply a layer of the waterproofing flashing
MINIMUM OF 3" INTO PREPARED AND PRIMED
material over the substrate in accordance with
DRAIN BOWL.
the manufacturer’s requirements. The flashing
PREPARE, LEVEL & PATCH SUBSTRATE AS
shall be fully adhered to the substrate and shall
REQUIRED W/APPROVED LEVELING COMPOUND
extend a minimum of three
PRIOR TO APPLICATION OF KEMPEROL PRIMER
(3) inches into the prepared
& MEMBRANE (TYP.)
drain bowl. Apply a continuous bead of the manufacturer’s approved sealant at each
termination point of the
flashing material — in the
bowl and over the substrate.
Apply the waterproofing membrane material a
minimum of six (6) inches
6" MIN.
onto the waterproofing
OVERLAP
flashing material. Application shall be in compliance
with the manufacturer’s
installation and termination requirements.
Note: Prior to the waterproofing application the
WRAP DRAIN SLEEVE W/GEOTEXTILE FILTER
collar of the drain assemFABRIC & EXTEND 12" MIN. INTO
bly should be adjusted to
HORIZONTAL PLANE
ensure that it is flush with
the substrate. AR&W
ACCEPTABLE PLAZA DRAIN ASSEMBLY
Q Plaza drain flashing detail
courtesy of Kemper System.
ADJUST COLLAR AS REQUIRED TO ASSURE
TOP OF GRATE IS FLUSH W/PAVEMENT.
PREPARE & PRIME DRAIN BOWL AS REQ'D.
FOR KEMPEROL MEMBRANE APPLICATION.
A R C H I T E C T U R A L
www.arwmag.com
2011, Vol. 1 ROOFING
&WATERPROOFING
9
WATERPROOFING
CONCRETE
E
TIA
IAL
IS
by John D'Annunzio
T
here is a common misconception that concrete
provides waterproofing
capabilities. This supposition has led to moisture
infiltration and structural
damage with countless buildings. I have
recently been involved with a high-profile project in which this misconception
contributed to extensive and extremely
costly interior damage. Although concrete in a perfect state will prevent moisture intrusion, there are several potential imperfections to concrete that limit
its ability to prevent moisture intrusion
throughout its service life. These imperfections can be present at the initial stages of the pour and also occur throughout
the concrete’s service life.
Waterproofing is required at belowgrade concrete surfaces for several reasons. The primary reason is to keep
moisture from intruding into the facility. However, it is also required to pro-
10
tect the structural contents from water
infiltration that can cause structural
damage to the concrete or corrosion
to the embedded steel. Concrete is by
design a porous material, and water can
pass through it by hydrostatic pressure,
water vapor gradient or capillary action.
Water can also enter at cracks, structural defects or at improperly designed
or installed joints. Waterproofing is also
required to eliminate deterioration to
the concrete that can occur from exterior and interior chemicals that are present at the building site.
Susceptibility
to Chemicals
Concrete is vulnerable to chemicals
due to three of its primary composition
characteristics: permeability, alkalinity,
and reactivity. Permeability to liquids
and gasses varies considerably with different types of concrete. Even the best
concrete has some small degree of per-
meability. Permeability increases rapidly
with an increasing water-cement ratio
and with decreasing moisture-curing
time. Penetration of f luids into the
concrete is sometimes accompanied by
chemical reactions with cement, aggregates, and/or embedded steel if it is
present. Leaching of cement hydration
compounds, deposition of extraneous
crystals or crystalline reaction products
can also degrade the system.
The alkaline, hydrated Portland
cement binder reacts with acidic substances. This reaction is usually accompanied by the formation and removal of
soluble reaction products, resulting in
disintegration of the concrete. When the
reaction products are insoluble, deposits are formed on the concrete surface or
in the concrete, causing a considerably
reduced reaction rate. Usually the rate of
attack will be increased with an increase
in the concentration of aggressive agents
in the solution.
A R C H I T E C T U R A L
ROOFING
2011, Vol. 1
&WATERPROOFING
www.arwmag.com
Waterproofing Concrete
The solutions can be alkaline, neutral,
or acidic based on the pH factor of the
solution. Neutral solutions have a pH of
7. Acid solutions have pH values less than
7 and alkaline solutions have values over
7. When the pH factor decreases from 7,
the solution becomes more acidic and it
will become more aggressive in its attack
on concrete.
The chemical agents’ physical state is
also important. Dry solids do not attack
dry concrete; however, they may attack
a moist concrete. A moist, reactive solid
can attack concrete in a similar fashion
to an aggressive liquid or solution. Dry
gases, if they are aggressive, may come
deposit that results may be the original
substance or it may be some reaction that
is formed in the concrete. The result is
efflorescence that is seen on the concrete
walls, brick or stone.
Salt solutions can be more destructive to concrete through freeze and thaw
cycles than water alone. Damage from
water or salt solutions can be minimized
by an adequate amount of intentionally
entrained air in the concrete. This will
allow high-quality concrete to produce
air bubbles of the correct size, spacing,
and distribution.
There are several chemicals that are
destructive to concrete. These types of
chemicals are often located in the soil
or surrounding areas of a below grade
structure. It is the designer’s responsibility to have a proper chemical analysis
Cedar Shake Tile
Q The waterproofing process involves
members of several different trades, and
designers must specify the role of each
and define what constitutes proper substrate preparation. (Photo courtesy of
Carlisle Coatings & Waterproofing.)
into contact with sufficient moisture
within the concrete to make the attack
possible. Moist, aggressive gasses tend to
be more destructive.
Alternate wetting and drying can be
harmful to the concrete structure and
can result in destruction due to an alkali-aggressive reaction. This occurs when
the dissolved substances migrate through
the concrete and deposit at or near a
surface where evaporation occurs. The
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SIDING :: SHUTTERS :: ROOFING :: SIDING COMPONENTS :: TOOL SYSTEMS :: EGRESS SYSTEMS :: TRIM :: STONE VENEER
©2011 Headwaters. All rights reserved.
A R C H I T E C T U R A L
www.arwmag.com
2011, Vol. 1 ROOFING
&WATERPROOFING
11
Waterproofing Concrete
{
“Seawater,
perhaps largely
because of its
sulfate content,
may be destructive
to permeable
concretes or
those made with
cement having
high tricalcium
aluminate
content.”
of the soil conducted prior to design of
the waterproofing system. The chemicals present may also be harmful to the
waterproofing barrier. Some of the more
destructive chemicals to concrete are
acid waters, aluminum chloride, aluminum sulfate, ammonia vapors, ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride, ferric
sulfide and ferrous sulfate, which all can
disintegrate concrete and attack the steel.
In addition to chemical attacks from
organic and mineral acids, certain acidcontaining or acid-producing substances
such as industrial wastes, silage, fruit
juices, sour milk, weak base salts and
some untreated waters may also cause
deterioration of concrete. Ammonium
salts and animal wastes can also oxidize and attack the concrete, producing some deterioration. Many agents
attack concrete and destructively alter
its chemical composition by means
of reaction mechanisms that are only
partially or incompletely understood.
Seawater, perhaps largely because of
its sulfate content, may be destructive
to permeable concretes or those made
with cement having high tricalcium aluminate content. The deterioration typically occurs from leaching of dissolving
calcium from the concrete.
Not all chemicals are harmful to
concrete. Among the common neutral
salts that do not attack concrete are
most carbonates and nitrates, some
chlorides, fluorides and silicates. Limewater is usually beneficial to concrete
because it promotes hydration without removal of lime from the concrete.
Other weak alkaline solutions are not
usually harmful. Products derived from
petroleum, when free of fatty oil additives or other potentially acidic materials, are normally harmless to mature
concrete. Some of these materials can
cause undesirable discoloration.
Points of Infiltration
Waterproofing is required at concrete structures to keep moisture out of
the facility and to protect the structural
components of concrete and embedded
reinforcing steel. One obvious problem
is that concrete can crack before and
after hardening, and cracks are susceptible to moisture infiltration. Prior
to hardening, concrete can crack from
construction movement, plastic or drying shrinkage, or from early frost damage. Concrete can crack after hardening
from settlement, seismic forces, vibration, creep, excessive loading or deflection from soil movement.
In addition to being a porous material, concrete is susceptible to moisture
infiltration at a number of locations.
Points of moisture infiltration include
all concrete joints, control joints and
expansion joints. Openings can also
occur at tie rod holes, penetrations
and structural connections. Internal
drains are also entry points for moisture intrusion.
