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UBC 1986 A8 M54

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THE INVESTIGATION
OF GENERATIVE THEMES IN E . S . L .
ASSESSMENT
by
ELLEN JOANNE MILLARD
B.A.,
University
A THESIS SUBMITTED
Of V i c t o r i a ,
1980
IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF
THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS
in
THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES
Department
We a c c e p t
to
Of E n g l i s h
this
the
thesis
required
THE UNIVERSITY
conforming
standard
OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
September
©
as
Education
E l l e n Joanne
1986
Millard,
1986
NEEDS '
In
presenting
requirements
for
Columbia,
I
available
for
permission
this
thesis
in
an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t
agree
shall
reference
and
study.
I
extensive
c o p y i n g of
or
representatives.
allowed
without
Department
of
this
thesis
my w r i t t e n
October
It
for
is
15
1986
Columbia
further
thesis
understood
permission.
make
gain
the
British
it
freely
agree
for
my D e p a r t m e n t
financial
English Education
The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h
2075 Wesbrook P l a c e
V a n c o u v e r , Canada
V6T 1W5
Date:
Head o f
this
of
U n i v e r s i t y of
Library
for
of
the
the
may be g r a n t e d by t h e
publication
fulfilment
that
purposes
her
partial
that
that
scholarly
or
by
copying
shall
not
his
or
be
i i
Abstract
This
basis
thesis
for
adult
Generative
objective
by
themes
people
i n the
educator
notably
Core
the
ESL needs a n a l y s i s
situation
the
content
investigates
consist
and t h e
involved
Paulo
the
it.
T h e y form t h e
North
American
Nina W a l l e r s t e i n , Deborah B a r n d t ,
Group,
have
developed
guidelines
students
themes and s t r u c t u r e
around
them.
However
interdisciplinary
necessary
The
whether
according
ethnographic
in order to
an
that
would
of
purpose
students
generative
and
tapes
for
then
the
study
of
the
literacy
Toronto
ESL
ESL
teachers
content
of
to
lessons
a
full-scale
students'
community
themes.
c o u l d come
to
determine
up w i t h a
thematic
was
criteria,
an a d u l t
ESL
themes o f
as
to
through
class.
a
The
these p a r t i c u l a r
the
relevance
of
learning ESL.
were
four
months,
P u n j a b i - s p e a k i n g i m m i g r a n t women
volunteer
tutor
Union.
taped
I
them and
conducted a c o n t e n t - a n a l y s i s
i n order to
the
investigation
some i n s i g h t s
Farmworkers
five
of
f o r program
practitioners,
Freire,
Freire's
identify
gain
i n a homefront
Candian
classes
to
themes f o r
students
enrolled
the
was
i n order to
The
this
fulfill
p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v a t i o n case
second
to
study
i n d i v i d u a l ESL t e a c h e r
analysis
the
an
situation
adult
ESL
for
understand t h e i r
primary purpose
basis
and
the
between
that
Brazilian
identify
is
h e l d of
as
development.
relationship
scheme o f
Freire.
theme"
and c u r r i c u l u m
perceptions
in
pedagogical
of
"generative
identify
and rank
the
ESL program
taught
the
recorded
of
offered
twice-weekly
observations,
transcriptions
topic
areas
by
of
of
most
the
and
least
interest
discussing
them.
qualitatively,
criteria
for
From
Students
strange
of
the
see
and
them,
are
the
family-related
the
approach of
of
strength
investigating
logistical
to
p a r a m e t e r s of
the
spent
topic
areas
t h e y met F r e i r e ' s
-
and p r i d e w h i l e
of
which,
while
are
out
which i s
the
language
that
characterizes
to
Canda
and
t h e m e d i c a l and
difficult,
these
two,
. between
process.
the
are
lessen
students'
be
focussed
curriculum
themes t h a t
attempting
and
is
ESL c o n t e n t
and t h a t
cultural
place
of
tensions
learning
aspects
of
between
of
in a
sources
foreign,
gulf
and t h e r e f o r e
those
land"
language,
emerged.
"strangers
all
English
l e a r n i n g needs,
the
one
represents
Bridging
affirming
themes
The " s t r a n g e
the
contact
which
time
the
take
sources
ignorance
perceptions
of
society.
Several
as
possible
recommendations a r e
on
and a l i e n a t i o n
society.
f a m i l y and t h e
Curricular
o r not
them,
in a big c i t y
of
these
i n Canada a s
to
hostile.
main s o u r c e
strategy
several
strength
life
to
themes.
including
their
are
whether
position
in Candian
system,
Canadian
to
traditional culture
and
-
according
analyzed
The " s t r a n g e r s " a r e a
students'
alienating
then
analysis
their
land.
system
legal
I
students
according
this
irrelevant
the
generative
affirmation
the
to
observations
generative
a r e made r e g a r d i n g t h e
themes f o r E S L .
and c a n be a d d r e s s e d
classroom setting
d i f f i c u l t y of
conducting
Some of
by c h a n g i n g t h e
combine F r e i r e ' s f o u r - s t a g e
the
feasibility
is
the
problems
situation:
team a p p r o a c h w i t h
proposed.
