Uploaded by Kallie Lefler

Child Development Chapter 11

Chapter 11
•Describe patterns of emotional development
from ages one to three
•Identify common emotions of young children and
the changing ways they express those emotions
•Analyze how individual differences
affect emotional development
•Explain how self-concept develops
Eighteen Months
Children at this age are self-centered---think about
their own needs and wants and not of others
Spoken instructions are not successful with
children of this age.
Negativism—doing the opposite of what others
want is normal for toddlers. Caused by:
•Desire for independence
•Realization of being a separate person
When dealing with negativism, parents and
caregivers should give positive guidance.
•Give choices (limit number)
•Redirect the child
•Encourage talking
At eighteen months, many children start to have
temper tantrums. This is where children release
anger or frustration by screaming, crying, kicking,
pounding or holding their breath.
Two Years
Speech and motor skills have improved so
children are less frustrated.
Children are able to understand more and
wait longer for their needs to be met.
Children of this age have fewer emotional outbursts
and are easier to reason with.
Children usually get along better
with other children and adults.
They are more outgoing, friendly
and less self-centered.
Two and one half years
This becomes a more challenging time with children.
They are not easily distracted.
At this age, children are learning so much they
become overwhelmed. Their senses take in
more than they can comprehend.
Children at this age they have a strong drive for
independence and do not like being bossed around,
shown how to do things or helped in any way.
Children at this age have extreme mood changes.
They will go from lovable to stubborn in seconds.
Consistency is important. Routines are important in
keeping their moods even.
Three Year Old
Three year olds are generally happy and
cooperative and learning to be considerate.
They are finally willing to take directions from others
and will do anything for praise and affection.
At this age, children love to talk.
They talk to anyone and anything.
Three and one half year olds
These children are suddenly very insecure.
Parents feel that their child may be going backward
instead of forward emotionally.
Fears are very common at this age:
•Fear of the dark
•Fear of monsters
•Fear of strangers
•Fear of noises
This is also the age that some children may
develop “bad habits” like hitting, thumb sucking,
nail biting and nose picking.
Biting and Hitting
Some parents provide plastic inflatable punching
bags for children who hit when they are angry.
Is this a good idea because it is
a safe way of physically venting
Is it a bad idea because it
reinforces hitting?
This is the child’s way of
reacting to frustration.
Young toddlers show their anger by hitting
and kicking. Older toddlers are more
Verbal (name calling and pouting.
As a child gets older, they start to direct their
anger toward the person they are angry with.
A child who has no self control is more likely to
have angry outburst.
It is very important for parents and caregivers
to react in controlled manner so the
situation doesn’t escalate.
Children experience different fears at different ages.
Sometimes fear is a good thing because it keeps children
out of dangerous situations.
Sometimes adults project their own fears on to their children.
Separation Anxiety is common for children of this age.
Parents need to remember this is something a child will
grow out of---but it may take awhile.
Children who feel separation anxiety, may also have trouble
sleeping at night because of their fear.
Suggestions For Dealing With Fears of Toddlers
1. Offer support and understanding. Don’t
make them feel bad about being afraid.
2. Encourage the child to talk about their
fears and listen to them.
3. Read books together about a child who
experiences the same fear. It will make your
toddler feel better about being afraid.
4. Discuss new experiences before they happen.
This way the child will know what to expect.
This usually starts to occur in the
second year of life.
Children resent any show of affection
between parents.
Sibling Rivalry—competition between
brothers and sisters for parents’
affection and attention—is common.
Fear of losing the parent’s love is
what brings on the behavior.
Ways to Cut Down on Sibling Rivalry
Make sure your children know that you
love and appreciate them.
Set aside special (one-on-one) time with
them each day.
Avoid comparing one child to another.
Don’t allow children to tattle on one another.
Love and Affection
Young children must learn to love because their
relationships in the younger years forms the basis
of their love and affection in later life.
A child’s first love is for their caregivers and
then expands to those around them.
It is important that parent don’t smother
their child. This will make it harder to form
relationships in the future.
This is the ability to oneself in another’s place.
Between the ages of 1 year and 18 months, children start to
understand their actions can hurt others.
Parents and caregivers can help children to develop empathy by
teaching them manners----say your sorry
Not all children will develop emotions in the same manner.
Experiences have a big impact on how children react.
Temperament also plays a big role in how a child develops emotionally.