Q Waterproofing is required at belowgrade concrete surfaces to keep moisture
from entering the facility and causing
structural damage to the concrete or
embedded steel. (Photo courtesy of
Carlisle Coatings & Waterproofing.)
12
A R C H I T E C T U R A L
ROOFING
2011, Vol. 1
&WATERPROOFING
www.arwmag.com
Waterproofing Concrete
There is always a debate regarding
positive side versus negative side waterproofing. When considering this decision, one should always remember that
it is the responsibility of waterproofing
to protect the structure. This goal cannot be accomplished with negative side
waterproofing. To be effective, waterproofing should always be applied to the
positive hydrostatic pressure side of the
structure. The installation of any system
on the negative hydrostatic pressure side
is to take the risk of the waterproofing
system being pushed off or disbanded
by moisture infiltrating the concrete in
either vapor or liquid form. Waterproofing of the negative side of the structure
also tends to bring any contaminants
present in the ground moisture into the
concrete mass.
Concrete Surface
Defects
An important factor affecting the performance of waterproofing systems is the
quality of the concrete surface. A smooth
surface essentially free of honeycombs,
depressions, fins, holes, humps, dust,
dirt, oils, and other surface contaminants
is necessary to provide continuous support to the waterproofing material and
good adhesion between the membrane
and the substrate.
Water pressure acting on unsupported material may cause it to extrude,
deform and eventually rupture. Good
adhesion between the concrete surface
and the waterproofing membrane is
also essential to prevent water migration and leakage if there are any openings or imperfections in the membrane
or concrete surface. Form coatings
or release agents and concrete curing
membranes could interfere with the
development of good adhesion and
should be removed prior to the waterproofing application.
The designer should specify proper
substrate preparation in the concrete
division of the specifications. Separate
trades typically complete concrete placement and waterproofing application, and
this can create confusion and cause problems. Opinions can differ on what constitutes proper concrete preparation and
whose responsibility it is to perform any
repairs required before the waterproofing application.
The designer can eliminate these
issues by providing language stating
that concrete placement and repair be
completed in accordance with ASTM
D 5925. This is an excellent reference
guide that contains a list of remediation measures for identifying and repair-
ing fins, bug holes, form kick-outs and
similar surfaces that are unsuitable for
the application of waterproofing. Reference to this standard in the Concrete
Section and Waterproofing Section will
eliminate potential problems during
the project. The designer should also
require that the waterproofing contractor approve the surface in writing prior
to installation.
The Duro-Last® single-ply roofing system
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in the Duro-Last material and/or installation.
Specify the Proven Performer:
the Duro-Last roofing system.
To find out more, call us or visit
www.duro-last.com/specifiers
and request our free brochure.
800-248-0280 • www.duro-last.com
“Duro-Last”, the “World’s Best Roof” and “Proven Performer” are registered marks owned by Duro-Last Roofing, Inc.
A R C H I T E C T U R A L
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2011, Vol. 1 ROOFING
&WATERPROOFING
13
Waterproofing Concrete
Spec i f ic i s sues t hat mu s t be
addressed in the design specifications
include concrete repair af ter form
removal and removal and repair of any
surface defects that occur during construction. Precast concrete is normally
produced in a shop operation. Sharp
offsets between precast sections should
be corrected as indicated for new castin-place concrete. Surface defects,
including tie holes, should be repaired
immediately af ter the forms have
been removed.
All honeycombed and defective concrete areas should be removed down to
sound concrete. If chipping is necessary,
the edges should be perpendicular to the
surface or slightly undercut. No featheredges should be permitted. The area to
be patched and a surrounding band of
approximately 6 inches should be dampened to prevent absorption of water
from the patching mortar. A bonding
grout or bond coat should be prepared
using a mix of approximately one part
cement to one part fine sand that is
mixed to a consistency of a thick cream.
The mix should be evenly brushed into
the surface.
Fins, protrusions or similar irregularities projecting from the concrete
surface should be removed back to the
surface by chipping, hammering or
wire brushing. Care should be exercised to obtain a reasonably planar surface for application of the waterproofing membrane system. Sharp offsets
in the surface, such as those caused
by formwork misalignment, should be
mechanically abraded to provide gradual and smooth transitions between
the offset surfaces. Some waterproofing systems do not require all concrete
surfaces to be within the same plane as
long as the transitions are gradual and
smooth. The waterproofing manufacturer should be contacted for specific
requirements in these cases.
Q Preparation requirements vary by the
type of material and application methods
used. It is important that the manufacturer’s
requirements for substrate preparation
are followed. (Photo courtesy of Carlisle
Coatings & Waterproofing Inc.)
14
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&WATERPROOFING
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Waterproofing Concrete
Tie rod holes should be thoroughly
cleaned out and dampened prior to
complete fill with a proper patching
material.
Concrete Surface
Preparation
An important step toward achieving
adequate bond strength is to pay careful attention to the preparation of the
surfaces that are to receive the waterproofing materials. Proper waterproofing performance depends on good surface preparation. The concrete surface
must not be contaminated by chemicals
that can have an adverse effect on the
adhesion properties of the waterproofing membrane to the concrete surface.
The surfaces must be newly exposed
concrete that is free of loose, weak or
unsound materials. Concrete surfaces
should be generally dry; however, some
waterproofing membrane manufacturers allow the placement of their materials over damp concrete surfaces. The
waterproofing manufacturer should be
contacted for specific requirements in
these cases. Care must be taken to prevent moisture from collecting at the
interface between the concrete and the
waterproofing membrane during curing.
Prior to the application of the waterproofing membrane, testing should be
completed to determine the adequacy
of the surface preparation. The strength
of the prepared concrete, as well as the
ability of the membrane to adhere to the
concrete, is two major items that must
be checked prior to the project inception. The waterproofing manufacturer’s
requirements and requirements of the
American Concrete Institute and ASTM
should be reviewed for recommended
practices in these cases.
Conclusion
Concrete is susceptible to moisture infiltration and waterproofing is
required in sensitive and occupied areas.
This can be attested by the condition of
concrete roads or driveways. The success of the waterproofing system will
rely on proper concrete surface preparation. All concrete surface defects
must be addressed in an acceptable
manner prior to waterproofing application. As an architect, it is best to provide proper concrete surface guidelines
in the initial design. This will eliminate
conflict that can arise between the different trades that are typically involved
in waterproofing applications. This will
lead to success in one of the most difficult to design and highly litigated components of the building. AR&W
John A. D’Annunzio is President of Paragon Consultants, a construction engineering firm he founded in 1989. He is the editorial director of Architectural Roofing &
Waterproofing and a technical columnist
for Roofing Contractor. He has published
more than 100 articles and has written
four books on building exterior issues. For
more information about the company, visit
www.paragonroofingtech.com.
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A R C H I T E C T U R A L
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2011, Vol. 1 ROOFING
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15
Q Milwaukee City Hall
is clad with granite,
sandstone, brick, and
architectural terra
cotta with a slate
mansard roof punctuated by gabled dormers. It was built in
1896. (Photo by Eric
Oxendorf.)
Fighting
FOR
CITY
HALL
Companies Team Up
to Restore Milwaukee
Landmark
by Chris King
W
hen they say
“You can’t fight
city hall,” they
aren’t talking
about Mother
Nature. A nd
she’s been fighting Milwaukee City Hall
for a long time.
Originally constructed in 1896, Milwaukee City Hall was designed by H.C.
Koch in the German Renaissance Revival
style. A registered National Historic Landmark and a Milwaukee icon, the building
is clad with granite, sandstone, brick, and
architectural terra cotta. Its slate mansard
roof features gabled dormers, and a large
skylight in the flat portion of the main
roof floods the eight-story building atrium with natural light. At the south end
of the building, the masonry clock tower
rises to a height of 393 feet, where it is
capped by a copper-clad spire.
16
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Milwaukee Landmark
Moisture infiltration had been a problem since its initial
construction, and by 2001 significant deterioration was evident
in the structure and envelope materials. Damage included corroded steel framing, deteriorated masonry and stained interior
finishes. Furthermore, large loads from the clock gables and the
masonry’s own weight had caused stress cracks to open in the
walls of the South Tower.
Engineering firm Simpson Gumpertz & Heger Inc. (SGH)
was called in to assess the damage in the spring of 2001. SGH,
the historic preservation and building envelope consultants and
structural engineer of record, and Engberg Anderson, the lead
local architect, pored over the results of the damage reports
prepared by SGH, Wiss Janney Elsner of Chicago, and others.
