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Project actions A more elaborative

The project shall apply a mix of intervention strategies to address the underlying wreck havocs.
To be more pragmatic and bring comprehensive change, actions have been categorized in to
three components.
Component I: Convocation (dialogues, conferences, circles, workshops7trainings, and
associated complementary materials)
Component II: Knowledge (knowledge acquisition and sharing through publications and
Component III: Analysis (landscape analysis and social capital mapping)
Actions will be implemented across all the levels of action triangle as follows:
At the grassroots level the project undertakes: peace actors identification and mobilization,
vetting and validation workshops, inter-faith dialogue, inter-generational dialogue, peace and
peace building awareness creation and sensitization, knowledge acquisition, sharing& transfer
(through publication, dissemination, tours and mentoring), social capital restoration,
indigenous\traditional peace institutions, conflict sensitive social cohesion.
At the sector\zonal level it undertakes: conflict and peace land scape analysis, social capital
mapping, future search conferences.
At the regional level, the project undertakes multi-stakeholder platforms [MSPs], expert panel,
publication and dissemination, conflict sensitive social cohesion
Landscape Analysis: An external consultant firm will be outsourced to conduct landscape
analysis of conflict and peace situation in the target districts in two volumes. Part 1 is conflict
landscape, and part II is peace programming informed by part 1. In this voluminous document
points concerning conflict situation, conflict layers and epicenters, trajectories, drivers,
dynamics, interest groups,
Social capital mapping: This is a mapping study to be undertaken by a consulting firm to
address former and status quo ante levels of connectors and dividers, neighborhood attachments,
conflict attractors, defractors , escalators and de-escalators, tensions, and multilevel socioenvironmental stressors inducing the social capital to erode.
Peace Actors Identification and Mobilization: During this stage identifying and contacting of
institutional and individual peace actors like state peace apparatus, faith based actors, nongovernment and community based organizations, religious leaders, individual peace champions,
volunteers and agents, local leaders and elderlies. This is based upon the initial stakeholder
mapping to identify the potential range of stakeholders that could be involved; and
identification/convening of a peace networks\proxy networks, whichever is possible. The
stakeholders include both those actively promoting peace and those who are engaged in ongoing
violence or are otherwise direct parties to the conflict. Stakeholder or actor mapping identifies
the parties to the conflict, their interests, demands, sources of power, and so forth. As well as
analyze the groups and key individuals working for peace, showing who is doing what, where,
and addressing which issues.
Vetting and validation workshops: at the grassroots level, it is the peace agents/champions who
are responsible to bring fundamental change among the community. To do so, peace agents are
fully responsible to search, identify, and convene victims and offenders as well as their proxy
individual networks. Therefore, it is essential to validate these champions by community and
relevant actors about their trust, commitment, acceptance, and capability to bring change. Hence,
the project will organize and hold a vetting workshop represented by circles of stakeholders to
identify, select, and validate local peace agents. In this validation workshop, representatives from
offenders, victims, state and non-state actors, faith actors, ethnic and traditional \indigenous
peace building leaders will participate. Due to the very restless nature of the pastoral
communities, offenders and victims can be hard-to reach and diffuse, and in such cases, the
project will use proxy individuals to represent those interests.
Post validation\verification of the peace champions by the vetting workshops, the project will
organize module based training for the peace agents to shape attitudes, develop skills, and equip
them with the tools during deployment to their respective areas.
Peace sensitization/awareness creation: The project makes rapprochement between different
ethnic groups and religious denominations as it advocates for peace.
Besides, it considers local authorities and traditional leaders are important actors for peace. Thus,
to get buy-in and support, and increased likelihood of success and sustainability, partnerships
between government institutions and local communities are quintessential.
Actions include: Conduct awareness-raising/sensitization workshops on peace and peacebuilding; organize training sessions for local, zonal and regional level government authorities on
conflict analysis, peace barometer, appreciative inquiry, and project cycle management.
Social Capital Restoration: Based upon the social capital mapping document produced by
consultant above, the project will undertake actions that articulate the movement away from a
concern with the resolution of issues and toward a frame of reference that focuses on the
restoration and rebuilding of relationships among the divided social groups. Two fundamental
strategic actions will be undertaken: Module based Active Non-Violence[ANV-conflict as social
injustice] training (woreda level) for indigenous peace building infrastructures like faith leaders,
Gada leaders, councils of Gondorro\Guma, Siqqe, Qalu Courts, Jaarsummaa-Biyya , UGAZE,
Guurti, Madda and Mablo, Kedo Abba, Faima, and others.