Never expect two children to act the same.
Never compare children’s reactions.
As children grow, they become aware of the special traits
that make them different from others.
Self Concept is how a child see themselves.
A child forms his self-concept in
response to actions, attitudes, and
comments of others.
Since parents spend a great deal of
time with children, they have a big
impact on their self-concept
The years from age 1-3 are critical in a child’s
development of self-concept.
Children believe what people say about them
and act the part.
The ability to master skills also affects a child’s selfconcept. It is important to challenge children but not give
them things that will not be successful with.
How can I tell if my child is developing well emotionally?
The most important clue is the child’s relationship
with his/her parents. The early relationships will
determine patterns of relationships for life.
Signs of a Healthy Relationship
1. Child seeks approval and praise from parents
2. Child turns to parents for comfort and help
3. Child tells parents significant events (joy and sorrow)
4. The child accepts limits and discipline without resistance
Describe patterns of social development
from ages 1-3.
Explain how children make friends.
Give principles for guiding toddlers.
Most children gradually learn to get along with other
people, first in their own families and then in groups.
This process is called socialization.
Through this process children learn social skills.
18 Months
At this age there is little real interaction—
even when children are playing together.
At this age children engage in parallel play.
Children tend to treat others as
objects and not humans.
Child can understand their actions
affect others---hit with toy.
2 Years
Children at this age are very good at understanding
and interacting with their caregivers.
Since their speech is developing, they
are better able to communicate.
Although they may begin to interact
while playing, they still primarily
engage in parallel play.
They want to please others and MAY put
someone else’s needs before their own.
2 ½ Years
The child’s negativism carries
into their social relationships.
May refuse to do things for
one person but not another.
They are beginning to learn
about the rights of others but
generally are only concerned
with what is fair to them.
Children often fight, but make
up just as quickly. They forgive
and forget easily.
3 Years
Children of this age are very happy
and it shows in their relationships
with others.
These children will share, help and do
things another’s way just to please them.
Children this age begin cooperative play.
They like to work with others to
accomplish something (building,
coloring, puzzles)
3 ½ Years
By this time, children become more
complex in their play and include a
lot of conversation.
Because they like to play with others,
they are more likely to share.
Children like to use different
strategies to solve their problems
(with people and toys).
Children begin to form friendships
that exclude others.
Children begin to compare
themselves to others---not always a
good thing.
Making Friends
The ability to make friends is important to
normal social development
If a child has at least one friend, they are developing
normally. If a child has no interest in friends, try to
find the root of the problem and work from there.
The ability to make friends may be dependent upon the
number of experiences a child has had in the past
(socialization). If a child had only had interaction
with adults, they will have a much harder time related
to children their own age.
If two children are having a confrontation, the caregiver
should only step in if there is physical danger or the
children or not evenly matched. Otherwise, children
need to learn to work out their differences themselves.
Imaginary Friends
It is normal for children to have imaginary friends.
Some imaginary friends may be around for a few
weeks others for months.
Imaginary friends can be good things. They help children
experiment with their feelings and work out their
negative feelings.
Parents should only be concerned about imaginary
friends if they continue into the teen age years.
Guiding Toddlers
The purpose of guidance is to help children learn
This is the ability to control their own actions.
Guidance techniques should be age and
developmentally appropriate.
Guidance Techniques
8-12 months
2-3 yrs
Spoken command
12-15 months
Physical removal
15-24 months
Spoken restrictions
3-4 yrs
loving guidance
accepted easily
Promoting Sharing
This is one of the first social skills children learn.
Caregivers can help children learn in many ways.
•Lead children to activities where they need
to practice sharing (sliding board)
•Limit the number of materials so sharing is
•Have children pass out their own snacks
•Be sure they know they are sharing
 Are
quite common among this age group, and
there is always a reason
 When they act out they are trying to
communicate why they are upset
 Biting:
Infants bite because they fail to see the
difference between a toy or a sibling
One year olds bite to see what would happen
2-3 year olds bite to get their way with other
children or to get attention, or if they are just
angry or frustrated
 Hitting:
Two and three year olds have trouble controlling
these impulses or aggressive reactions
Children are still self centered and concerned
mostly with fulfilling their own needs and desires
Hitting kicking and shoving are aggressive
behaviors often seen in toddlers
Many believe that timeouts are an effective way
to help children understand that certain behavior
is not acceptable.