They devised a plan to stabilize and restore the historic structure, and their team was selected by the city to repair City Hall
in 2003. Over the next five years, a team of engineers, architects, roofing contractors and specialized craftsmen worked to
painstakingly restore the building. The goal was to accurately
replicate the damaged elements and ensure the building would
remain watertight for decades to come.
The Game Plan
According to Brent Gabby, Senior Principal at SGH, the
project’s phases included controlled demolition and reconstruction of the South Tower masonry above the 12th floor; repairs
to corroded steel truss elements; rehabilitation of deteriorated
brick and terra cotta elements; restoration of the existing windows; installation of the waterproofing materials at windows,
walls, dormers and gutters, and restoration of the existing slate,
copper, and membrane roofs.
Gabby noted there had been several attempts to remedy
these problems in the past. “According to historic records
with the city, the building underwent a major restoration
program about every 25 years since original construction to
try to remediate cracking and water infiltration,” he said.
“The earliest documentation of repairs that we found was
dated 1909.”
SGH was able to identify the structure’s problems through
interior and exterior observations, openings in exterior walls,
water testing to determine leak sources, and building movements to confirm the results of the finite element analysis of
the South Tower. “Using vibrating wire strain gages and thermal couples, we recorded field data for a year and downloaded
this information remotely from our office in Waltham, Massachusetts, via cellular phones,” said Gabby. “In this fashion, we
were able to monitor building movement and cracking daily.”
Even with the detailed damage reports, team members
could not be sure exactly what they would find when demolition began, according to Engberg Anderson project architects
Kevin Donahue and Daniel Kabara.
“We believed we had a good handle on the work, but despite
all of the exploratory openings, we knew other things would be
found,” Kabara said. “Given the rate of continued deterioration,
by the time construction started, conditions would be worse
than at the time of assessment.”
Q Industrial rope access techniques were used to inspect cracks,
material deterioration and install remote sensing devices. (Photo
courtesy of Simpson Gumpertz & Heger Inc.)
As the project began, the team had to envision several possible solutions to various problems depending on the actual
conditions. “Because there was limited access to the building,
a lot of solutions were set up as proposed solutions,” Donahue
said. “We knew we’d be tweaking the solutions in the field.”
Full access to the building wasn’t possible until the scaffolding was completed. The scaffolding itself was a huge task. “Pipe
staging could only rise up to the 12th floor because of height
restrictions,” said Gabby. “Above this level at the South Tower,
pipe scaffolding was primarily supported on temporary deep
girders that cantilevered beyond the exterior face of the tower
at the belfry level.”
The site itself posed other challenges. Milwaukee City Hall
is a fully functioning governmental building that had to stay
open throughout the course of the project.
Tunnels and walkways protected pedestrians and kept foot
traffic flowing. Sidewalks that ran above hollow vaults had to
be shored up from below. The busy streets that ran alongside
the building could only be closed for brief periods.
Everyone involved noted that safety was the top priority. “The
one thing everyone agreed on at all times on the project is that safety comes first,” Donahue said. “You have to know what’s around
A R C H I T E C T U R A L
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2011, Vol. 1 ROOFING
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17
Milwaukee Landmark
Q LEFT: At the south end of the building, the masonry and steel-framed clock tower rises to a height of 393 feet and is capped by a copperclad spire supported on steel trusses. RIGHT: This view of the Milwaukee City Hall South Tower shows the terra cotta lion heads below the
clock face. (Photos by Eric Oxendorf.)
you and what’s going on, because there are
no little accidents that high in the air.”
A Lot of Terra Cotta
The first step after the scaffolding was
set up was to document the building’s
external features so it could be put back
together properly. “Before we began demolition, one important thing was to remove
a sample set of decorative elements so they
could be reproduced,” Kabara said.
The building was taken apart piece by
piece. Terra cotta elements were shipped
to California to be reproduced by Gladding
McBean and Co. The replacements for
the larger-than-life terra cotta lion heads
weighed in at roughly 900 pounds each.
“It was originally built in 1893 without scaffolding,” said Donahue. “It was
built from the inside out. The terra cotta
was built into the walls — a 2-foot-by-3foot-by-2-foot hollow section was placed
in the brick and bricked in. In many of
18
the repairs, we didn’t have the luxury of
removing material that held it in place.
You had to develop methods for securing that piece that we couldn’t predict
in advance.”
Shop drawings were produced to
cover proposed methods of attachment,
including hooks that tied into the brick
and clamps that held the terra cotta in
place. Some elements, like a terra cotta
lintel, were pre-assembled on the ground
and hoisted into place.
Before that took place, the South
Tower had to be shored up. “For the
most part, cracking of the South Tower
was due to the geometry of the tower
and its own dead weight, which resulted
in high-tensile stresses above flat arches
and semi-circular arches,” said Gabby. To
give the tower increased tensile capacity, a reinforced concrete ring beam was
installed at the 13th floor. Precast concrete backup with masonry veneer was
installed in lieu of solid masonry to lighten the dead load of the large clock gables.
“Rubberized asphalt peel-and-stick
membrane was installed over backup
masonry or concrete with lead-coated
copper flashings at strategic locations
throughout the walls to drain water to
the exterior,” said Gabby.
Restoring the
Roof Systems
Ornate copper elements topping the
towers were removed individually, and
many had to be recreated by Heather
& Little, Ltd., Markham, Ontario. The
South Tower posed an additional challenge, as it sustained significant damage
in 1929 when lightning struck it, causing
a fire. “It was burned back to its structural steel,” Donahue said. “It was repaired,
but they simplified and excluded a number of details. As a result, we knew where
stuff went — we had original building
A R C H I T E C T U R A L
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Milwaukee Landmark
Water Management
Water intrusion had taken an obvious toll on the building throughout its more than 100 years of
service, and a key goal of the restoration project was to minimize such problems in the future.
“From a design perspective, the biggest challenge was improving the water management characteristics of the walls by converting the mass masonry walls to cavity walls where we could
and adding a backup waterproofing membrane and flashings, while still maintaining the original aesthetic,” said Brent Gabby, Senior Principal of Simpson Gumpertz & Heger Inc. (SGH).
BRENT GABBY
“Another challenge was coordinating shop drawings between different trades and similarly
integrating different systems in the field to maintain waterproofing continuity.”
“The design incorporated new metal flashings at areas such as over new relieving angles and beneath curving terra cotta at dormers,” Gabby said. “By locating new relieving angles at steps in the masonry veneer, the
flashing drip edge was typically hidden in a shadow line and difficult to detect.”
Built-in gutters above the 7th floor of the main building were first covered with peel-and-stick rubberized
asphalt membrane, and then fully lined with lead-coated copper over rosin paper. “Thirty-two ounce copper
was installed due to the relatively long distance between expansion joints (which was dictated by building
geometry) and the location of existing down leaders,” Gabby said. “Other than expansion joints, all metal
flashing joints (at changes in profile and between adjoining pieces of flashing) were fully riveted and soldered
watertight. Expansion joints were made watertight by stripping-in the joints with EPDM membrane (flashing
laps did not rely on sealant for watertightness).”
drawings — but we had to study historical photos to get all of the details right.”
A mix of 24-ounce and 32-ounce copper was used on the tower. “It’s heavier than you would normally see,” said
Donahue. “It’s 300 to 400 feet up, on
a lakefront in the upper Midwest with
snow, high winds, driving rain and hail.”
“The previous roof was torn to shreds,”
said Kabara. “The copper had gaping
holes in it. Granted, it was some 70 years
old, but it was greatly deteriorated. Over
the years it had let a lot of water in.”
Some of the steel beneath the copper
sheathing was not only deteriorated — it
had been eaten away completely. “Some
of the steel was 100 percent gone,” Kabara said. “Some of the main beams supporting the structure were gone.”
The copper work was expertly handled by F.J.A. Christiansen Roofing
of Milwaukee.
A crane could not be used, and heavy
copper pieces had to be handled with
care. “Workers had to carry pieces up by
hand,” said Kabara. “The most dramatic
one is the 36-inch sphere that was carried up a ladder by hand and put in place
on the 40-foot flagpole atop the spire.”