'dialogue'
of
Others,
i n one-word
a
the
such
phrases,
i v
and the
conflict
research
attempt
aspects
power
of
attempt
approach
learners'
that
roles
is
social
acknowledges
in their
is
and agenda between
the
to apply F r e i r e ' s
This
this
of
investigation,
pedagogy
the
are
teaching
inherent
context
the
lives.
of
the
i n the
the
to E S L .
w o r t h w h i l e and i m p o r t a n t , however,
one
in
and
few
that
takes
o r g a n i z a t i o n of
r e l a t i o n s h i p between
into
because
account
curriculum,
language
and
l e a r n i n g and
V
T a b l e of
Contents
Abstract
L i s t of T a b l e s
L i s t of F i g u r e s
Acknowledgement
Chapter
ii
vii
viii
ix
I
INTRODUCTION
1
THE PEDAGOGY OF PAULO FREIRE
5
GENERATIVE THEMES
9
Chapter
II
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
FREIRE'S
12
GENERATIVE THEME INVESTIGATION
13
CLASSROOM THEMATIC INVESTIGATIONS
16
PROGRAM CONTENT OF THE FARMWORKERS E S L CRUSADE
26
STUDIES OF THE PUNJABI COMMUNITY IN VANCOUVER
32
Chapter
III
CONTEXT OF THE INVESTIGATION
38
THE PUNJABI COMMUNITY IN VANCOUVER
38
FARMWORK
42
THE ESL CRUSADE
46
STUDENT PROFILES
49
C h a p t e r IV
THE PROCEDURE OF THEMATIC INVESTIGATION
56
GENERATIVE THEME INVESTIGATION AND EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY
57
CHRONOLOGY OF THE INVESTIGATION
59
CLASSROOM A C T I V I T I E S
65
OBSERVATION
FOR REVEALING THEMES
STRATEGIES
PROBLEMS AND ISSUES IN THEMATIC INVESTIGATION
68
72
vi
Chapter
V
PRESENTATION
AND D I S C U S S I O N
OF R E S U L T S
83
DATA A N A L Y S I S
83
TOPIC
93
AREA I N T E R - R E L A T I O N S H I P S
FOOD
94
WORK
96
PHONE
98
DATA
IN
TERMS OF F R E I R I A N
CRITERIA
FOR THEMES
99
SOURCES OF F E A R
100
SOURCES OF S T R E N G T H
106
THE T I E
BINDS
110
S O U R C E S OF T E N S I O N
115
STRANGERS
120
Chapter
THAT
IN
A STRANGE LAND
VI
CONCLUSIONS
124
SUMMARY OF
THE
STUDY AND F I N D I N G S
125
INVESTIGATION
A S T R A T E G Y FOR
125
INVESTIGATING
G E N E R A T I V E THEMES FOR E S L
1 27
THE
THEMES
129
A THEMATIC
ISSUES
IN
DIALOGUE
ROLE
E S L CURRICULUM
FREIRIAN ESL TEACHING
IN
ONE-WORD
CONFLICTS
LANGUAGE
IN
LEARNING
LANGUAGE LEARNING
BIBLIOGRAPHY
131
AND
132
PHRASES
THEMATIC
IN
AND R E S E A R C H
132
INVESTIGATION
A SOCIAL
136
CONTEXT
139
POWER
141
^
145
VI 1
List
Ranking R e s u l t s
of
Tables
V I
List
Strangers
in a Strange
11
of
Land
Figures
ix
Acknowledgement
The
primary c r e d i t
f o r t h e work i n t h i s t h e s i s b e l o n g s t o the
f o u r s t u d e n t s of my F a r m w o r k e r s
ESL C r u s a d e
class:
to
their
honesty,
energy,
warmhearted
generosity,
and f a i t h i n me. The
p e o p l e on t h e s t a f f a n d e x e c u t i v e of
the
Canadian Farmworkers
Union
also
c o n t r i b u t e d a g r e a t d e a l t o my u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the
P u n j a b i f a r m w o r k e r community i n V a n c o u v e r . T h a n k s
for
help
in
the
d e v e l o p m e n t of i d e a s t o D a v i d J a c k s o n and S y b i l F a i g i n , and
t o them and a l l my f r i e n d s and f a m i l y f o r l i s t e n i n g p a t i e n t l y t o
my c o m p l a i n t s and f r u s t r a t i o n s .
My p a r t i c u l a r
thanks
to
Dr.
Bernard
Mohan,
my a d v i s o r ,
for
his
help
and m o r a l s u p p o r t
throughout.
1
I.
This
basis
of
for adult
the
considerable
richer
of
the
"generative
ESL program c o n t e n t .
educator
teachers
in
investigates
pedagogical
literacy
had
thesis
INTRODUCTION
approach of
impact
both
nations.
