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Nursery Raising of Vegetables Crops

Nursery Raising of Vegetables Crops
Nursery is a place where seedlings are grown before transplanting them in the main
plots. Generally, seed are to grow vegetables and to raise seedlings. Therefore,
quality of seed is very important based on which the vegetable seed are sown. There
are some vegetables which cannot grow directly by sowing the seed in to the plot.
For example, for vegetable such as tomato, eggplant, rayo, cabbage and cauliflower,
seedling first need to be raised and then transplanted in the plot. Generally, the
seeds are covered with a layer of soil after sowing.
While there are some other vegetables whose seed need to be direct sowing in the
main plot such as okra, mustard, legumes etc. In many cases, if the seed are sown
too close to the surface the risk is greater that they will be dried out by the sun or
eaten by birds or rodents. There are several different types of vegetable seeds
based on their size and it is important to maintain to correct distances between plant
to plant and row to row distances.
In off-season vegetable growing the seed are sown once in the nursery and
transplanted in ty to grow seedling in the main plot. During that time, there are very
much vulnerable with temperature, light, water, insects, pests and diseases. The
seedlings are very weak immediately after transplanting from the nursery bed.
Therefore, it is necessary to grow seedling in the nursery rather than growing them in
the main plots.
Selection of site
The following are considered while selecting nursery area
1. The area should be free from the water logging.
2. It should be always away from shade to get desire sunlight.
3. The nursery areas should be near the water supply.
4. The area should be fenced from the pet and wild animals.
Advantages of transplanting of the seedling
1. It helps from purchasing of the costlier seeds.
2. Ensures proper utilization of the land.
3. Easiness for the better growth and development.
4. Possibility of extension of the transplanting of the seedling until the favorable time.
5. Preparation of seedling even in the adverse situation.
6. Easiness for the care and maintenances because of the handy area.
Soil and soil preparation
Soil should be loam to sandy loam, lose and friable, rich in organic content and well
drained for raising vegetables seedling the soil pH should be 7.0. Soil preparation
need a deep cultivation of nursery land either by soil turning, ploughing by spade and
subsequent 2-3 hoeing with cultivator. Remove all the clods, stones, and weeds from
the field and level the land. Mix 100 kg well rotten and fine FYM of 500 gm vermicompost per square meter mixed in the soil.
Soil treatment
Soil solarization for about 4-5 weeks on the ploughed soil covered with the plastic
tunnel is better. Drenching of the soil 15-20 days earlier of sowing @4-5 liter of water
with concentration of 1.5-2 % of formalin solution per square meter and covered with
the plastic sheet. Application of the fungicide like Captain and Thiram which will also
kill the pathogens 5-6 gm of any square meter nursery area. Furadon, Heptachlor
are some insecticides which is mixed in the dry soil @4-5 gm/m2 and should be mixed
up to the depth of 15-20 cm for nursery preparation. Supply of the hot steam at least
4 hours continuously under the covered polythene sheet and allow the soil for the
seed bed preparation.
Nursery bed preparation
Nursery bed should be prepared according to the seasons and crop where raised
beds are prepared in the rainy seasons and flat beds are prepared for the winter and
summer seasons. Prepare soil mixture in the ratio of 1:1:1 of soil, sand and well
rotten FYM or leaf mold and fill the mixture in these seedlings raising structure so
that drainage of the excess water on the structure is easy.
Raised nursery beds
The width of 1 m with 15-20 cm high from the ground level of a raised bed is
prepared. A space of 30-40 cm is left between two beds and ultimately it converts in
to furrows. The nursery bed should be smooth and slightly raised in the center
compared to the margin for easy drain of the bed. The bed should prepare in the
east and west direction and line should be made north to south on the beds.
Nursery beds raising in adverse weather condition
There are some adverse condition for the nursery raising where open field condition
is not possible. Thus, following ways should be adopted.
1. During continuous heavy rainfall
In this condition seedling should be raised in the glass house, shade or poly house in
small structure like earthen pot, potting pugs, polythene bags and curd tray by using
soil, sand and compost mixture. During the raining hours these plots are to be kept
at the protected place.
2. Low and high temperature condition
During too low or too high temperature condition the artificial temperature regimes
can be created in the glass house or poly house for seed germination and raising the
seedling successfully to catch the early market by producing the early crop.
Requirement of seed and seedling area
The seeds and areas for raising the seedling may vary according to the soil, crop,
seasons and methods of the nursery raising. The detail are given below.
Seed rate (gm)
Area required (cm2)
Tomato (OP)
Early flower
Mid late flower
Sowing of seeds in the nursery
After the seed bed is prepared then the seed are sown in the nursery bed in the
different way. Those methods are as follows.