For the flat roofs, an SBS modified bitumen was chosen to replace the existing
BUR and EPDM roofs, which were torn
off, exposing the clay book tile under-
Q Workers survey the outside walls of the South Tower. (Photo courtesy of Simpson
Gumpertz & Heger Inc.)
neath. Work on the low-slope roofs was
handled by F.J.A. Christiansen and Roberts Roofing & Siding Inc. of Milwaukee,
while the slate mansard roof was restored
by Pennebaker Enterprises of Milwaukee. The job was completed on time and
on budget, and the project has garnered
some 13 local and national awards.
“One of the important factors on this
job was really understanding the historic
methods and materials and working with
them, rather than just superimposing
modern materials,” said Donahue. “We
relied on traditional methods of construction and careful integration of flashings
and water management. We had to develop a restoration strategy at the beginning of the project. We weren’t going to
rebuild the building, but restore it.”
“They say you can’t build them like
you used to,” Kabara said. “But you can
build them like they used to if you have
the skills — or develop them. That’s what
happened here. The craftsmen really took
ownership of the project.” AR&W
Chris King is editor of Roofing Contractor and Architectural Roofing & Waterproofing magazines. He can be reached at
248-244-6497 or [email protected]
A R C H I T E C T U R A L
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2011, Vol. 1 ROOFING
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19
Rooftop
Vegetable
Gardens
Provide New
Opportunities
in Urban
Environments
by Anna Suardini, ASLA, GRP
A
s the demand for
locally grown produce
increases, urban communities are becoming
more and more creative
in finding ways to meet
that demand. Urban agriculture can be
as simple as windowsill herb gardens
or as vast and vibrant as large community gardens that encompass entire city
blocks. The acres of unused building
rooftops in these areas present the perfect environment to contribute substantially to the volume of locally grown produce in urban communities.
Gary Comer Youth
Center, Chicago
Not only do urban rooftops provide the
space, sunlight and fresh air plants need
to thrive, but in especially challenged
neighborhoods they also provide a safe
space for community members to interact
with nature. At the Gary Comer Youth
Center on Chicago’s South Side, students
cultivate and maintain an 8,600-squarefoot rooftop vegetable garden. The garden
is part of a comprehensive “seed-to-table”
20
program where participants ages 13-18
not only plant and harvest everything
from cucumbers to popcorn to potatoes
in the 18-24 inches of engineered lightweight soil on the roof, but they also take
part in culinary classes where they learn
to prepare fresh and nutritious meals
with the produce they’ve grown.
Under the direction of garden manager Marji Hess, the GCYC rooftop pro-
A R C H I T E C T U R A L
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&WATERPROOFING
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Room to Grow
Q Low-income residents and children
plant and maintain a 3,800-squarefoot vegetable garden at the Louisville Scholar House. (Photo courtesy
of American Hydrotech, Inc.)
duced more than 1,000 pounds of food
last year alone. Whatever produce the
students don’t use themselves is sold at a
farmer’s market and to several prominent
restaurants all over the city.
“The rooftop garden is both an oasis
from urban stress and also a stepping
stone to future careers,” said Hess.
“The rooftop really shows the sky is
the limit when youth and gardening are
brought together.”
Scholar House,
Louisville
Rooftop vegetable gardens have
great potential as educational
opportunities. A similar program
on a slightly smaller scale exists on
the roof of the Scholar House in
Louisville, Ky. The Scholar House
provides housing for low-income
single parents and children while
the parents pursue degrees from
Q The Gary Comer Youth Center
on Chicago’s South Side features a
rooftop vegetable garden covering
8,600 square feet. (Photo courtesy of
American Hydrotech, Inc.)
local colleges and universities. Part of
the adjacent child development center is an accessible rooftop where residents and children plant and maintain a
3,800-square-foot vegetable garden.
“Our children have eaten many vegetables that they had not even seen
before,” said Cathe Dykstra, president
and chief executive officer of Family
Scholar House, the parent organization
of the Louisville Scholar House. “They
tried them because they grew them and
cooked them with their parent. Our
programs are about learning new things
to break the cycle of poverty. Nutrition
and environmentally-friendly living are
integral to the future for our families
and our community.”
Garden Roof Assembly
Both projects utilize A merican
Hydrotech’s Garden Roof Assembly,
which starts with a hot rubberized
asphalt waterproofing membrane, and
includes insulation, drainage /water
retention components and soil. The
soil is specially engineered for a lighter
weight and optimum drainage, which
allows it to be installed on a roof where
weight can be a concern. This creates
a gardening experience almost indistinguishable from one at ground level.
Unlike a container garden, this type of
built up assembly allows nutrients and
water to be shared across the roof and
provides plenty of room both horizontally and vertically for the plants’ roots
to spread and grow.
Rooftop vegetable gardens allow for
the distance from the source of food to
the table to be measured in feet instead
of miles. This increases the nutritional quality of food and provides new
opportunities for an urban population
that often has limited access to fresh,
high-quality produce. As the local
food and urban agriculture movements
gain momentum, urban rooftops will
become an integral part of the way we
feed our cities. AR&W
Anna Suardini, ASLA, GRP, is the Garden Roof Technical Sales Coordinator
for American Hydrotech, Inc. She can be
reached at 312-337-4998 or [email protected]
hydrotechusa.com.
A R C H I T E C T U R A L
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2011, Vol. 1 ROOFING
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21
by Mark J. Frisch,
AIA, LEED AP
New FedEx
Cargo Facility
Has a Massive
Green Roof
T
he new FedEx Cargo
Facilit
F ili y at O’Hare
O’H
Airport in Chicago is
an impressive design
response to the sustainable vision promoted by the City of Chicago’s O’Hare
Modernization Program (OMP). The
363,320 -gross-square-foot development includes four buildings, the World
Service Center (WSC)/administration
building, aircraft maintenance building,
vehicle maintenance building and sort
building. A 300-foot pedestrian bridge
connects the WSC with the sort building, which contains the material handling systems and support spaces.
But what’s most interesting about
project is that it features the largest continuous vegetated roof at any airport in
the world, totaling 174,442 square feet.
Located next to an active runway,
the project would have to meet the
challenging demands of an airport
environment. The design team sought
a roofing system that would be wind
resistant and leak proof, fall under a
unified warranty (covering water tight-
22
Q The FedEx Cargo Facility at O’Hare Airport in Chicago features the largest continuous
vegetated roof at any airport in the world. It totals 174,442 square feet. (Image courtesy of
Xero Flor America, LLC.)
ness, success of plants, and overburden
removal and replacement), and allow
for easy identification and quick repair
so that FedEx operations would never
be compromised.
The green roof system chosen was a
Sarnafil PVC (thermoplastic) roof membrane with XeroFlor Vegetated Mat. The
waterproof membrane layer was designed
for Factory Mutual (FM) 1-35 data
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Room
Ro
oom to Grow
G
Q LEFT: This cross-section
shows the components
of the roofing system.
BELOW: This rendering of
the site shows its proximity
to the runways.
Green Roof on the
FedEx Cargo Facility
SIZE
174,442 square feet
LOCATION
Chicago
GREEN ROOF TYPE
Extensive
COMPLETED
2010
OWNER
O’Hare Modernization Program, the City of
Chicago
TENANT
FedEx
ARCHITECT
Solomon Cordwell Buenz (SCB)
GENERAL CONTRACTOR
Power Construction Company and Ujamaa
Construction (a project-specific joint venture)
GREEN ROOF CONSULTANT AND
INSTALLATION
Intrinsic Landscaping, Inc.
ROOF CONTRACTOR
All American Exterior Solutions
GREEN ROOF MANUFACTURER
Green Roof Solutions
WATERPROOFING ROOF MEMBRANE
Sika Sarnafl
LANDSCAPE ARCHITECT
Site Design Group
VEGETATION MAT
Xero Flor America, Xero Flor XF301
GREEN ROOF SYSTEM
BASE ASSEMBLY
Green Roof Solutions Terra Roof
Additional information was provided by
www.greenroofs.com.
sheet standards, with FM tested 1-60
adhered roofing assembly and an integrated conductive layer for electronic
leak detection. The membrane is fully
recyclable at the end of its life. The
vegetated mat layer was rolled out for
quick installation, thereby satisfying
stringent technical standards specifying
high early resistance to windborne debris;
there could be no risk of materials blowing off the roof and onto nearby runways.
Without trays, the vegetated layer was
quickly fixed to restraints, providing an
instantly robust layer that would grow out
and around patented anchors and disks.