Freire
needs a n a l y s i s
the
as
the
themes a r e
third
the
have
w o r l d and among
i m m i g r a n t s and i l l i t e r a t e
describes
part
Brazilian
on l i b e r a t o r y e d u c a t i o n
i n the
minority groups,
Generative
Paulo F r e i r e ,
whose w r i t i n g s
theme"
place
and c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p m e n t
of
adults
generative
as
in
themes
follows:
I t i s t o t h e r e a l i t y w h i c h m e d i a t e s men, and
t o t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f t h a t r e a l i t y h e l d by
e d u c a t o r s and p e o p l e , t h a t we must go t o
f i n d t h e p r o g r a m c o n t e n t of e d u c a t i o n .
The
i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f what I have t e r m e d t h e
p e o p l e ' s ' t h e m a t i c u n i v e r s e ' - the complex
of t h e i r ' g e n e r a t i v e t h e m e s ' - i n a u g u r a t e s
. . . e d u c a t i o n as t h e p r a c t i c e of f r e e d o m .
The o b j e c t of t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s . . . t h e
t h o u g h t - l a n g u a g e w i t h w h i c h men r e f e r t o
r e a l i t y , the l e v e l s at which they p e r c e i v e
t h a t r e a l i t y , and t h e i r v i e w of t h e w o r l d ,
i n w h i c h t h e i r g e n e r a t i v e themes a r e f o u n d .
(1970:86)
In
Pedagogy
of
the
investigation
Oppressed,
for
the
of
for
w h i c h an e d u c a t i o n a l
the
use
generative
program i s
A m e r i c a n ESL p r a c t i t i o n e r s
have
by i n d i v i d u a l ESL t e a c h e r s .
between t h e
described
full-scale
by F r e i r e
Freire
outlines
themes of
a procedure
a community
being planned.
A few N o r t h
adapted F r e i r e ' s procedure
There i s
a striking
i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y ethnographic
and t h e
observational
activities
some r e s p e c t s
it
straightforward classroom
that
constitute
seems d o u b t f u l
if
for
difference
study
and
these a d a p t a t i o n s .
an i n d i v i d u a l E S L t e a c h e r
In
2
following
of
the
order
is
these procedures c o u l d p o s s i b l y
d e p t h and d e t a i l
to
Freire
generative
that
the
theme
difficulties
limitations
investigation
investigating
of
of
are
in applying F r e i r e
The f o c u s
to
my r e s e a r c h was
generative
themes
at
as
an
necessary
generative
i n d i c a t i v e of
to
in
themes.
these adaptations
the
analysis
more
to
It
the
general
C a n a d i a n ESL s i t u a t i o n .
examine
i n the
the
feasibility
ESL c l a s s r o o m .
of
The
was a F r e i r e - s t y l e E S L p r o g r a m f o r P u n j a b i - s p e a k i n g
f a r m w o r k e r s o p e r a t e d by t h e
Canadian Farmworkers U n i o n .
a p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v a t i o n case
my c l a s s
the
describes
b u i l d a c u r r i c u l u m on p e o p l e s '
possible
context
that
arrive
of
process
classes
f o u r women.
of
the
results
five
generative
this
analysis
themes,
the
used
'case'
was
notes
on
I taped our t w i c e - w e e k l y ESL
months,
on t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of
of
the
In a d d i t i o n t o c o m p i l i n g f i e l d
investigation,
o v e r a p e r i o d of
analysis
study methodology;
I
and c a r r i e d
tapes.
i n terms of
out
a
content
I then a n a l y z e d
Freire's criteria
the
for
and came up w i t h a c u r r i c u l u m model b a s e d on
them.
Thus t h e
thrust
was
classroom.
generative
to
examine
had a d o u b l e t h r u s t .
thematic
The s u b s t a n t i v e
objective
of
of
F r e i r e ' s theory
standpoint
generative
are
rare
to
operate
the
of
the
and an
practical
C a n a d i a n ESL c o n t e x t .
from a
in Canada.
themes a s a means o f
i n t h e ESL
investigation,
the
The p r o c e d u r a l
was an a n a l y s i s
important issues a f f e c t i n g
ESL p r o g r a m s c l a i m i n g t o
Freirian
investigation
themes r e v e a l e d by t h e
identification
adaptation
investigation
specifically
The i n v e s t i g a t i o n
needs a n a l y s i s ,
and t h e
of
planning
3
of
program c o n t e n t
common even
practical
and c u r r i c u l u m a c c o r d i n g t o
in these programs.
issues
of
adapting Freire
are v i r t u a l l y non-existent.
exploratory
in nature.
classroom thematic
curricula
are
adult
not
will
be t o
only
to
however,
for
applications
model t o
practical
within
Freirian
to
a p r o g r a m where
ingredients
and c r i t e r i a
Freire's
of
begins
for
of
visit
concludes
issues,
of
to
relevance
is
with a b r i e f
this
of
practical
the
of
study
Some of
especially
Chapter
Freire's
his
II
the
it
key
definiton
of
presents
chapter are d e s c r i b e d
the
key
are presented.
of
was
assumed.
and c u r r i c u l u m development
review
study
p r o c e d u r e and E S L c l a s s r o o m
in t h i s
office,
general.
s u r r o u n d i n g the
issues
r a i s e d and a d d r e s s e d by F r e i r e
C.F.U.
these
and s u g g e s t
d e s c r i p t i o n of
themes.
of
a r e a of
in
of
relevance
issues
that
the
development
the
the
very
needs a s s e s s m e n t p o r t i o n of
investigation
Also
I believe
The p u r p o s e o f
with a brief
needs a n a l y s i s
the
the
generative
it.
t o E S L , as
to
a test
its
Farmworkers ESL C r u s a d e .