1. Broad cast methods
Seeds are broadcasted in the prepared nursery bed and later on the seeds are
covered with well rotten fine sieved and treated FYM or compost. The major
disadvantage of this method is there is uneven distribution of seeds in the nursery
becomes dense but this method is the commonly used and practiced.
Line Sowing
Line sowing is the best method of sowing in the nursery. Lines are made 0.5-1 cm
deep parallel to the width at the distance of 5 cm from the line. The seeds are sown
or placed singly at the distance of about 1cm apart. Cover the seeds with the fine
mixture of soil, sand and FYM in the ratio of 1:1:1. After covering a light irrigation
must be given with the fine rose can.
The advantage of the line sowing are as below:
Each and every seedling will be healthy, bold and uniform.
Less seeds are required as compared to the broadcasting method.
Every seedling will get uniform light and air.
Weed management of seedbeds will be easy.
Easy to look after the seedling if there is any disease or insect causing damage.
In hot weather condition, organic mulched shading nets are used to protect the
nursery from the direct sunlight.
Germination (Days)
Sovay cabbage
Brussels sprouts
Chinese cabbage
Sweet Marjoram
Seed covering material
Seed cover
After seed sowing a mixture of sand, soil and FYM in the ratio of 1:1:1 is prepared for
the covering the nursery bed for the better emergence. Care should be taken that
every seed is well covered by seed covering.
Seed bed cover
Use of mulch
A thin layer of mulching of paddy straw or sugarcane trash or sarkanda or any
organic mulch during hot weather and by plastic mulch in cool weather is done to
maintain the soil moisture for proper seed germination. The advantages of mulching
1. It maintains the soil moisture and temperature for the better seed germination
2. It suppresses the weeds.
3. Protect from direct sunlight and raindrops.
4. Protects against bud damage.
Removal of the mulch
As and when the white thread like structure is seen above the ground level, remove
the mulch carefully to avoid any damage to emerging plumules. Always remove
mulch in the evening hours to avoid harmful effect of the bright sunlight on the new
emerging seedlings. Vegetables and appropriate days taken the seed germination.
Use of shedding nets
After seed germination during the seedling growth, if there is very high temperature
(>30°c) than beds should be covered by 50% or 60% shedding nets of
green/green+black color, about 60-90 cm above ground by the use of suitable
The nursery bed requires light irrigation with the help of rose can till seed get
germinated. Excess rainwater or irrigated water should be drained out and when it is
required. If the temperature is high open irrigation is applied. Need no irrigation
during the rainy days.
It is important operation to remove weak, unhealthy disease, insects, pests damaged
and dense plants from the nursery beds keeping distances of about 0.5-1 cm from
plant to plant. The thinning facility balance light and air to each and every plant.
Weed control
Timely weeding in nursery is very important to get the healthy seedling therefore
manually removing them or pre-emergence herbicides such as stomp @3ml per liter
water should be sprayed on the nursery bed after the seed sowing and seed
covering with the mixture.
Plant protection
Damping off of seedling, light blight disease and leaf minor and borer infect the
seedling in the nursery. The care for controlling them in time is essential.
Hardening of the plant in the nursery
The term hardening includes any treatment that makes the tissue firm to endure
better during unfavorable environment like low temperature high temperature and hot
dry wind. Hardening is the physiological process of whereby plant accumulates more
carbohydrates reserve and produces an additional cuticle on the leaves. In the
process seedling are given some artificial shocks at least 7-10 days before uprooting
and transplanting. Seedling are exposed to the full sunlight, all the seedling needs,
polythene sheets should be removed and irrigation is stopped slowly and slowly.
Technique of Hardening
Hardening can be done by following ways.
By holding watering to the watering to the plant by 4-5 days before transplanting
Lowering the temperature also retards the growth aids to the hardening process.
By application of 4000 ppm Nacl with the irrigation water or by spraying of 2000
ppm of cycoel.
Effect of Hardening
Following effect must be observed by the hardening
Hardening improves the quality and modify the nature of colloids ion the plant cell
enabling them to resist the loss of water.
Hardening improves the presence of dry matter and regards in the plant but
decrease the percentage of feasible water and transpiration per unit area of leaf.
Decrease the rate of growth in the plant.
Harden plants withstand better against unfavorable weather condition like hot day,
wind and low temperature. Hardening of plants increases the waxy covering the
leaves of cabbage. Thus, with the proper scheduling of the activities and
procedure, we can be able for the management of nursery along with the raising of
vegetables crops.