An experienced team of green roofing
and roof membrane specialists provided
technical support, while innovative contractors detailed, fabricated, installed
and tested the roof system. Challenging
the installation included the use of the
roof as a staging area during construction
and the demands of Chicago’s unforgiving winters. The green roofs of the
25,000-square-foot vehicle maintenance
facility and 24,000-square-foot WSC
were completed in one day, and the
green roof of the 300,000-square-foot
sort building was finished in just 17 days.
The entire green roof is comprised of
3.9 acres of cultivated pre-vegetated mat
with restraint anchors and more than
2,200 cubic yards of growing media plus
3.1 miles of aluminum edge treatment.
The largest continuous roof area is the
724 feet by 224 feet over the sort facility. The entire roof is estimated to have
a saturated weight of 4.3 million pounds
and to retain 2 million gallons of storm
water annually. It also meets the OMP’s
sustainability goals to reduce the urban
heat island effect. Since its completion
in summer 2010, the roof has withstood
two severe wind events with no damage.
While adding to the sustainability of
one of the nation’s busiest airports, the
massive green roof beautifies a large and
prominent facility by providing a seasonal
display of native foliage year round. AR&W
Mark J. Frisch, AIA, LEED AP, is a principal at Solomon Cordwell Buenz, an architecture, interiors, and planning firm headquartered in Chicago, with offices in San Francisco and Abu Dhabi. As principal in charge
of technical design, Frisch leads initiatives in
innovative materials, systems and sustainability. He consults internationally on LEED
certification and emerging design technologies
that utilize alternative energy solutions. He is
a LEAF Award winner for Best Use of Technology, and winner of the U.S. Department
of Energy’s Sun Wall Design Competition.
A R C H I T E C T U R A L
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2011, Vol. 1 ROOFING
&WATERPROOFING
23
WHITE
ELASTOMERIC
ROOF
COATINGS
M
by George Daisey
Understanding the
Technology That
Drives Innovation
ost people have heard the terms acrylic, polymer, elastomeric and ref lective. Some terms may seem obvious while others may or may not be
understood at all. All polymers are
not acrylic, and all acrylics are not
appropriate for all applications. In terms of polymers for
elastomeric reflective roof coatings, this article will focus
only on acrylic polymer technologies.
Acrylic polymers can be designed to be tough and hard,
flexible and soft, or at various compositions in-between. Perhaps one the hardest acrylic polymer-based products would
be Plexiglas™, an extremely durable polymer composition.
Though most forms of Plexiglas are clear, most acrylics are
mixed with other materials to create products in thousands
of colors for plastics, paints, adhesives, caulks, and other
functional coatings.
Acrylic Polymers
The term acrylic often refers to a polymer that is made
of two or more acrylic monomers. Figure 1 contains a list
of some of the more common monomers used for coatings
and paints.
The first four monomers whose names end with “acrylate”
are acrylic monomers. The last two monomers are not acrylic.
It is quite common among polymer suppliers to refer to certain
polymers as BA/MMA or some other acronym to describe the
basic combination of monomers for that product. Though in
a simplistic way it is easy to understand that blending hard
monomers (high Tg) with softer monomers (low Tg) can lead
24
Q Acrylic elastomeric roof coatings are liquid-applied, seamless,
fully adhered membranes that are formed in situ on the roof.
Some installations are coating-only, while others combine a
variety of fabric designs into the coating matrix, literally creating
a membrane on the roof. (Photo courtesy of Dow Roofing Systems
and the Reflective Roof Coatings Institute.)
to a near infinite combination of monomers resulting in many
unique products. Couple this knowledge with additional components and additives used by polymer suppliers which are
proprietary and never disclosed, the variety of products that
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MONOMER
ACRONYM
Tg, °C
Methylmethacrylate
MMA
+105
Ethylacrylate
EA
-22
Butylacrylate
BA
-54
2-Ethylhexylacrylate
2-EHA
-85
Styrene
STY
+100
Vinylacetate
VA
+29
Q FIGURE 1 Common Monomers. Note: Tg is an abbreviation for Glass Transition Temperature. The term is commonly used to
describe the “hardness” of an acrylic polymer.
can be produced increases significantly.
Figure 2 shows a simple illustration of
where many product types fall along the
Tg scale.
Tg — an abbreviation for Glass Transition Temperature — is a term commonly used to describe the “hardness”
of an acrylic polymer. If the ratio of hard
and soft monomers contains mostly the
hard monomer, then the Tg of the final
polymer will be higher. Conversely, if
there is more of the soft monomer than
hard monomer, then the Tg will be
lower. Figure 3 shows a generic Tg curve.
The curve illustrates that if the temperature of the polymer is colder than the
reported Tg, then the polymer will be
glassy and brittle. If the temperature of
the polymer is above the reported Tg,
then the polymer will be rubbery and
elastic. Products that need to be rubbery and elastic under cold conditions
will usually have very low Tg, sometimes
as low as -45°C.
The important thing to remember
about acrylic polymers is that they can
be used for a variety of applications
but you need to have the proper acrylic
technology for the right job. For example, acrylic polymers used for making
floor polish or house paint would both
make very poor choices for an elastomeric roof coating.
Acrylic Elastomeric
Reflective Roof Coatings
Acrylic polymers have now been specifically designed for roofing applica-
tions. Back in the 1980s and even into
the 1990s, mistakes were made when
house paints were applied on roofs. The
results were disastrous because these
house paints were much too brittle.
Others tried to use caulk and sealant
technology to make elastomeric roof
coatings, thinking that because they are
“soft” they will work. The properties
needed for a roof coating far exceed just
whether the coating is harder or softer.
Expectedly, using caulks or adhesives
as a roof coating also met with abysmal
failure. Today the technical requirements for a successful roof coating are
fully understood and in most cases the
proper acrylic polymer is used for the
proper end use.
Acrylic elastomeric roof coatings are
liquid-applied, seamless, fully adhered
membranes that are formed in situ on
the roof. These coatings are applied 6 to
8 times thicker than house paint. Typically, the thickness of exterior house
paint is 3 dry mils, or 0.003 inches. For
elastomeric roofing applications, the
application rate is typically 18 to 20
dry mils minimum, with higher quality installations being applied at 30 dry
mils or more. Some installations are
coating-only; while others will combine
a variety of fabric designs into the coating matrix, literally creating a membrane on the roof. Competing products
known as single-ply membranes are created in a factory, and then applied to a
roof. For example, products like PVC,
EPDM or TPO are often supplied in
sheets 45 mils or thicker. Unlike these
single-ply materials, the acrylic roof
coating has no seams. Additionally,
it is also fully adhered; not requiring
mechanical fasteners or adhesives as do
single-ply membranes.
Brightness and
Reflectivity
Most acrylic elastomeric roof coatings are white or near-white in color.
The whiteness of the coating provides
two very important features. First it
reduces the temperature of the roof
surface and more importantly to the
membrane to which it is applied. This
reduced temperature coupled with the
UV blocking properties of the coating
reduces the rate of degradation and
deterioration of the underlying roofing membrane. Second, the white color
reflects as much as 95 percent of the
heat portion of the sunlight, reducing
the heat transferred into the building
and thus reducing the air conditioning
costs for that building.
For most industrial applications,
white acrylic elastomeric roof coatings
are the perfect choice because most of
these buildings have horizontal, or flat,
roofs. The high brightness and reflectivity of the coatings is ideal for reflecting
the sun’s energy back into outer space.
For residential applications, however,
most structures have sloped roofs and
the high brightness of the coating would
be undesirable. For this reason, residential roof coatings are usually tinted to a
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Elastomeric Roof Coatings
Textiles, Non-woven Fabric
Adhesive
Paper
Caulk
Industrial
Architectural Coating
Floor Polishes
Increasing Glass Transition Temperature
“Soft”
“Medium”
“Hard”
Q FIGURE 2 Products and Tg. Note: Tg is an abbreviation for Glass Transition Temperature. The term is commonly used to
describe the “hardness” of an acrylic polymer.
{
“The key
property required
of any roof
coating material is
durability. Acrylic
technology is
widely used in
exterior coating
applications
because of its
durability.”
26
medium to deep tone color and are rarely elastomeric technology.
properties as needed to maintain cool
roof performance.
Be Flexible
Durability Requirements
A roof is not a static structure,
meaning that a roof is constantly
expanding and contracting with temperature and humidity f luctuations,
seismic expansion, the weight of snow
and rain loads, wind uplift and even
vibrations of the building. The roof
coating must also tolerate resistance to
foot traffic and even dropping of tools
and equipment on the coating. Remember there are many types of equipment
that can be located on a roof, including
HVAC units, cooling towers, satellite
dish antennas; ventilation and cooling
ducts, and so on.