Freire
explore
the
feasibility
primary usefulness
F r e i r e ' s pedagogy,
thematic
adaptations
original
the
investigate
a p p l i c a t i o n of
The t h e s i s
therefore
p r o g r a m s but
pedagogy.
one c a s e a s
E S L , but
examining
and c u r r i c u l u m development
that
not
s t r u c t u r i n g ESL
themes;
Freirian
are
C a n a d i a n ESL c o n t e x t
is
and of
f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h on t h e
of
to present
the
study
generative
raise questions,
directions
not
investigation
ESL needs a n a l y s i s
I anticipate,
This
to
studies
Comments a r e made on t h e
a c c o r d i n g to
relevant
Empirical
them,
of
the
the
in applying
himself
in a
The c h a p t e r
anthropological studies
of
the
4
Punjabi
community i n V a n c o u v e r , t h e
student
g r o u p s e r v e d by
the
Crusade.
Chapter
context
III
i n which the
describes
Valley,
the
oppressive
the
of
the
Chapter
investigation
conditions
h i s t o r y of
four
that
generative
themes,
raises
were most
a possible
and l e a s t
relates
to
the
their
of
demands o f
development
that
the
of
r e v e a l e d by t h e
is
for
logistical
with
results
students'
is
brief
class.
the
difficulties
of
This
Freire
in
the
are
Topic
taped data
Freire's
turn
and E S L .
are presented.
are
criteria
identified,
"minimum t h e m a t i c
and
universe"
presented.
and s u b s t a n t i v e
presented
the
revealing
investigation.
S e v e r a l theme a r e a s
the
for
p r o c e d u r e of
successful
the
Union,
and o b s e r v a t i o n a l
r e l a t i o n s h i p to
learning English
A proposal
investigation
Fraser
ESL C r u s a d e
concludes
the
analysis
In C h a p t e r VI b o t h p r o c e d u r a l
summarized.
It
in the
c o m a p t i b i l i t y of
substantive
themes.
analysis
the
It
teaching
from a c o n t e n t
i n terms of
generative
it
the
i s s u e s p e r t a i n i n g to
evaluated
farmwork
and d i s c u s s e s
i n ESL c l a s s r o o m t h e m a t i c
identified
took p l a c e .
Canadian Farmworkers
place.
a n d i n t e r m s of
In C h a p t e r V , t h e
areas
the
and p o l i t i c a l
f a r m w o r k e r women who c o m p r i s e d my
i n t e r m s of
activities
inherent
of
o p e r a t i n g s t r u c t u r e of
IV d e s c r i b e s
investigation
as
historical, cultural
i n w h i c h my r e s e a r c h t o o k
profiles
for
the
thematic
gives a brief
and o u t l i n e s
year
presents
results
for a generative
are
theme
w o u l d c o m b i n e F r e i r e ' s team a p p r o a c h w i t h
ESL t e a c h i n g
situation.
Suggestions
a c u r r i c u l u m b a s e d on t h e
study are a l s o
presented.
thematic
for
the
the
information
The c h a p t e r
concludes
5
with a discussion
ESL g e n e r a t i v e
curricula,
of
some
theme
and t h e
t e a c h i n g and r e s e a r c h
investigation,
practical
the
issues
development
a p p l i c a t i o n of
affecting
of
thematic
F r e i r e ' s pedagogy
in
a Canadian ESL c o n t e x t .
THE PEDAGOGY OF PAULO FREIRE
A detailed
outside
key
of
the
c r i t i q u e of
scope
ingredients
generative
of
this
Education
for C r i t i c a l
books
statement
of
the
contained
in Chapter
3 of
of
central
works t o
oppressed.
tenet
the
by
e q u i p p i n g them w i t h t h e
perceive,
their
power o v e r
political
revolution)
educational
program.
a c c o m p l i s h e d as
oppressed.
it
is
that
is
to
serve
of
is
in
H i s most
generative
the
Process
complete
themes
Oppressed; t h i s
lives.
is
thus
This
a result
of
education
is
either
the
the
analytical,
name and change
their
discussion
(1970),
Pedagogy
(1985).
of
advantage
the
to
If
the
its
is
will
reference.
of
tools
Education
Pedagogy
for
Oppressed
(1973),
i m p o r t a n c e and r o l e
be my c e n t r a l p o i n t
It
the
is
outline
F r e i r e ' s philosophy
Consciousness
of
education
however,
provide a context
Pedagogy of
and The P o l i t i c s
neutral.
