Case Study 1 Q1 Answer: When Mulally became the CEO of Ford, he basically focused on 4 step or 4 strategies that might help him to restore the Ford’s status. The first thing he did was to immediately change the organizational structure or downsizing. He knew that the most of the problem aroused for Ford was due to financial issues and the reconstruction of jobs might be more suitable for such a condition. The next thing he did was that he started focusing on more customer driven products that are more innovative and fulfills the most of the demands of customers and in the same time, are more profitable to the company. Thirdly he managed the financial sources that are needed by the company to move forward and to make the balance sheets more attractive to compel the potential and current shareholders to invest and to create goodwill of the company. The last thing he did was that he worked on the accountability with the workers, he actually accessed, controlled and monitored them and corrected their mistakes which is what a manager do. Q2 Answer: Structural implications caused by the Ford’s world class approach might promote that idea of “survival of the best”. Many Ford employees might be redundant during reconstruction of company’s hierarchy. The major and most important structural implication might be that there would be more diverse culture in Fords once they go global and start their activities in different countries. This would lead to changing in their management systems that might a problem in later context. Another problem might be the implications on them using other country’s resources. So these all factors might be the structural and environmental implications that might be arouse later and even some are already in the field. Q3 Answer: Ford’s future organizational design is based on boundary less organizational structure that basically believes that the boundaries in between the countries are just artificial and products sold to the customers have no limits in terms of boundaries as Ford have specified that they are going Global by using the resources from other countries and setting their production facilities there. One plan is basically an inappropriate approach because when you go Global, there are some other factors such as economic and cultural conditions of the other country so not every plane is implacable to every other country. One Ford is the most appropriate approach because this is the reason why most of the companies functions to achieve their goals. The last approach is One Team which is again inappropriate if we talk about Ford of going Global, because global markets have different competitors, rules and regulation and different political condition. Q4 Answer: Company’s vision statement is basically the reflection of the owner’s that what are they trying to achieve in the long term and how are they going to do it. If the company goals are like having one plan or one team, it might be motivating to some extent but they are too vague and general when it comes to globalization. Employee’s first attention is on the mission and vision statement and that’s how they work and portray themselves, so vision must be specific and clear that the employees remain well motivated and they know what to achieve in their long term career or at least they are aware about their goals. Case Study 2 Q1 Answer: Population trends or the demographics would have a great effect on US Navy’ managerial roles. This would create an environment to understand what managers do and how the individuals respond. There current practices are more into preventing wars than winning wars. This idea is basically a reflection of diversity in the US Navy forces because diverse organizations need everyone’s opinion to move forward. Their adaptation of diverse society would attract many others from different cultures within US and this would lead to more ethically formed organization as it would have to cater the ethical and moral values of the people from every culture. US Navy is now representing more Latinos, Blacks and women in their Navy forces so; these are the potential trend makers in the future of US Navy. The functions that might be affected by the diverse culture are planning, controlling, leading and organizing. These functions are highly defendant on the organization’s culture because these functions have to be achieved by all members in an organization and are not limited to just some individuals. Q2 Answers: Certainly two challenges are the most important when it comes to diversity. The first one is the culture and background, their thinking and believes, their ethical and moral values, their way of doing things, their habits and adaptation of a new environment. Another challenge might be the opposition to change like many people don’t want to lose their identity and they oppose some changes when it comes to their learning or application part. If we relate it to Hofstede theory of culture, there might be a challenge when there would be more females in the army and gender bias might be the potential problem. Another challenge might be the power distance because some cultures don’t like that. Q3 Answer: In order to be sure that once the soldiers are trained and they don’t left the navy in the later phase, managers have to be careful. They have to make policies which give equal rights to every employee; the working environment is free from race, gender or religion biases. Managers must assure that their employees are well motivated once they are done with their training. These all efforts would help the organization to use the training cost effectively because training needs a lot of time and sources and once the employee leaves the organization once he is trained, this might be a company’s biggest miscalculation. They have to ensure that employee is busy in job engagement which means that he is satisfied with what he is doing and he is gaining enough motivation from that job. Q4 Answer: Mentoring or providing sources to the mentee would help the mentee to accept the goals, values and norms of the Navy. This would help both mentor and mentee to develop and improve interpersonal skills, informational skills and decision making skills. In Navy, mentoring could be done through the senior’s subordinates or the real instructors. Navy can help the mentees by giving them opportunity to ask questions and to make their minds to be a part of navy, to participate in activities relevant to them, asking them to be attentive all the time in order to use to the culture.