Jenney’s First Year Latin Lesson 1 1. Lesson 1 Vocabulary 2. Latin Nouns – Characteristics 3. 1st Declension Nouns 4. Nominative Case – Subject & Predicate Nominative Lesson 1 Vocabulary agricola, agricolae, m. farmer aqua, aquae, f. water fēmina, fēminae, f. woman fortūna, fortūnae, f. fortune, chance Gallia, Galliae, f. Gaul (roughly modern France) īnsula, īnsulae, f. island Ītalia, Ītaliae, f. Italy lingua, linguae, f. language, tongue littera, litterae, f. letter (of alphabet) litterae, litterārum, f. pl. letter (epistle), letters memoria, memoriae, f. memory nātūra, nāturae, f. nature poēta, poētae, m. poet prōvincia, prōvinciae, f. province puella, puellae, f. girl silva, silvae, f. forest vīta, vītae, f. life est is; there is sunt are; there are Latin Nouns Characteristics & First Declension Latin Nouns – Characteristics • Like English, a Latin noun indicates a person, place, thing, or idea. • All Latin nouns belong to a family, called a declension. – Declension: group of nouns sharing a similar ending pattern. • There are 5 declensions, named 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th. Three Characteristics • Every Latin noun has three characteristics: • Case: indicates the use or grammatical function of the noun [what’s it doing?] • Number: indicates singular (1) or plural (>1) [how many?] • Gender: masculine, feminine, neuter Characteristic 1: Case • Case indicates use (grammatical function) of a noun in a sentence • English shows case by word order; Latin by word ending – these are called case endings • There are 6 cases in Latin: – – – – – – Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative Ablative Vocative Characteristic 2: Number • Number answers the question how many • English shows number by changing the ending too in most cases (e.g. boy vs. boys) • There are two numbers: – Singular: 1 – Plural: >1 Characteristic 3: Gender • There are three genders: masculine, feminine, neuter • In English, gender of a noun is determined by sex – words naming males are masculine – words naming females are feminine – words naming things are neuter Characteristic 3: Gender • Gender of Latin nouns can usually be determined like in English, but there are exceptions: – many words expressing things, abstract qualities, inanimate objects, etc. are masc. or fem., not neut. • You simply need to memorize the gender of a noun when learning its dictionary form Dictionary Entry of Latin Nouns • 4 parts of a noun’s dictionary entry: 1. 2. 3. 4. puella, puellae, f.: girl 1 2 3 4 Nominative Singular Genitive Singular Gender Definition Dictionary Entry of Latin Nouns puella, puellae, f.: girl 1 2 3 4 1. Nominative Singular 2. Genitive Singular: – Ending tells you a noun’s declension – Dropping the ending gives you the noun’s stem 3. Gender 4. Definition First Declension Nouns • Genitive SG ending AE indicates the noun belongs to the 1st declension • 1st decl. nouns are (usually) easily recognized by the characteristic vowel A • 1st declension nouns are overwhelmingly feminine in gender – BUT there are some masculine 1st decl. nouns too (e.g. agricola, -ae, m.: farmer; poēta, -ae, m.: poet) First Declension Nouns • 1st decl. nouns have the following case endings: Singular Plural Nominative a ae Genitive ae ārum Dative ae īs Accusative am ās Ablative ā īs First Declension Nouns • Declining a noun = creating all of its forms to show changes in case & number – case & number of a noun do change (endings) – gender & declension of a noun do not change; they are fixed To decline a noun: 1. Find the stem (go to Gen. SG & drop ending) 2. Add the case endings to the stem Translating the Cases • Since different cases represent different uses of a noun, we translate them using different words. Case Translate… Nominative __________ Genitive of __________ Dative to/for __________ Accusative __________ Ablative BWIOAF __________ Translating the Cases Case Translate… Nominative __________ Genitive of __________ Dative to/for __________ Accusative __________ Ablative BWIOAF __________ The ablative case is the catch-all preposition case. It can be translated using by, with, from, in, on, or at (usually the preposition will be nearby) Translating the Cases • Latin does NOT have words for the definite article (the) or the indefinite article (a/an) • You must supply either “a/an” or “the” • Which do you choose when translating? • Whichever one makes more sense in context The Nominative Case Nominative Case • There are TWO uses of the nominative case: 1. Subject – subject is the doer of the action or state of being in a sentence – ex.: Agricola in agrō est. The farmer is in the field. Nominative Case • There are TWO uses of the nominative case: 2. Predicate Nominative – a noun (or adjective) used with a linking verb to define or describe the subject – ex.: Ītalia est patria. Italy is a country.