I will,
themes w h i c h f o l l o w s .
in h i s
Freire's
paper.
i n order to
presented
(1978),
F r e i r e ' s approach to
the
of
latter,
will
the
be
politically
oppressors
it
must do
or
so
linguistic
and
situations
which l i m i t
S o c i a l change
the
not
ultimate
(not
goal
legitimate
of
practical
excluding
a
only
if
"conscientization"
of
Freirian
the
6
Conscientization
of
society
specific
move
and o n e ' s
problems.
from n a i e v e
fatalism,
which
impossibility
horizontal
joint
which
it,
is
a critical
fold
the
their
power
awareness
through a n a l y s i s
p r o c e s s whereby
of
oppressed
people
"characterized
arms,
of
characterized
and a w a r e n e s s of
resigned
facts,"
to
to
to
the
critical
by o b j e c t i v e
o n e ' s power
by
analysis
of
intervene
in
1973:44).
This
is
approach i s
determined
"dialogue,"
w h i c h he d e f i n e s
relationship
search"
in
of
"magic" c o n s c i o u s n e s s
teaching
epistemology.
awakening
the
resisting
(Freire,
Freire's
is
l e a d s men t o
c a u s e and e f f e c t ,
history
the
situation
It
or
of
consciousness,
is
between p e r s o n s
(Ibid.:45)
Knowledge d o e s not
w h i c h c a n be p a s s s e d down
created
as
the
result
thought
of
teacher
...
of
from t e a c h e r
the
mutual
to
by
who a r e
exist
as
students,
reflection
and s t u d e n t s d i r e c t e d
his
as
"a
engaged
a
in a
commodity
but
is
and c r i t i c a l
toward a t h i r d
object.
A u t h e n t i c e d u c a t i o n i s n o t c a r r i e d on by ' A '
f o r ' B ' o r by ' A ' a b o u t ' B , ' but r a t h e r by
' A ' w i t h ' B , ' m e d i a t e d by t h e w o r l d - a
w o r l d w h i c h i m p r e s s e s and c h a l l e n g e s b o t h
p a r t i e s , g i v i n g r i s e to views or o p i n i o n s
about i t .
These v i e w s , impregnated w i t h
a n x i e t i e s , d o u b t , hopes, or h o p e l e s s n e s s ,
i m p l y s i g n i f i c a n t themes on t h e b a s i s o f
w h i c h t h e p r o g r a m c o n t e n t of e d u c a t i o n c a n
be b u i l t .
(1970:82)
Freire
of
contrasts
education,
teacher
is
this
dialogical
i n which the
the
depositor"
education
trains
people
to
education
is
an e f f e c t i v e
It
follows
model
to
students are
(1970:58).
think
for
means of
logically
"the
the
banking
depositories
Whereas
dialogical
themselves,
social
from t h e
concept
banking
control:
banking
notion
and
the
7
of c o n s c i o u s n e s s that the e d u c a t o r ' s r o l e i s
t o r e g u l a t e the way t h e w o r l d ' e n t e r s i n t o '
the s t u d e n t s .
H i s task i s to . . . ' f i l l '
the
s t u d e n t s by making d e p o s i t s of i n f o r m a t i o n
w h i c h he c o n s i d e r s t o c o n s t i t u t e
true
knowledge.
And s i n c e men ' r e c e i v e '
the
w o r l d as p a s s i v e e n t i t i t i e s ,
education
s h o u l d make them more p a s s i v e s t i l l , and
a d a p t them, t o the w o r l d . . .
Translated into
p r a c t i c e , t h i s concept i s w e l l s u i t e d to the
p u r p o s e s o f t h e o p p r e s s o r s , whose
t r a n q u i l i t y r e s t s on how w e l l men f i t t h e
w o r l d t h e o p p r e s s o r s have c r e a t e d , and how
l i t t l e they q u e s t i o n i t .
(1970:62-63)
The m e t h o d o l o g y
the
by w h i c h d i a l o g i c a l
b a n k i n g m o d e l and e f f e c t s
consciousness
i n the
the
oppressed
is
education
awakening of
challenges
critical
"problem-posing."
The s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r o r g a n i z i n g t h e
p r o g r a m c o n t e n t of e d u c a t i o n o r p o l i t i c a l
a c t i o n must be t h e p r e s e n t ,
existential,
c o n c r e t e s i t u a t i o n , r e f l e c t i n g the
a s p i r a t i o n s of t h e p e o p l e .
Utilizing
c e r t a i n b a s i c c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , we must p o s e
this e x i s t e n t i a l , concrete,
present
s i t u a t i o n to the p e o p l e as a p r o b l e m which
c h a l l e n g e s them and r e q u i r e s a r e s p o n s e n o t j u s t a t the i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l , b u t a t
the l e v e l of a c t i o n .
(1970:85)
Problems are
presented
"codifications."
representations
everyday
overly
illustrate
other
of
contradictions
are analyzed
is
They must
nor o v e r l y
connections
situations
the
people
T h e s e c a n be v i s u a l ,
situations.
explicit
to
called
form
of
or
dramatic
and p r o b l e m s
inherent
engimatic,"
in students'
oral
be e a s i l y
between t h e
i n the
recognizable,
and t h e y
situation
lives.
in
"neither
should
being
The p r o c e s s
examined
by w h i c h
"decoding."
