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Unit 1 Exam Study Guide A&P 1 nursing

Unit 1 Exam Study Guide
- Please study and review the Latin terms from the study guides
that are currently in the canvas lecture shell
- Please review the levels of organization
o Subatomic particles, atom, molecules, macromolecules,
organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
o Know from smallest to largest
 For example, what are larger than cells, or what are
smaller than macromolecules, etc
Know organ systems
o What they do, their functions
 Digestive breaks down food into nutrients, amino
acids, etc and so on regarding the other systems
Know the characteristics of life and their examples
o Growth, reproduction, circulations, etc!
Planes of Section and Body cavities
o Transverse, coronal, midsagittal, parasagittal
o Cranial, abdominopelvic, vertebral
 Locations: dorsal, ventral
Study body regions
o Examples, back of the knee, the forearm, anterior elbow, etc
Know terms of relative position
o SLIDES 29 and 30
- Know Isotonic, Hypertonic, Hypotonic
o Especially regarding solute concentration respective to the
inside of the cell
- Know about elements, isotopes, atomic number, atomic weight
o Example, isotopes have same protons but different neutrons
which of course, affects weight
o Know the charges of the subatomic particles
 Protons are positive, neutrons are neutral, electrons
are negative
- Know what an ion is!
o Cations vs anions
 Loss of electron(s) vs gain of electron(s)
- Know the types of chemical bonds!
o Covalent – sharing, ionic – complete transfer of electrons
from one atom to another leading to electrostatic attraction,
hydrogen bonds
- Know the types of reactions
o Synthesis, decomposition, exchange, reversible
- Know the difference between an acid and a base, their definitions
o Acids release hydrogen, bases accept hydrogen
- Know carbohydrates, lipids, protein (also primary, secondary,
tertiary, quaternary structures) \ and nucleic acids as well as their
FUNCTIONS (ex: which macromolecule stores genetic material)
o Their composition, structures, etc
 Building blocks of carbs – monosaccharides
 Building blocks of protein – amino acids
 Building blocks of lipids – one glycerol and at least one
fatty acid chain
 Building blocks of nucleic acids – nucleotides
 Know which nucleotide is only found in RNA and
NOT DNA – Uracil
- Know the definition of an enzyme
o Catalysts – know what a catalyst is
- Cells!
o Major structures of cells
 Nucleus, cell membrane, and cytoplasm
 Know functions as well as components
o Ex: 2 major components of cell membrane
- Know the organelles and their functions!!!
- Know the cell cycle phases and what happens at each stage
- That said, also know MITOSIS and PHASES
o What happens at each phase!
- Know the characteristics of DNA
o Tends to be a double helix, etc
- Know SLIDE 23 Movements into and out of the cell
o Which require ATP and which don’t
o Another example: Name a similarity between simple and
facilitated diffusion
- Know what selective permeability is regarding the cell membrane
-Levels of Organization
-Characteristics/Maintenance of Life
-Body Regions
-Homeostasis and homeostatic mechanisms (also positive and negative feedback)
- Organ Systems and organization