Uploaded by Covie Garcia


Ateneo de Zamboanga University
College of Nursing
NCM102j (Health Education) O
Pender’s Health Promotion Theory & Bandura’s Self Efficacy Theory
Health Education uses theories and models, which are developed from scientific evidence
and data, to create supportive frameworks for patient care. A theory, is defined by Merriam-Webster
as “an idea or set of ideas that is intended to explain facts or events”. While a model, is referred to as
a more “descriptive process” in which, it may explain how a process takes place, but not necessarily
why it happens in that manner. Both theories and models are important, as it offer strategies and
approaches which play a critical role in educating the next generation of health care providers.
Some of the theories and models in Health Education, includes the Health Promotion
Theory and Self Efficacy Theory. The Health Promotion Theory, was developed in 1982 by Nola J.
Pender, a nursing theory, professor, an a author who has been named as a “Living Legend of the
American Academy of Nursing”. Her theory indicates preventative health measures and describes
the critical function of nurses in helping patients prevent illness by self-care and bold alternatives. It
was designed to be a “complementary counterpart to models of health protection.” The theory seeks
to help nurses learn and understand the main determinants of health behavior as a framework for
behavioral counseling in order to encourage well-being and healthy lifestyles. In addition, the theory
focuses on the following three (3) areas: individual characteristics and experiences, behavior-specific
cognitions and affect, and behavioral outcomes. The Self Efficacy Theory, on the other hand, was
originated in 1977 from Social Cognitive theory by Albert Bandura, a nursing theorist and a
psychologist. Self-efficacy is the belief that by performing a given task or behavior relevant to that
competency, one has the power to achieve that result and it refers to the understanding of a person's
ability to meet a goal. It is the confidence that one is able to accomplish such goals in some way and
the hope that one can master a situation and deliver a positive result. It is critical concept in positive
psychology. Furthermore, his theory says that there are three (3) factors that influence self-efficacy:
Behaviors, Environment, and personal/cognitive factors. Both Pender’s Health Promotion Theory
and Bandura’s Self Efficacy Theory is useful and important especially in the study of Health
Each theory and model represents distinct, but related aspects of the process of behavior
change. Determining which theory or model to use will depend upon the situation. In many cases,
planners may find that using more than one theory or model which they think is appropriate or that
only certain aspects of a theory or model are useful.