In t h e p r o c e s s o f d e c o d i n g , t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s
. . . b e g i n t o see how t h e y t h e m s e l v e s a c t e d
w h i l e a c t u a l l y e x p e r i e n c i n g the s i t u a t i o n
t h e y a r e now a n a l y z i n g , and t h u s r e a c h a
' p e r c e p t i o n of t h e i r p r e v i o u s p e r c e p t i o n . '
and
they
8
By a c h i e v i n g t h i s awareness, they come to
p e r c e i v e r e a l i t y d i f f e r e n t l y ... [thus]
decoding s t i m u l a t e s the appearance of a new
p e r c e p t i o n and the development of new
knowledge.
(1970:108)
F r e i r e does not s p e c i f y any p a r t i c u l a r q u e s t i o n i n g s t r a t e g y
f o r the l e a d e r of a problem-posing
d i s c u s s i o n other than that
"the c o - o r d i n a t o r must not only l i s t e n
to the i n d i v i d u a l s but
must c h a l l e n g e them, posing as problems both the c o d i f i e d
existential
s i t u a t i o n and t h e i r own
answers"
However Nina W a l l e r s t e i n , whose thematic
reviewed
teachers.
i n v e s t i g a t i o n work i s
i n the next chapter, has developed
i n d u c t i v e problem-posing
(1970:110).
a
five-step
q u e s t i o n i n g procedure
f o r use by
T h i s begins with d e s c r i p t i o n of the content
f e e l i n g s r e p r e s e n t e d i n the code.
the c e n t r a l problem and r e l a t e d
The
next
issues.
ESL
and
s t e p i s to d e f i n e
The
t h i r d step i s f o r
students to p e r s o n a l i z e the problem by comparing the code
s i t u a t i o n to t h e i r experience.
why
The
that problem e x i s t s , l o c a t i n g
h i s t o r i c a l - c u l t u r a l perspective.
f o u r t h s t e p i s a n a l y s i s of
i t w i t h i n the
The
last
larger
s t e p i s to
identify
a c t i o n s t h a t , however s m a l l , can be steps towards a d d r e s s i n g the
problem ( W a l l e r s t e i n ,
The
1983:20-21).
s i t u a t i o n s that are d e p i c t e d i n these
the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between them, and how
are p r e s e n t e d
and
f o r decoding are determined
codifications,
i n what order
a c c o r d i n g to the
peoples' g e n e r a t i v e themes.
In c o n t r a s t with the a n t i d i a l o g i c a l and noncommunicative ' d e p o s i t s ' of the banking
method of e d u c a t i o n , the program content of
the problem-posing method - d i a l o g i c a l par
e x c e l l e n c e - i s c o n s t i t u t e d and o r g a n i z e d by
the students' view of the world, where t h e i r
they
9
own
GENERATIVE
with
the
attitude
defines
generative
with reference
world,
of
critical,
themes a r e
found.
(1970:10.1)
THEMES
Freire
existence
generative
which i s
themes a n d d e f e n d s
to h i s
analysis
peoples'
c o n d i t i o n e d by e i t h e r
a d a p t a t i o n and f a t a l i s m or a
active
of
their
an
interaction
'oppressed'
'liberated' attitude
of
engagement.
The c o n c e p t o f t h e g e n e r a t i v e theme i s
n e i t h e r an a r b i t r a r y i n v e n t i o n nor a w o r k i n g
h y p o t h e s i s t o be p r o v e d .
. . . A l t h o u g h an
a t t i t u d e of c r i t i c a l doubt i s l e g i t i m a t e ,
it
does appear p o s s i b l e to v e r i f y the r e a l i t y
o f t h e g e n e r a t i v e theme . . . t h r o u g h c r i t i c a l
r e f l e c t i o n on t h e m e n - w o r l d r e l a t i o n s h i p a n d
on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between men.
The
g e n e r a t i v e theme c a n n o t be f o u n d i n men,
d i v o r c e d from r e a l i t y , nor y e t i n r e a l i t y ,
d i v o r c e d from men; much l e s s i n ' n o man's
l a n d . ' I t c a n o n l y be a p p r e h e n d e d i n t h e
men-world r e l a t i o n s h i p .
To i n v e s t i g a t e t h e
g e n e r a t i v e theme i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e man's
t h i n k i n g a b o u t r e a l i t y a n d man's a c t i o n upon
reality.
(1970:86-87,97)
Thus g e n e r a t i v e
consisting
situation
of
an o b j e c t i v e
h e l d by t h e
There are
The
first
facts"
is
four
that
in
"limit
situation
people
their
...
These f a c t s
of
situations"
from p e r c e i v i n g o r e x e r c i s i n g
change
involved in
"exist
conditions.
problems and c h a l l e n g e s
p e r c e p t i o n of
for
generative
with reference
everyday l i f e
to
themes.
concrete
are
usually
which h i n d e r oppressed
situations
specific
that
it.
t h e i r a b i l i t y to act
Limit
of
two-dimensional,
and the
important c r i t e r i a
they
(1970:97).
expressed
themes a r e e s s e n t i a l l y
are
societies.
people
in order
specific
Thus
to
to
the
generative
10
themes a r e
g r o u n d e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r h i s t o r i c a l and
cultural
context.
