LAS 5 Concept Notes: Below is the Structure of the Chapter 3: Methodology of the Research Paper. The research design refers to the overall strategy being used to integrate the components of the study. This can be descriptive, correlational, ex post facto, quasiexperimental or experimental. To systematically select individuals, units or groups to be analyzed, relevant sampling method must be done so that the samples represent the target population. The number of samples can be determined using heuristics, literature review, formulas or power analysis. Selection of samples can be through random sampling such as simple random sampling, stratified random sampling, cluster sampling or systematic sampling. To gather the data, instruments are used. These tools can be tests, questionnaires, interviews or observations. To analyze the data, statistical tests are used. These can be parametric (Pearson’s r, t-tests etc.) or non- parametric (Phi coefficient, Spearman’s rho, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, two-way chi-square etc.) statistical tests. Chapter 3: Methodology 3.1 Research Design Quantitative Approach and Design 3.2 Context and Participants Number of Participants Participants’ Demographic characteristics Setting of the study (where and when) 3.3 Instruments and Data-gathering Procedure Instrument 1 and Procedure for instrument 1 Instrument 2 and Procedure for instrument 2 Instrument 3 and Procedure for instrument 3 3.4 Data Analysis Statistical methods used in the study LAS 6 Concept Notes: Depending on your methods used for the research study, you will have different kinds of data. Tables are used to present data using rows and columns. To explain and discuss the data in the table, explain the headings and identify the highest, average and lowest values. However, if the data can be presented in a graph, it is better to use graphs in your Results and Discussion and put the tables in the Appendix of the paper. Graphs present how one variable vary with the other variable. It can be a bar graph, line graph or pie graph. Different data suit different graphs. To explain and discuss the graphs, identify the graph with the title and legends and identify the highest, average, lowest value and the trends. Statistical techniques include Pearson’s r, Spearman’s rho, ANOVA, multiple regression and t-tests. Pearson’s’ r determine the linear relationship between variables. There can be positive, negative or no correlation. Spearman’s rho is non-parametric and also determines either there is positive, negative or no correlation. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) can either be one-way or two-way ANOVA. It tests the differences among the means of two or more groups of samples. T-test is a parametric that tests the difference between two means. Multiple regression is a tool to test the relationship between one dependent variable and at least two independent variables. Finding Answers Through Data Collection • Collect data using appropriate instruments; • Present and interpret data in tabular and graphical forms; and • Use statistical techniques to analyze the differences and relationships between two variables • Data Collection - is an activity that allows the researcher to obtain relevant information regarding the specified research questions or objectives. • Data Collection Instruments -when developing and utilizing a research instruments, you usually follow these steps. 1. Be clear with your research questions and the purpose of doing the investigation. 2. Plan how you will conduct the investigation and data collection. 3. Use research instruments that are appropriate for the type of research you are conducting. 4. Collect, tabulate, tally, and analyze the data. 5. Verify the validity and reliability of the collected data. 6. Report your findings based on the data you collected. Questionnaires – is a paper-based or electronic tool for collecting information about a particular research interest. -It is a list of questions or indicators that the participants need to answer. Guidelines in Using Questionnaires for Data Collection 1. Decide on the method of administering the questionnaire. 2. Draft your questionnaire Finding Answers Through Data Collection • Tests – are a quantitative research instrument used mainly for assessing various skills and types of behavior as well as for describing certain characteristics. Types of Test Questions • Recall Questions- require the participants to retrieve information from memory. • Open-ended questions – allow participants more freedom in their responses, and encourage them to express their thoughts and insights regarding a certain topic. • Observation – is more frequently used in qualitative research, it is also used in quantitative research particularly when the characteristics being observed are quantitative in nature. • Interviews – is a method of collecting data about an individual’s behaviors, opinions, values, emotions, and demographic characteristics using numerical data. -It involves the oral, interactive exchange of information between the researcher and the subject either face-to-face or not. Data-processing Techniques - once the data have been collected, they need to be encoded and organized to facilitate data analysis, this is the function of data processing. Presentation and Interpretation of Tables and Graphs tables – are non-prose materials that help condense and classify information using columns and rows. graphs – graphs use bars, lines, circles, and pictures in representing the data.