Peace Pact (woreda level): After completion of the ANV training, representatives will be
selected from the participants and supported by the project mobilization expert to craft peace
pact among the belligerent and divided groups in their respective areas. The peace pact has
contents detailing prohibition, sanctions, and process. The agreement will be signed through
organized peace ritual ceremony and hence both conflicting social groups are expected to
sanctify animals and materials for this process to effect. For initialization of this peace pact
process, social capital restoration workshops will be conducted at three layers: binding
workshops [Intra-group discussions] to prepare individual members of the opposing groups to
support the process, bridging workshop [Inter-group dialogue] which involves dialogue process
among the groups to reach agreement in signing the peace pact, and bonding
workshops\dialogues to consolidate the vision and commitment of the groups to support the
Inter-faith Dialogue: Religion as a powerful constituent of cultural norms and values is deeply
implicated in individual and social conceptions of peace, because it addresses some of the most
profound existential issues of human life, such as freedom/inevitability, fear/security,
right/wrong and sacred/profane. it is probably true for all religions that religion has developed
laws and ideas that provide civilization with cultural commitments to critical peace-related
values, including empathy, an openness to and even love for strangers, the suppression of
unbridled ego and acquisitiveness, human rights, unilateral gestures of forgiveness and humility,
interpersonal repentance and the acceptance of responsibility of past errors as a means of
reconciliation, and the drive for social justice. Here are some of the Biblical and Koranic basis
for peace and peace-building
With regard to Islam, Islam has a direct impact on the way that peace is conceptualized and the
way that conflicts are resolved in Islamic societies, as it embodies and elaborates upon its highest
morals, ethical principles and ideals of social harmony. Irrespective of the Islamic tradition to
which they adhere, Muslims agree that Islam is a religion of peace and that the application of
Islamic principles will bring justice, harmony, order, and thus peace based on key principles like
Salam, Tawhid, Rahmah, and Fitrah. Justice, forgiveness, vicegerency and social responsibility
are other concepts in Islam that play a key role in relation to peace and peace-building.
With regard to Christianity, it is possible to distinguish a similar set of peace-related concepts.
Obviously, in Christianity it is particularly the Bible that motivates Christians to work on peace.
The basis of Christian peace-building is formed by Biblical teachings that refer to peace
(shalom); peacemakers (‘blessed are the peacemakers, they shall be called the children of God’);
being created in the image of God; the unconditional love (agape) towards God and people (‘you
shall love the
Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul, and with your entire mind. […] You
shall love your neighbor as yourself’); lamenting, which helps people to grieve; confession and
repentance (that is, the willingness to evaluate oneself and assume responsibility for one’s own
contribution to the conflict, coupled with the willingness to change one’s behavior or to repent);
and reconciliation and forgiveness (‘for if you forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father
will also forgive you; but if you do not forgive men their trespasses, neither will your Father
forgive your trespasses’). Thus, the project considers that religious leaders potent actors for
peace in Ethiopia. The role of the faith leaders had been vividly observed during the jigjiga
turmoil of 2018 when the communities have saved and preserved the homes of refugees and
IDPs, and anticipated their return.
The project will organize woreda level workshops to be attended by faith leaders from Muslim,
Christian, and local indigenous religion followers to ameliorate the inter religion tensions.
Inter-generational dialogue: In order to minimize youth radicalization towards to identity and
accommodate social cohesion, woreda level workshops will be conducted particularly focusing
on youth leaders, elderlies, and faith leaders so as to create consensus for building and sustaining
inter and intra-community peace.
Conflict Sensitive Social Cohesion (CSSC): Following the violent conflicts and mass
displacements, the social fabrics of the societies had been destroyed; societal cleavages based on
ethnicities got heightened. Therefore, the project will make interventions that create bridging
societal cleavages and ties between adversary groups, dispel negative myths, facilitate changes in
perceptions and attitudes, forging structures and processes that redefine violent relationships in
to constructive and cooperative patterns.