Flexibility does not just mean being
stretchy. Bubble gum is stretchy but
quite inappropriate as a roof coating.
The point is that other elastomeric type
products might be flexible, but totally
inappropriate for roofing applications.
Caulks, sealants, adhesives, and even
elastomeric wall coatings would be completely inappropriate for use as a roof
coating. This is because these products
are not designed to have the resistance
to standing water or impact, and would
not be able to retain solar reflectivity
The key property required of any roof
coating material is durability. Acrylic
technology is widely used in exterior
coating applications because of its durability. Durability implies resistance to
the effects of ultraviolet radiation (UV)
degradation from the sun. Acrylic polymers are transparent to UV which means
they do not absorb this most destructive
part of the sun’s radiation. The white pigments in an elastomeric coating reflect a
majority of the visible and infrared wavelengths of sunlight but they do absorb
some of the UV component of sunlight,
which is about five percent of that spectrum. Fortunately, the acrylic polymer is
not contributing to the absorption of any
of the UV radiation. This gives an acrylic
elastomeric roof coating a stark advantage over other polymers. For example,
asphalt absorbs some of the radiation,
and the asphalt begins to vibrate, and
break up into smaller pieces. This is the
degradation that is associated with the
harmful effects of sunlight. This can
be seen readily in aged asphalt roofing.
Usually within six months, there’s a
brown chalky residue on the surface of
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Elastomeric Roof Coatings
an asphalt-based coating. This is the result of ultraviolet degradation from the sun.
When that same acrylic polymer is formulated into a roof
coating and the UV transmission is measured, there is no transmission. This is because the pigments are either reflecting the
sun’s energy or absorbing it, effectively protecting the roof substrate beneath.
Reduced Energy Costs
Reflectivity and dirt pickup resistance are key properties for an elastomeric roof coating. Many utilities now offer
energy rebates for installations of reflective roof systems.
The longer the coating stays white, the longer the reflectivity is maximized. An infrared thermometer is an easy way
to measure the surface temperature of a roof. For scientific
experiments, sophisticated IR thermometers are used; but
for showing simple temperature comparisons between a white
and dark roof, any inexpensive IR thermometer is a great way
to quickly demonstrate the cooling effects of a white reflective roof coating.
Figure 4 shows the surface temperature measured as a function of the time of day of a black roofing shingle versus the
same type of shingle coated with a white acrylic elastomeric
roof coating. The vertical axis is temperature; the horizontal
axis is the time of day. The surface temperature was measured
using the infrared thermometer. The maximum air temperature reached during this day was 90°F. The black asphalt
shingle reached a maximum temperature of 160°F. This same
black asphalt shingle coated with 100 percent acrylic elastomeric coating never reached 100°F. This shows the benefits of
reflectivity as the white elastomeric acrylic coating protects
the asphalt roofing material and keeps it cooler.
But the story is not over; there is a second benefit here. Consider a warm August afternoon where sudden, quick moving
thunder showers are the norm. It’s 3:30 in the afternoon and
that black asphalt shingle has a surface temperature of 160°F,
then a thunder shower occurs. The temperature of the shingle
drops from 160° to 80°F in 15 minutes. The white coating’s
temperature drops from 90°F to 80°F in 15 minutes. The black
shingle experiences considerably more thermal shock; with an
80°F temperature drop versus a 10°F drop. The black single is
undergoing a lot more stress, a lot more strain, more expansion
and contraction, as a result of these temperature fluctuations.
The thermal stress will shorten the life of a black roof.
that releases water to quench the flames. One common ingredient proven for decades is Aluminum Trihydrate (ATH). Formulating ATH into an ERC is very easy and cost competitive
versus other technologies. Second, additives that release halogens work like a halogen fire extinguisher, releasing components that smother the fire. There are many materials based on
halogenated chemistries that can be formulated into an ERC
to deliver this performance. Lastly, additives can be used to
create a char layer as the coating is burned. These coatings are
commonly referred to as intumescent coatings. The char layer
is created as the coating burns; the coating literally expands,
creating a charred, physical barrier to the flame.
Limitations of Acrylic Elastomeric
Roof Coatings
There are limitations to an ERC. These coatings can provide
some restoration to an aged roof. However, if the roof is too
badly deteriorated or the deck is rotted or badly corroded, coating will not return the roof to a useful service life. An ERC is
meant to extend the life of a roof, not repair it.
Acrylic ERC cannot be applied in the rain or when precipitation is imminent. Acrylic ERCs are applied at rates 10
times thicker than house paint and it will take longer to dry. If
the relative humidity is extremely high, say over 90 percent, it
will take an extremely long time to dry. New technologies are
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Fire Retardancy
Another benefit of acrylic elastomeric roof coatings is in
the area of fire retardancy. Many roofing systems require an
Underwriter’s Laboratory class A rating which can be confirmed according to a standard specification UL790. Acrylic
Elastomeric Roof Coatings can be formulated with fire retardant pigments to reduce the burning effects on the roofing
system. There are three basic ways to stop flame propagation
across or into a roof. First, the ERC can contain a component
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Elastomeric Roof Coatings
Effect of Temperature on Resistance to Deformation
Stiffness
Glassy, brittle
Glass Temperature, Tg
Effect of
crosslinking
Rubbery, elastic
Temperature
Q FIGURE 3 Generic Tg Curve
Conclusions
Effect of White Roof Mastic on Surface Temperature
150º
140º
Black Uncoated
Shingles
Temp (ºF)
130º
120º
White Mastic
Coated Shingles
110º
100º
90º
80º
Air Temp.
70º
60º
8:30
9:30
10:30
11:30
12:30
Time
1:30
2:30
3:30
4:30
Q FIGURE 4 The Effect of White Roof Mastic on Surface Temperatures
emerging which give significantly faster
resistance to rain after the coating is
applied; but acrylic ERCs are waterborne, so application during rain is not
possible. No ERC should be applied in
the rain or over wet conditions.
Acrylic ERC coatings should not be
applied when it is extremely cold. Water
freezes, so there are limitations as to
the time of year when you can apply
the coating. The contractor needs to be
conscientious about what the overnight
temperature is. It might be warm during
the day. But if the evening temperature
28
may be dirty or may have a powdery
degraded roofing material on it or a new
roof membrane may have mica or talc
dusting on the surface. These powdery
materials prevent the roof coating from
achieving acceptable adhesion to the
roof membrane substrate. Simply stated, the roof must be properly cleaned,
usually with detergent and a pressure
washer, to achieve a clean substrate
suitable for coating. Just as house paint
would not be applied to chipped or peeling surfaces or mold spores, an elastomeric roof coating would not be applied
to a substrate that wasn’t mechanically
sound and free of debris, dirt, and powdery degraded roof substrate.
is going to drop to the mid-20s, there
may be a serious problem with freezing
of the coating. Further, it is not just the
air temperature, but the temperature of
the surface to be coated that’s important.
Commonly, acrylic ERCs are applied
when air temperatures are at a minimum
of 50°F and rising.
Another important consideration for
the successful application of these elastomeric roof coatings is that the adhesion of the coating is only as good as
how mechanically sound the substrate
is. An aged roof membrane surface
• Acrylic coatings provide extended
durability. They can be applied over
most types of roofing systems and they
will dramatically enhance the life of
those roofs. They can be applied initially,
to a new roof, and they can be applied
somewhere later during the life of the
existing roof.
• They reduce the energy costs. A
white acrylic roof coating applied over
a smooth surface built-up roof reduces
the energy costs, saves money, and also
extends the life of that roof.
• Acrylic coatings can lower the roof
life-cycle costs by making the roof last
longer, and can extend the date that the
roof will be replaced.
• From an aesthetic standpoint,
these acrylic coatings can be supplied
as white for ref lectivity, and earth
tone colors to compliment the building
architecture. AR&W
George Daisey is a Manager of Sales and Technical Service in the Dow
Constr uction Chemicals business unit at The
Dow Chemical Company
(www.dow.com). The
Dow Chemical Company
is a member of the Reflective Roof Coatings Institute (RRCI), and the author is
currently a member of the RRCI Technical Committee. For more information
about the RCCI, visit www.therrci.org.