The same
differently
p e r i o d of
theme,
the
in
situation,
however,
by d i f f e r e n t
time.
The s e c o n d
therefore,
various
people,
is
levels
the
of
o c c u r s as
on t h e i r
the
peoples'
perceptions
exist"
of
reflect
of
of
quite
same p e o p l e
"awareness
perception
methodology
people
o r by t h e
key c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
w h i c h and w i t h w h i c h t h e y
Through the
c a n be p e r c e i v e d
of
of
a
over
a
generative
that
situation
t h e m s e l v e s and of
the
-
world
(1970:84).
problem-posing,
conscientization
c r i t i c a l l y on t h e s e
situations
and
them.
Only as t h i s s i t u a t i o n c e a s e s t o p r e s e n t
i t s e l f as a d e n s e , e n v e l o p i n g r e a l i t y o r a
t o r m e n t i n g b l i n d a l l e y , a n d men c a n come t o
p e r c e i v e i t as an o b j e c t i v e - p r o b l e m a t i c
s i t u a t i o n - o n l y t h e n c a n . . . [ t h e y ] emerge
from t h e i r s u b m e r s i o n a n d a c q u i r e t h e
a b i l i t y t o i n t e r v e n e i n r e a l i t y as i t i s
unveiled.
(1970:100)
Conscientization
leads
generative
is
theme
unrecognized,
present
in every
The
that
they
of
as
turn
of
call
unfolding
for
important that
elements of
they
their
an i m p l i c i t ,
lives
for
that
into
. . .
a g a i n as
to
come t o
be
though
of
change
they
are
themes
the
which
(I970:92n).
how t h e
interact.
When men l a c k a c r i t i c a l
thus
(1970:92).
contain
fulfilled"
a
comprehended
many themes,
recognize
is
generative
they
of
perhaps
feasibility"
"however
may e v o k e ,
key component
social
characteristic
new t a s k s
people
third
"an u n t e s t e d
others;
action
the
The p o t e n t i a l
theme
generate
possibility
is
that
action;
fourth essential
and w h a t e v e r
their
task.
to
u n d e r s t a n d i n g of
various
in
It
is
11
t h e i r r e a l i t y , apprehending i t i n fragments
w h i c h t h e y do not p e r c e i v e as i n t e r a c t i n g
c o n s t i t u e n t e l e m e n t s of the whole, they
c a n n o t t r u l y know t h a t r e a l i t y . . .
Equally
a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the methodology of t h e m a t i c
i n v e s t i g a t i o n and f o r p r o b l e m - p o s i n g
education is t h i s e f f o r t to present
s i g n i f i c a n t d i m e n s i o n s o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s
c o n t e x t u a l r e a l i t y , the a n a l y s i s of which
w i l l make i t p o s s i b l e f o r him t o r e c o g n i z e
the i n t e r a c t i o n of the v a r i o u s components.
(1970:94-95).
Generative
1)
themes t h u s c o n s i s t
An o b j e c t i v e
of
four
h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t y as
key
elements:
represented
in
limit-
situations
2)
The p e o p l e s '
p e r c e p t i o n of
3)
The t a s k s
4)
A c o n n e c t i o n to
i m p l i e d by t h e
other
these
situations
limit-situations
themes.
The m e t h o d o l o g y by w h i c h a p e o p l e ' s
investigated
the
must be a s
program of
which they
" e d u c a t i o n and t h e m a t i c
concept
of
process."
d i a l o g i c a l as
will
constitute
are
(1970:101)
The n e x t
v a r i o u s adjustments
adapt
it
that
t o an ESL c o n t e x t .
themes a r e
t e a c h i n g approach of
the c o n t e n t ,
for:
i n the p r o b l e m - p o s i n g
simply d i f f e r e n t
moments o f
chapter describes
recommended p r o c e d u r e f o r g e n e r a t i v e
the
the
investigation,
education,
generative
theme
the
Freire's
investigation,
have been made t o
it
same
in order
and
to
12
II.
While
it
may be assumed
Freire's
pedagogy
means
identifying
few
of
have
review
In
this
scant
described
their
generative
their
efforts.
was
not
for
II
of
on t h e
work o f
is
investigation
adaptations
upgrading c l a s s
for
this
theme
lists
P u n j a b i community
and b r i e f l y
in Vancouver.
interested
detail
two main i s s u e s :
Canadian
society,
the
immigrant groups.
my f i n d i n g s ;
in Chapters III
and V .
