Enhancing / Developing the Skills in Stoichiometry through Self Learning Kit (SLK) of STEM Students ______________________________ A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School Bataan Peninsula State University City of Balanga, Bataan ______________________________ In partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Masters Arts in Education Major in General Science by: Emy G. Lazatin December, 2019 CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING Introduction The implementation of K-12 started year 2016 within the Philippines however the preparation raised concern among teachers. Problem concerning the Government lack of preparartion to implement K-12 raised protest among teachers. The problem on rooms that arent’t enough for the students, incompetent teachers, and not enough learning modules for some subjects. The lack of learning modules or learning materials specially on science subject is very difficult to the part of the learners and teachers. This drawback remains a drag four years currently, DepEd however uploaded a number of the learning modules on their website and ask to print these using the schools maintenance and operating expenses. But this is not enough to give solution to the shortage of learning materials. Similarly, the lack of learning materias is also a concern among other country, outdated and worn – out textbooks usually shared by six or lot of students in many parts of the world In Tanzania, for instance, only 3.5% of all sixth grade pupils had sole use of a reading textbook. In Cameroon, there are eleven primary school students for each reading textbook and thirteen for every mathematics textbook in second grade. Workbooks, exercise sheets, readers, and other core materials to help students learn their lessons are in short supply. Teachers also need materials to help prepare their lessons, share with their students, and guide their lessons Rueckert (2019). To help the students in their lessons, among the materials that could use by the teacher is a self learning kit (SLK). This Learning kit is very useful in teaching and learning process to facilitate the process of information shared by students with regards to the topic being taught. The learning kit purpose is to help the students understand the topic on particular subject more easily and in the convenient of their face. The self leraning kit is a innovative Supplementary Learning Resource (SLR) originally made, produced, modified or contextualized by a teacher to meet the standards of the K-12 curriculum in providing the teachers and learners relevant and localized content. Also self learning kit is simplified and modularized form of learning material which consist of systematic sequenced materials for learning. This self Learning kit (SLK) will serve as a tool that can increase the learners interest in Chemistry on the topic of stoichiometry. The topic Stoichiometry is one of the topics in General Chemistry 1 and usually taken by grade eleven senior high school under STEM tracks. The learners encountered difficulties when solving stoichiometric problems. In order to use stoichiometry to run calculations about chemical reactions, it is important to first understand the relationship that exist between products and reactants and why they exist, which require understanding how to balance reaction and the mole concept. The standard of student – centered learning depends for the most part on the effectiveness of how teachers select and use the appropriate learning kits ( Mohamad Jackie et al., 2016). Teachers need to provide an explanation for each sub topic that is taught more precisely in terms of concepts and situations so that learners can understand the content more deeply. Usually teacher use traditional method of teaching which is the chalk and board method and not using a learning kit and most teachers also use books to deliver the contents of the lesson but mostly learning material like books has shortage particulary in the subject chemistry. This cause failures in delivering the content of the lesson, especially in General Chemistry which cause most of the learners to be easily bored, less effective and consider the topic to be difficult. Most learners are poor in problem skills analysis, therefore teachers needs to use appropriate learning kit for the learners to enhance their understanding of a topic as well as save time and interest of learners. To help students to enhance their understanding on the topic stoichiometry in General Chemistry 1 and to value time and effort that cause learner to finish a task or expand knowledge for a particular learning competency in the most convenient and easy way without sacrificing the quality of work the researcher urge to conduct the study. Additionally the researcher urge to conduct this study to embark on SLK making for us to help in scarcity of books, materials or references in the school. In this study, the self learning kit (SLK) that will be develop will follow the format use by the Learning Resources Management and Development Section (LRMDS) Bataan on SLK . The design kit will follow the curriculum guide of General Chemistry 1 on the topic Stoiciometry. The researcher will divide the sample into the control and the treatment groups and use a set of pre and post test question. This study will conduct to examine the effectiveness of the use of self learning kit to enhance/improve the understanding of students on the topic of stoichiometry. The respondent of this study are Grade 11students under STEM track of Jose C. Payumo Jr. Memorial School taking general chemistry 1 subject for the school year 2019- 2020. Statement of the Problem The main problem is the Enhancing / Developing the Skills in Stoichiometry through Self Learning Kit (SLK) of STEM Students in Chemistry in senior high school of Jose C. Payumo Jr. Memorial High School for school year 2019 – 2020. Significantly, it seek to answer the following questions: 1. How may the level of performance differ between groups using learning kits and control groups taught using conventional method in the Pre – test and Post – test? 2. Is there any significant difference between the level of understanding of the treatment group and controlled group before and after the use of self learning kit? Significance of the Study The result of this study hopefully give better insight to the following groups of people for the following reasons: To school administrators this will serve as their guide on encouraging teachers with specialization and mastery of the subject area bering taught to develop a self learning kit (SLK) that will be use as a aid in teaching that would help the students in better understanding the lesson. This will also an important contributor to help in providing additional references for the students to address the scarcity of books in a particular subjects. To the teachers, the result of this study will help them in teaching and learning process. The appropriate self learning kit can be use by the teacher to help the students to enhance understanding on the difficult subject and to make learning enjoyable. This will also serve as a future tools that can be use by the other generation of learners. Additionally the self learning kit (SLK) can also be use as a tool to help SARDO (student at risk of dropping out) students to cope with their lesson same as absentism students. Students to get their interest in topics in chemistry this will engage students and help them understand some difficult topic like stoichiometry. The design of self learning kit (SLK) is simple and understandable for them to easily learn the particular topic. The result of this will be beneficial for the students to achieve good performance in chemistry. Also this will make the students enjoble in learning. To the future researchers, the findings of the study will make them knowledgeable of the use of self learning kit (SLK) as a innovative tools to help students in understanding difficult topics and will encourage them to conduct another study on the use of the self leraning kit (SLK) in other subject area with difficulties. Scope and Delimitation This research is focused in the study of self learning kit (SLK) as a tool to enhance the understanding of STEM students on the topic of Soichiometry on the subject of General Chemistry 1. The respondent of this study are grade 11 senior high school students of Jose C. Payumo Jr. Memorial High School for the school year 2019 – 2020. Included in this study is the development of self learning kit (SLK) following the format and guidelines of Learning Resources Management and Development Section (LRMDS). Pre – test and Post – test are use to determine the level of performance of the treatment group and controlled group. Notes in Chapter I Abdul Samad Hanif, Mohamed Nor Azhari Azman, Hendri Pratama & Nurul Nazirah Mohd Imran Ma’arof. (2016). Kit Pemantauan Penyambungan Litar Elektrik : Satu Kajian Efikasi Alat Bantu Mengajar. Fakulti Pendidikan Teknikal dan Vokasional : Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris. 2. Rueckert, P. ( 2019, august 13). 10 Barriers to Education Around the World. Global Citizen.