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FORM &
by Kate Gawlik
“I
Scalloped Metal Tile Roof Ties
Together the Elements of the
Station at Potomac Yard
FUNCTION
t is the pervading law of all things organic and
inorganic, of all things physical and metaphysical, of all things human and all things superhuman, of all true manifestations of the head, of
the heart, of the soul, that the life is recognizable
in its expression, that form ever follows function. This is the law.”
So said renowned architect Louis Sullivan. From his mind, a
new age of architecture was born — one that still exists today,
in which a building’s function must dictate its form.
The Station at Potomac Yard, Alexandria, Va., tested Sullivan’s theory because of its unique functions. The project is the
first known building in the United States that combines a fire
station, affordable housing and retail.
“Accommodating such different functions engendered many
challenges, starting with schematic design and continuing up
to the point of occupancy,” said John Rust, AIA, of Rust Orling
Architecture, Alexandria.
Rust Orling Architecture, which served as associate architect of the project, focused on the exterior design and was
Q ABOVE: The 169,000-square-foot structure occupies an
entire city block and cost approximately $29 million to build.
RIGHT: The south elevation, shown in this rendering, is the residential entry. It features a masonry gable, a two-story gallery
and a series of corbelled arches. (Photo and Graphic courtesy
of Rust Orling Architecture.)
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Form & Function
Q LEFT: The scalloped metal tile roof
from ATAS International ties the various
elements of the building together. RIGHT:
The five bays of the fire station are seen
on the east elevation. A residential terrace
is located above the fire bays. (Photos
courtesy of Rust Orling Architecture.)
joined by a team of experts to create
this innovative mixed-use structure.
Others involved included: developer,
Alexandria-based Potomac Yard Development LLC (PYD), a joint venture
of national home builders Pulte and
Centex; the city of Alexandria; architect of record, LeMay Erickson Wilcox
Architects, Reston, Va.; general contractor, Whiting Turner Contracting
Co., Baltimore; roofing contractor, Prospect Waterproofing Co., Sterling, Va.;
and roofing distributor, Bradco Supply
Corp., Lorton, Va.
In 2004, PYD and its architectural
team began the design phase of a mixeduse space on a former rail yard. Initial
plans posed a major problem for the city,
however — the key question was how
to get emergency equipment to the residential and retail spaces within the optimal response time. This problem was
resolved by adding a bit more land to the
initial design and incorporating the fire
station into the building.
“Ultimately PYD provided just over
1 acre of land, as well as $ 6.6 million, toward the cost of developing
and building Station 209,” explained
Jeremy McPike, PMP, LEED AP, the
deputy director of the department of
30
general services for the city of Alexandria. “The city chose to maximize the
donation of land by leveraging air rights
above the station for affordable housing. Through the community process, a
component of workforce rental housing
was also added.”
With the addition of the fire station
and varied residential units, the team
had many different issues to address.
This was the first fire station to be
built in Alexandria in 30 years, and the
designers wanted the station to make a
statement. Rust added that the building scale and materials identify it as an
important civic building. Also, they
wanted each unit — retail, residential
and fire station — to have its own identity within a larger design scheme. In
addition, doing all of this in a sustainable fashion was important.
An energy-efficient element that
ties everything together is the roof — a
metal roof from ATAS International
Inc., Allentown, Pa. “The design team
selected ScanRoof, a scalloped metal
tile system,” explained Jim Bush, vice
president of sales for ATAS. “The roof
obviously adds to the aesthetics of the
building — joining the many elements
with a unifying architectural style — but
it also contributes to the sustainability
of the structure.”
The Elements
Overall, the project occupies an entire
street block. It is about 169,000 square
feet with two levels of underground
parking occupying 62,000 square feet; a
five-bay firehouse that is 24,800 square
feet; 1,400 square feet of retail space;
and four floors of residential living space
at 80,607 square feet. From the bottom
up, the building has: two levels of underground parking; a first floor that includes
the fire station, community room and
retail space; and four stories of apartments above. The second floor includes
a residential terrace over the fire bays.
Construction took place from December 2007 to August 2009 with a cost of
approximately $29 million.
The design team didn’t want passersby — or occupants — to scratch their
heads wondering how to access the different elements, so they came up with
a way to designate them. “The primary
design challenge was to give each function an identity that would provide
clarity for disparate groups of occupants,” Rust said. “The solution was to
place the entrance to each major activity on a different façade. This allowed
building elements and architectural
details to be appropriate to the scale of
the various functions.”
The east elevation is designated as the
fire station entrance, obviously identifiable by the five-bay entrance. The south
elevation is the residential entry, which
is identified by a masonry gable, a twostory gallery and a series of corbelled
arches. The four-story residential component includes 44 long-term affordable
rental units, as well as 20 apartments
with rents affordable for city workers.
The retail spaces can be accessed from
the southwest corner. The retail sections
design is different than other aspects
of the building, in order to further dis-
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Form & Function
tinguish the different spaces. Also, the
design team wanted the retail space to
have a historic look, suggesting that the
building had expanded and evolved from
its original retail space.
With different entrances, distinctive
looks and unique designs, how is the Station held together as a unified force? The
roof, of course. A ScanRoof (SCP163) in
Mission Red was selected from ATAS.
The roof is a 24-gauge steel scalloped tile
system that has a Spanish flair.
“A tile roof is appropriate to the historic and architectural style being referenced,” Rust noted.
ScanRoof is installed horizontally,
from eave to ridge, on an open frame
system or solid deck. The panels are
structural, practical and economically
efficient for any project. With their
weather-resistance characteristics and
wind-uplift ratings, the panels are ideal
to stand up against Mother Nature’s
storms. In addition, the ScanRoof system design creates an air space between
the metal panel and roof deck, making
an air cavity that aids in both heating
and cooling reduction.
bills. The air cavity also contributes to
energy conservation.”
W hen developing the Station, it
seems that all involved got it right.
According to McPike, residential units
are 100 percent occupied, and retail
space leases began in late 2010.
“There has been tremendous interest,” he added. “Many visitors from
other states and even internationally
would like to replicate the project.
The residents and the fire service are
very pleased.”
And it is no surprise that they would
be pleased in a building where form so
logically follows function. AR&W
Kate Gawlik is a marketing consultant for
ATAS International Inc., Allentown, Pa.
She is located in Woodridge, Ill.
Full Capacity
It was important to the city of Alexandria to make this new building sustainable. This was accomplished by setting
two goals: for the fire station to obtain
LEED Silver certification and the residential portion to receive EarthCraft
Certification. The EarthCraft standard
has been met, and LEED recognition is
still pending.
McPike noted that the energy efficiency of the residential units has been studied, and one-bedroom units are reported
to save more than $100 per month on
utilities because of the sustainable items
incorporated into the units.
“The ATAS roof contributes to the
sustainability of the Station in many
ways,” Bush said. “First, the roof is
made with recycled content and is recyclable at the end of its useful life. Next,
the roof has a cool coating that raises
the solar ref lective index. This ultimately keeps the inside of the building cooler in the summer, translating
into less energy usage and lower utility
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{ LegallySpeaking
by Richard D. Alaniz
The FMLA: It’s Not Just
For Pregnancies Anymore
A
recent survey conducted by allbusiness.com determined that the average cost to defend a Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA) lawsuit is $80,000, even if you
win. In 2008, Chase bank didn’t win and was ordered to pay
almost $8 million for violations under the FMLA. Although
many people immediately think of pregnancies when someone mentions FMLA, it is actually a resource for employees
impacted by any number of health conditions.
The FMLA is a federal law requiring employers to give
covered employees up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave for serious
health conditions as well as several other employee needs such
as the birth or adoption of a child. The law applies to all public
sector employers and any private sector employer with at least
50 employees. A covered employee is any employee with at
least 12 months and 1,250 hours of service to the employer. In
short, if your company has at least 50 employees and you have
operated for at least a year, you need to understand the FMLA
better than Chase bank did.
Six Degrees of Serious
ition
Health Condition
An employee is entitled to
FMLA
leave
for any “serious
health condition.”
And the employeee can
take leave for either
her their own
serious health condition
dition or that of a close
family member. So
o what is a “serious
health condition”? There are actually
six definitions and
d an employee only
needs one.
1. An illness, injury,
njury, impairment, or
al condition that involves
physical or mental
inpatient care at a hospital, hospice or residential care facility.
eatment by a health care pro2. Continuing treatment
d of incapacity related to pregnanvider for any period
cy or prenatal care.