The project will adopt a combination of People to People approach and community driven
development [CDD] model with the logic that if people from different ethnic, or religious
groups work together on issues of mutual interest, then they will learn to cooperate, and through
cooperation develop increased trust and positive relations.
The communities covered by this project have long and strong history of common social identity
connector particularly with religion, clan lineage and allegiances (like Gabra, Siko-Mando, and
Gurra) in which each person in a given ethnic/clan group may claim several of these identities,
some of which have b become linked with various other ethnic or clan groups. There are also
long history of co-existing and intermarriage among individuals, groups, communities in the
target districts which would be supposed to re-emerge after this project. They have shared towns,
history of positive interaction, some mixed villages, common religious institutions, and common
markets. All being from the Cushitic family, the society had no history of cold violence/cultural
violence meaning they shared most of traditional and cultural norms. Cross-border transhumance
within the ethnic and clan groups during extreme weather conditions is also the principal
connector for centuries.
Plan of actions are implemented under two activity outlines (participatory socialization and
Collective/ joint community activities)
The social cohesion component will be operationalized through participatory socialization in
which it first organizes of stakeholders, make orientations and trainings, and also establish
different social cohesion groups like committees, councils, clubs, and more to ensure effective
implementation, community ownership, and sustainability. Actions include: training for religious
and community leaders on social cohesion on topics like topics such as conflict analysis,
barometer for peace, appreciative inquiry, personal responsibility, forgiveness, leadership, and
practical mediation techniques; establish community social cohesion committees (to serve as
village-level resource persons and facilitators); monthly Social Cohesion meeting for social
cohesion committees; formation of listening clubs for the prevention of potential conflicts;
training on methods of mediation and the use of non-violent language; establishment and
formation of an intercommunity council (including host population, refugees, internally
displaced persons and returnees)
The second is Collective/ joint community activities between former or present adversary groups
which facilitates different communities/groups working together on identification, planning and
implementation, and support\strengthen ethnically integrated local businesses or associations to
opportunities for mixing and interaction between different groups namely: develop water springs
with possible pipeline extension, develop deep wells, establish market-sheds in selected towns
with mixed ethnic communities through community based contracting, rehabilitation of farm-tomarket roads through community based contracting, organize women groups [SCs] and provide
them capacity building training in selected towns of mixed ethnic communities &, channeling
empowerment\learning centers [where different community groups interact] in selected districts
of mixed communities through community based contracting, organize an international day of
peace on which people from different ethnic groups interact
Sustained Dialogue by Indigenous\Traditional Peace Institutions: The project will facilitate
kebele level peace dialogue in the form of sustained dialogues organized for
indigenous\traditional peace building institutions and local faith leaders already participated in
the ANV training above. This much localized in nature and same groups selected from peace
agents, faith and community leaders will form circles in their areas over extended periods of
time, and each circle comprises 12-15 participants. These are to be validated during the vetting
workshop above that they are they are people who are respected community leaders, who reflect
the key viewpoints of the underling conflict and community, and who are willing to come
together to listen to one another in an ongoing process, agree on the purpose, scope, and ground
rules of the dialogue. Then the circle will initially start map relationships, name problems and
havocs, telling stories of personal experiences, venting grievances, downloading or dumping all
the concerns, letting it all out, and clearing the air. Next, the circle will step into a positive
solution space, and they work out what practical steps they and the wider community needs to
take in order to change troublesome relationships and to overcome obstacles to their agreed
direction. Lastly, they draft plan of action to be implemented by their respective communities for
the intended sustainable peace.
Future Search Conference: This is a convocational conference mounted annually at regional
level to develop a series of options for the future, create a shared community vision of the future,
and agree on a plan of action. The conference will make review of the past, explore the present,
create ideal future scenarios, identify common ground, and devise action plans. Participants are
leadership and professionals at the government at zonal and regional levels, NGOs, faith actors,
leaders at indigenous peace building institutions, and business owners in the respective regions.
Multi-stakeholder platforms: This is a multi-stakeholder dialogue to be hosted bi-annually at
the regional level focusing on the peace dynamics, emerging trends and passing
recommendations from the multitude of participant stakeholders. Participants are sectors of the
government, NGOs, business entities, faith actors, indigenous peace building institutions, and
Expert Panels: The project will make strong collaboration with the nearby regional universities
and organizes annually panel discussion among multi-disciplinary of conflict management and
peace building with tough background papers presentations and encouraging debates among the
panelists and participants. Participants are high level specialists from universities, NGOs,
consultants, and independent PHD\Master having relevant dissertations.
