Uploaded by Hani Ubaid

unit 1

Presented by: HANIFA UBAID
Human resource development of a country depends upon the quality of
education imparted in country (Mohanthy, 2000).
Quality higher education is a source of great potential for the socio
economic and cultural development of the country.
Meanings of Higher Education
The terms higher education, tertiary education and post-secondary
education are used interchangeably (The World Bank, 2000).
Higher Educational Institutions include not only Universities and Colleges,
but also various Professional Schools that provide preparation in such
fields as law, medicine, business, art, music, and engineering
According to the modern concept of education, a University is a city of
the universe. This meaning essentially includes knowledge and
information of all disciplines. In this sense, the University is primarily
chartered for research and information which each of its faculty unearths
and passes on to the younger generations for the benefit of the
community and the society at large.
Need and Scope of Higher Education
education improves an individual's
quality of life.
A person with higher education has better dietary and health practices;
greater economic stability and security; more prestigious employment
and greater job satisfaction; less dependency on government assistance,
greater community service and leadership, more volunteer work, more
self-confidence, and less criminal activity.
Purpose of Higher Education
The Purpose of Higher Education is manifold:
a) Supporting and enhancing the process of economic and social
b) To enable individuals to achieve excellence;
c) To strengthen the micro-management infra-structure of society,
and to train national 'Managers" of "Collective Leadership";
d) To create specialized expertise like in agriculture,
medicine, nuclear, space, chemical, and energy fields;
e) To inspire education at different levels; f) To
coordinate at the national level;
g) Human resource development.
The Need for Higher
Higher education serves as a means for gaining the
skills, training and knowledge necessary to enter their
desired profession.
Preparing oneself for a career isn’t the only practical
benefit of a college education
Not all skills are clearly connected to a career or
statistics, but they can be equally as important to a
well-rounded, fulfilling life.
(ii) Broader Practical Benefits
People who seek education beyond high school are likely
to be better off in terms of economic well-being,
physical health and participation in political and
community affairs. Regardless of what you study,
devoting time to educating yourself and training your
brain beyond high school comes with many potential
Better communication
(written and verbal)
Better communication (written and verbal): Many higher
education programs feature advanced writing and speaking
assignments; this trains individuals to express themselves
clearly and communicate more effectively with others.
Critical thinking skills:
The ability to think and to think well – to ask questions, to
analyze and to reflect, for example – is crucial to all areas
of life. Critical thinking skills can be and must be cultivated
through every higher education program.
Greater sense of discipline:
While programs vary, in many higher education settings,
students are given more responsibility than ever before.
They must take initiative, manage their time well and
remain organized. These skills can transfer to all other
areas of life.
Sense of accomplishment:
The choice to enter and complete a higher education
program is based purely on a person’s initiative, and the
sense of accomplishment that comes from going “above
and beyond” is something that can instill you with the
confidence to pursue whatever you desire in life.
(iv) Pursuing a Passion
This is perhaps the least-accepted reason, culturally, to
pursue higher education.
However, pursuing our passions is an extremely
important component of a healthy, well-lived life. We
can figure out ways to apply our passions as we pursue
Challenges in Higher
Higher education is faced with very severe challenges in
the shape of various economic, social, political, and
moral changes, and its future depends on the response
made by its people to these challenges (Rao, 2003).
Despite the constraints of resources, the quantitative expansion has been
highly spectacular. The institutions have been multiplied, the student
enrolments exceptionally high.
But still our higher education institutions are for less as compared to
A large number of people remain out of HEIs
(i) Quantity
(ii) Equity
Equal opportunities of higher education are not
available to all groups of society.
Many types of discriminations and disparities exist in
access to higher education.
(iii) Quality
Development of society not only depends upon quantity of goods and services
produced, but also on their quality. “It again leads to quality of life of the
people and the quality of the society in general” (Hayes, 1987).
Other Challanges
The condition of higher education in universities and
colleges is not satisfactory in the eyes of students.
Lack of physical and educational facilities is bringing
much hindrance in the way of development.
Teachers are less motivated to do research work.
Other challanges
The current size of present faculty is very small.
The courses and curricula are not designed in
accordance with the standard of higher education of the
present day.
Budgeting and Financing is a root to many challenges.
Ineffective governance and management structures and practices.
Challenges of HE in Pakistan
Inefficient use of available resources.
Poor recruitment practices and inadequate development of faculty and
Inadequate attention to research and support for it
Suggestions to meet the
Stress is laid on the need for improving the quality of
education at every stage so that a proper foundation
can be laid for advanced study.
To begin from the top without reforming the lower
stages is against the law of nature
A multidimensional, flexible, and dynamic education
system, which serves people according to their ability
and aptitude and is responsive to their economic, social
political and cultural needs.
Higher education institutions must be responsive to the
challenges of the rapidly
changing and challenging new world: expectation of
society and growing demands of the rising student
HE Reforms in Pakistan
Transformation of our institutions of higher education
into world class seats of learning, equipped to foster
high quality education, scholarship and research, to
produce enlightened citizens with strong moral and
ethical values that build a tolerant and pluralistic
society rooted in the culture of Pakistan.
(Vision of HE in Education Sector Reform 2001)
In response to recommendations Higher Education
Commission was established.
Access, Quality and Relevance are at the heart of the
efforts being made by HEC for expansion and
development of HE in Pakistan.
HE reforms in Pakistan
Thank you for listening