3. Continuing treatment
eatment by a health care provider
apacity that is permanent or longfor a period of incapacity
ition for which treatment may not
term due to a condition
be effective.
eatment by a health care provider for
4. Continuing treatment
ceive multiple treatments for restorany absences to receive
32
ative surgery or for a condition that would result in at least
three days of incapacity if untreated.
5. Continuing treatment by a health care provider for a
period of incapacity lasting more than three full consecutive
calendar days.
6. Continuing treatment by a health care provider for any
period of incapacity or treatment for chronic serious health
conditions over an extended period of time.
If you’re thinking, “Wow, that’s a lot of different things”
— you’re absolutely right. It’s because FMLA extends to so
many different medical conditions that it’s easy to mistakenly deny an employee leave they are entitled to. And that’s
a lawsuit.
Definitions 5 and 6 are particularly vulnerable to employee abuse and have consistently been a thorn in the side of
employers. In a minor victory for employers, the Department
of Labor did add some new restrictions to the definitions.
Definition 5 now requires that the employee
em
must make
two separate visits to the doctor wit
within 30 days of the
incapacity. The first visit must be within 7
days of the incapac
incapacity. Alternatively,
the employee
employe may receive one
treatment within
7 days of the
i nc a p a c i t y a nd
u
then undergo
a regimen
of treatment. Definition 6 now
vis to a health care
requires at least two visits
provider per year befo
before the treatment is
considered periodic.
New Coverag
Coverage For
Military Families
The realities of extended military deployments for our men and wom
women in uniform have
led Congress to create two new categories of
them. The first is for
coverage designed to help the
Qualifying Exigencies related tto a call to active
duty. The second is a Military Caregiver
C
category
intended to allow employees to care for a family
member who was injured or who aggravated an injury while on active duty.
The Qualifying Exigencies category
catego gives employees
12 weeks of unpaid leave to deal with circumstances arisduty or call to active
ing out of a family member’s active d
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duty status. The Department of Labor has identified eight circumstances that constitute a qualifying exigency:
1. Anytime the call to active duty status is seven days or less
(short notice deployment).
2. To attend military events and official activities.
3. To attend to childcare and school activities.
4. To make financial or legal arrangements.
5. To attend non-health care related counseling.
6. An employee is entitled to five days of FMLA leave to
spend with a family member on shortterm rest leave.
7. To attend post-deployment activities such as ceremonies for up to 90 days
after active duty ends.
8. To attend additional activities not
listed but agreed to by the employer.
The Military Caregiver category
allows an employee to take up to 26
weeks in a 12-month period (the longest period afforded any category under
FMLA law) to care for a spouse, son,
daughter, parent, or next of kin recovering from a serious illness or injury
sustained while serving on active duty.
Military caregiver leave may be combined with other types of FMLA leave,
but the total FMLA leave cannot exceed
26 weeks in any 12-month period.
Other Changes
to the FMLA
the DOL interpretation applies to non-traditional families,
including same sex partners.
In what must have been an accident, the DOL made some
changes that actually help employers. The biggest is a new
requirement that employees provide medical certification of
their serious health condition. This comes with several caveats. Employers should use DOL form WH-380 E/F to ensure
their request for certification only requests permissible information. Once completed, the form may only be given to the
employer’s human resources professional, a leave administrator, or a management official. But under no circumstances
may the form be given to an employee’s
direct supervisor. If an employer is
unsatisfied with the certification provided by the employee, it must notify the
employee in writing of what portions are
incomplete or insufficient and give the
employee seven calendar days to cure
the deficiency. Employers are also now
permitted to request a new medical certification each leave year for conditions
lasting longer than one year.
Another win for employers was new
regulations requiring employees to notify
employers they are taking FMLA leave
using the employer’s usual and customary call-in procedures for reporting
absences, absent unusual circumstances.
Under the old law, employees could be
absent for two full days before they were
required to notify their employer.
}
“If you don’t
already have one,
designate a
trusted manager
as the FMLA
decision-maker
and record-keeper,
preferably one
familiar with your
policies.”
Congress made substantial changes
to the FMLA in 2009. Under the old
law, many FMLA violations were subject to a “categorical” penalty which
awarded employees 12 more weeks of
FMLA leave for any employer violation.
Employers pointed out that at least
some technical violations resulted in
only a minimal impact on the employee and should not warrant a full 12 more weeks of leave.
And the Department of Labor actually listened. Under the
new FMLA, the categorical penalty has been removed and
now courts assess the impact of the specific violation before
imposing any penalties.
Another change was barely a change at all, but it is helpful
for employers. Employers have always been able to require
employees to use their paid time off — sick time, comp
time, vacation time, etc. — as part of their FMLA leave. The
courts clarified that all paid time off is now treated the same
for FMLA purposes.
As recently as June 2010, the Department of Labor (DOL)
clarified the definition of “son and daughter” under the FMLA
to include employees who have no biological or legal relationship to the child, but assume the role of caring for them. Thus,
Things To Do Now
If you don’t already have one, designate a trusted manager as the FMLA
decision-maker and record-keeper,
preferably one familiar with your policies. Pick a manager who is not a direct
supervisor of any employees who might
ask for FMLA leave, if at all possible. Have that manager
visit the Department of Labor website and familiarize themselves with the new rules of the FMLA. Last, update the
company FMLA compliance policies. The new regulations
give employers new rights. Make the most of them. AR&W
Richard D. Alaniz is senior partner at Alaniz
and Schraeder, a national labor and employment
firm based in Houston. He has been at the forefront of labor and employment law for more than
30 years, including stints with the U.S. Department of Labor and the National Labor Relations
Board. He can be reached at 281-833-2200 or
[email protected]
A R C H I T E C T U R A L
www.arwmag.com
{
LegallySpeaking
2011, Vol. 1 ROOFING
&WATERPROOFING
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Where Are You Reading This?
I
’m a print guy. I love the printed word. I love the feel of
paper in my hand. I like nothing more that to curl up
with a good book — on the couch, at the beach, even
in the bathtub, although I can’t think of the last time I’ve
taken a bath. When I’m at lunch by myself, there’s a magazine or a newspaper on the table next to me. When I’m on
a plane, I’ve got articles and trade magazines and a novel
in my briefcase next to my laptop. If I’m
going down the hall to the … well, let’s
just say my last name is King, and there
are a lot of jokes at my house about reading in the “throne room.”
However, as we put together this print
issue of Architectural Roofing & Waterproofing, I’m reminded that the majority of the reading I do now is digital, not
print. I don’t know when I passed the tipping point, but I
have. I read articles on my computer at work, on my laptop
at home, and on my iPhone just about anywhere. The article
I pull out of my briefcase at lunch or on a plane is just as
likely to be something I printed off the Internet as a glossy
trade publication or daily newspaper. In fact, in my home
town the daily newspaper is only available online. The actual
hard copy is only delivered three days a week; the rest of the
time, it’s on my laptop or iPhone.
And that’s how it is with Architectural Roofing & Waterproofing. I love putting together the print volumes of ARW,
but I realize they are just a small piece of our content. We’re
much more than a magazine — so much so that I’ve stopped
thinking of it as one. It’s a portal to information. Our web-
site is where the majority of our readers find our articles.
Our e-newsletters and webinars reach far more people than
our printed pages do, and more people read our digital editions than our print ones.
That said, I hope we never stop producing the paper version. I love the feel of the printed page in my hand. But somewhere along the line I realized that I’m not just a print guy.
I’m a content guy. I love the written word, on paper or on a
computer screen. In a way, I think of print much as I think of
a classic car — something I love and appreciate, but not something I drive to work in every day. It’s a digital age, but there
will always be a place for print in my life. After all, there are
some places an iPhone just won’t cut it, like the bathtub.
Where are you reading this editor’s note? Is it in print
or online? Wherever you are, we hope you keep finding
ARW on your laptop, your smart phone or your tablet. We
hope you log in to our webinars for technical training and
continuing education credits. And we hope you keep an
eye out for our next print edition at industry trade shows
and events. If you’d like me to send you a copy of our next
print edition, please drop me a line or shoot me an e-mail
at [email protected] and I’ll make sure we send one out
to you. It might come in handy. After all, you don’t want to
get ketchup on your iPhone.
Chris King, Editor
[email protected]
A R C H I T E C T U R A L
ROOFING
Ad Index
&WATERPROOFING
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The Bilco Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bilco.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .203-934-6363 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
A R C H I T E C T U R A L
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2011, Vol. 1 ROOFING
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{
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