Publication and dissemination: The project publicizes and disseminates these products to
impart awareness, knowledge and skills to a broad of stakeholders. The following documents
will be published under this intervention.
Conflict and peace landscape analysis
Social capital mapping
Peace Pact [consolidated from all the individual agreements]
Active Non-violence[ANV] training module
Furthermore, the project will undertake actions to build horizontal social capital linkages across
communities through sharing of experiences, peer to peer learning and knowledge transfer that
also help to promote capacity building. For this to be in effect, study tours to bring together
community members in rotating host communities for ongoing discussions, sharing of issues and
celebration of achievements, hereby improve shared learning and fostering relationships between
diverse societal groups; and mentoring of women groups (saving and credit associations)
whereby weaker community institutions are matched with those who have achieved stronger
results for transferring skills, replicating good practice and building horizontal linkages between
previously isolated communities. Thus, specific actions are: conduct study tours (cross learning,
collaborative learning, and joint learning), and interlocutor assisted mentoring among selected
women saving and credit associations.
Detailed activities
1. Convocation
1.1. Conduct peace actors’ identification and mobilization workshops (3 sessions, FSA and
APDA work jointly)
1.2. Host vetting and validation workshops (3 sessions, FSA and APDA work jointly)
1.3. Organize training for the peace agents in 6 sessions
1.4. Conduct awareness-raising/sensitization workshops on peace and peace-building
1.5. Organize training sessions for local, zonal and regional level government authorities on
conflict analysis, peace barometer, appreciative inquiry, and project cycle management
1.6. Social Capital Restoration workshops [binding, bridging, and bonding] (6 events, FSA and
APDA work jointly)
1.7. Social capital restoration Peace pact (minimum of three different peace pacts)
1.8. Social capital restoration: Active non-violence training (6 sessions, FSA and APDA work
1.9. Host inter-faith dialogue (12 events, FSA and APDA work jointly)
1.10. Host inter-generational dialogue (12 events, FSA and APDA work jointly)
1.11. Run sustained dialogues by indigenous\traditional peace Institutions (45 rounds, FSA and
APDA work jointly)
1.12. Establish community social cohesion committees
1.13. Provide training for religious and community leaders on social cohesion
1.14. Monthly social cohesion meeting for social cohesion committees
1.15. Formation of listening clubs for the prevention of potential conflicts
1.16. Provide training on methods of mediation and the use of non-violent language
1.17. Establishment and formation of an intercommunity council
1.18. Mount future search conference (6 rounds, APDA and FSA will host jointly)
1.19. Mount multi-stakeholder platforms (12 rounds, APDA and FSA will host jointly)
1.20. Mount expert panels (6 events, APDA and FSA will host jointly)
1.21. Develop 6 water springs with possible pipeline extension
1.22. Develop 4 deep wells
1.23. Establish 15 market-sheds in selected towns with mixed ethnic communities through
community based contracting
1.24. Rehabilitation of 20 farm-to-market roads through community based contracting
1.25. Organize 20 women groups [SCs] and provide them capacity building training in selected
towns of mixed ethnic communities & channeling revolving fund
1.26. Establish Social Fund (to be collected and operated through the SC accounts)
1.27. Establish\set-up 7 community empowerment\learning centers [where different community
groups interact] in selected districts of mixed communities through community based contracting
1.28. Organize10 events for celebration of an international day of peace on which people from
different ethnic groups interact
2. Knowledge
2.1. Publish and disseminate conflict and peace landscape analysis (by PAPDA)
2.2. Publish and disseminate social capital mapping (by WGF)
2.3. Publish peace pact [consolidated from all the individual agreements] (by APDA)
2.4. Develop, publish and disseminate active non-violence [ANV] training module (by FSA)
2.5. Conduct study tours (cross learning, collaborative learning, and joint learning)
2.6. Provide interlocutor assisted mentoring among selected women saving and credit
3. Analysis
3.1. Conduct landscape analysis study
3.2. Conduct social capital mapping