Direct and Indirect Speech ST. FRANCIS GRAMMAR SCHOOL QUETTA CLASS: 8TH SUBJECT: ENGLIAH Speech Definition: The power of expression is known as speech or narration. Types of Speech 2 types Direct Speech Indirect Speech Direct and Indirect Speech Direct Speech: The actual words of a speaker are known as Direct Speech. Indirect Speech: When we convert the actual words of the speaker into our own words and express them is called indirect speech. Components of Direct Speech Reporting Speech: The words of a speaker which are being spoken and they are always placed outside inverted comma’s are called reporting speech. Reported Speech: The words of a speaker which had been spoken and they are always placed inside the inverted comma’s is called reported speech. Example He says to me, “they are good students.” Reporting Speech Reported Speech Rules of Changing Direct to Indirect Speech Changing of Punctuation: When we change direct speech into indirect speech the inverted comma’s are change into that/ if/ weather. Changing of Pronoun: Singular 1st person Plural We 2nd person You You 3rd person He, She, It They When we change direct in to indirect speech the pronouns will changed according to “SON” formula. • “S”: The first person pronoun (I, WE) of reported speech the pronouns are changed according to the subject of the reporting speech. • “O”: The 2nd person pronoun of reported speech is changed according to the reporting (object of) speech. E.g: He says to me, “I teaches you.” He says to me that he teaches me. • “N”: No change occurs in 3rd person pronoun. E.g: He says to me, “They are helping her.” He says to me that they are helping her. CHANGING OF TENSES: The change of the tenses are as following: Present Indefinite Past Indefinite Past Indefinite Past Perfect Future Indefinite (Will/ Shall) Would Present Continuous Past Continuous Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Future Continuous (Will/ Shall + be) Would Be Present Perfect Past Perfect Past Perfect No Change Future Perfect (Will/ Shall + have) Would have Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous No Change Future Perfect Continuous (Will/ shall have been) Would have been Tenses Present Indefinite Past Indefinite Direct 1st form of verb 2 nd Indirect 2nd form of verb Had+ 3rd Future Indefinite Will/ Shall Would Present Continuous is, am, are was, were Past Continuous Was, Were Had Been Future Continuous Present Perfect Past Perfect Will/ Shall+ be Would Be Has, Have Had Had No Change Future Perfect Will/ Shall+ have Would Have Present Perfect Continuous Has/ Have+ Been Had Been Had Been No Change Past Perfect Continuous Future Perfect Continuous Will/ Shall+ Have Been Would Have Been Note: The Changes of tenses can only take place if reporting speech is in past tenses, but if our reporting speech is in present or future tenses no change of tense take place in reported speech. He says to me, “she is a doctor.” He says to me that she is a doctor He will say to me “She is a doctor.” He will say to me that she is a doctor. He said to me, “She is a doctor.” She said to me that she was a doctor. Home Work Write all the definitions, Rules and Example in your English Language copy. Also Write 10 sentences of changing direct speech into indirect speech.