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Concept Notes:
Below is the Structure of the Chapter 3: Methodology of the Research Paper.
The research design refers to the overall strategy being used to integrate the
components of the study. This can be descriptive, correlational, ex post facto, quasiexperimental or experimental. To systematically select individuals, units or groups to
be analyzed, relevant sampling method must be done so that the samples represent the
target population. The number of samples can be determined using heuristics,
literature review, formulas or power analysis. Selection of samples can be through
random sampling such as simple random sampling, stratified random sampling,
cluster sampling or systematic sampling. To gather the data, instruments are used.
These tools can be tests, questionnaires, interviews or observations. To analyze
the data, statistical tests are used. These can be parametric (Pearson’s r, t-tests
etc.) or non- parametric (Phi coefficient, Spearman’s rho, Wilcoxon signed-rank
test, two-way chi-square etc.) statistical tests.
Chapter 3: Methodology
3.1 Research Design
Quantitative Approach and Design
3.2 Context and Participants
Number of Participants
Participants’ Demographic characteristics
Setting of the study (where and when)
3.3 Instruments and Data-gathering Procedure
Instrument 1 and Procedure for instrument 1
Instrument 2 and Procedure for instrument 2
Instrument 3 and Procedure for instrument 3
3.4 Data Analysis
Statistical methods used in the study
Concept Notes:
Depending on your methods used for the research study, you will have different kinds of
data. Tables are used to present data using rows and columns. To explain and discuss
the data in
the table, explain the headings and identify the highest, average and lowest values.
if the data can be presented in a graph, it is better to use graphs in your Results and
Discussion and put the tables in the Appendix of the paper. Graphs present how one
vary with the other variable. It can be a bar graph, line graph or pie graph. Different
data suit
different graphs. To explain and discuss the graphs, identify the graph with the title and
legends and identify the highest, average, lowest value and the trends. Statistical
techniques include Pearson’s r, Spearman’s rho, ANOVA, multiple regression and
t-tests. Pearson’s’ r determine the linear relationship between variables. There can be
positive, negative or no correlation. Spearman’s rho is non-parametric and also
determines either there is positive, negative or no correlation. Analysis of variance
(ANOVA) can either be one-way or two-way ANOVA. It tests the differences among the
means of two or more groups of samples. T-test is a parametric that tests the difference
between two means. Multiple regression is a tool to test the relationship between one
dependent variable and at least two independent variables.
Finding Answers Through Data Collection
Collect data using appropriate instruments;
Present and interpret data in tabular and graphical forms; and
Use statistical techniques to analyze the differences and relationships between
two variables
Data Collection - is an activity that allows the researcher to obtain relevant
information regarding the specified research questions or objectives.
Data Collection Instruments
-when developing and utilizing a research instruments, you usually follow these
1. Be clear with your research questions and the purpose of doing the
2. Plan how you will conduct the investigation and data collection.
3. Use research instruments that are appropriate for the type of research you
are conducting.
4. Collect, tabulate, tally, and analyze the data.
5. Verify the validity and reliability of the collected data.
6. Report your findings based on the data you collected.
Questionnaires – is a paper-based or electronic tool for collecting information
about a particular research interest.
-It is a list of questions or indicators that the participants need to answer.
Guidelines in Using Questionnaires for Data Collection
1. Decide on the method of administering the questionnaire.
2. Draft your questionnaire
Finding Answers Through Data Collection
Tests – are a quantitative research instrument used mainly for assessing various
skills and types of behavior as well as for describing certain characteristics.
Types of Test Questions
Recall Questions- require the participants to retrieve information from memory.
Open-ended questions – allow participants more freedom in their responses,
and encourage them to express their thoughts and insights regarding a certain
Observation – is more frequently used in qualitative research, it is also used in
quantitative research particularly when the characteristics being observed are
quantitative in nature.
Interviews – is a method of collecting data about an individual’s behaviors,
opinions, values, emotions, and demographic characteristics using numerical
-It involves the oral, interactive exchange of information between the researcher
and the subject either face-to-face or not.
Data-processing Techniques
- once the data have been collected, they need to be encoded and organized to
facilitate data analysis, this is the function of data processing.
Presentation and Interpretation of Tables and Graphs
tables – are non-prose materials that help condense and classify information
using columns and rows.
graphs – graphs use bars, lines, circles, and pictures in representing the data.