Finally,
Canadian
they
are
and
an
are discussed
effect
of
of
the
mostly
the
I consulted
as
various
them
indicator
in
The s t u d i e s a r e c o n c e r n e d
relationship
and t h e
the
to
the
These
in e t h n i c i t y
I h a d c o n d u c t e d my own i n v e s t i g a t i o n ,
r e l i a b i l i t y of
in
describes
only
the
women
of
strategies
of
of
it
described.
chapter
anthropologists
is
investigation,
adaptation
after
of
in Toronto.
a generative
to
exhaustively.
thematic
teachers'
students,
possible
fairly
adapt
systematic
their
and c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p m e n t
Farmworkers ESL Crusade a r e
the
topic
i m m i g r a n t women
actually
needs a s s e s s m e n t
studies
some
themes of
it
t r y i n g to
a community ESL p r o g r a m i n San F r a n c i s c o ,
it
Part
used
Thus,
on t h e
Accounts of
w o r k p l a c e ESL c l a s s e s
although
have
F r e i r e ' s program f o r
first.
to
many e d u c a t o r s
the
moving f r o m a c o l l e g e
Bahamas,
the
that
practice
literature
chapter,
follow,
to
documented
the
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
further
with
P u n j a b i community
i m m i g r a t i o n on
social
to
1 3
institutions,
especially
the
F R E I R E ' S GENERATIVE THEME
In
detail
Pedagogy
the
process
by an
introduction,
he
people
for
the
stage
under
"a s t a r t i n g
repeatedly
investigation
of
1
describes
generative
i n some
theme
By way of
some i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s
First,
it
is
investigation
involved participants,
may be
Freire
i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y team.
research.
cultural action
warns
a four
states
the
religion.
INVESTIGATION
Oppressed,
whose themes a r e
actively
itself
for
the
of
investigation
parameters
1
of
f a m i l y and
point
so
for
that
the
the
essential
be
needs
the
from t h e
danger
of
meaningful
(98).
"shifting
themes t o
that
the
informed,
analysis
educational
a l i b e r a t i n g character"
against
fully
and
the
the
process
or
Freire
focus
of
people
There is c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n in terminology r e f e r r i n g to t h i s
community.
In t h e 1 9 7 0 ' s , t h e common t e r m was " E a s t I n d i a n . " A
f e e l i n g t h a t t h i s i s i n c o r r e c t a n d r a c i s t , and t h a t i t masks t h e
d i f f e r e n c e s between a l l t h e " E a s t I n d i a n " c u l t u r e s , has l e d some
t o use the t e r m " S i k h " when r e f e r r i n g t o t h e g r o u p t h a t makes up
t h e l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n of t h e " E a s t I n d i a n " c o m m u n i t y .
Two
r e c e n t terms a r e " I n d o - C a n a d i a n " and "South A s i a n " , w h i c h r e f e r
t o a l l p e r s o n s o f o r i g i n i n I n d i a but l a c k t h e p e j o r a t i v e
c o n n o t a t i o n s t h a t " E a s t I n d i a n " has t a k e n on i n some c i r c l e s .
More r a d i c a l e l e m e n t s i n t h e c o m m u n i t y , i n c l u d i n g t h e CFU
l e a d e r s h i p , r e j e c t b o t h t h e s e t e r m s as e u p h e m i s t i c and
bourgeois.
They p r e f e r t h e o l d t e r m " E a s t I n d i a n , " b e c a u s e t h e y
a r e n o t r e l i g i o u s and do n o t w i s h t o be i d e n t i f i e d as " S i k h s . "
T h r o u g h o u t t h i s p a p e r I s h a l l use t h e t e r m t h a t my s t u d e n t s use
t o r e f e r t o t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r p e o p l e : " P u n j a b i . "
Even though
s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g t h i s i s a l i n g u i s t i c and not an " e t h n i c "
marker, i t i s u s e f u l i n the Vancouver c o n t e x t to r e f e r to b o t h
r e l i g i o u s and n o n - r e l i g i o u s " S i k h s , " and t o d i s t i n g u i s h them
from I s m a i l i s , F i j i a n s , H i n d u s a n d o t h e r " E a s t I n d i a n s . "
B e c a u s e i t i s t h e most f a m i l i a r t e r m I w i l l use " E a s t I n d i a n " t o
r e f e r t o a l l i m m i g r a n t s from I n d i a as a g r o u p .
In r e v i e w i n g t h e
s t u d i e s on t h e c o m m u n i t y , I h a v e r e t a i n e d w h a t e v e r t e r m t h e
authors used.
14
themselves,
thereby
investigation"
cautions
rather
that
will
investigator's,
is
for
the
thedanger
links
problems,
people
as
a pre-determined
yield a result
not
c a n be a v e r t e d
the
objects
than c o - i n v e s t i g a t o r s
following
investigation
there
treating
the
of
people's,
missing
the
by b u i l d i n g i n t o
between t h e m e s ,
and a c o n c e r n
for
itinerary
that
reflects
view
of
forest
the
He a l s o
for
reality.
for
to
the
the
the
the
Finally,
trees.
investigation
a concern
their
(99).
of
This
"a c o n c e r n
pose t h e s e
themes
as
h i s t o r i c a l - c u l t u r a l context"
(98-99).
In t h e
a wide
first
variety
stage,
of
everyday
and o b s e r v e
again.
informants,
volunteers
this
stage
visit
...
is
to
them
various
parts
investigators
...
that
the
of
the
by a n a l y z i n g
expand t h e i r
community.
dimensions
u n d e r s t a n d i n g of
a basic
u n d e r s t a n d i n g of
This
important
them t o
begin
perception
people"
to
of
Their, aim at
the
will
have
key
and v i s i t
partial
end of
the
to
this
people.
structure
reality
is
the
stage
the
the
the
upon
how
with
complex
However,
still
in
notes,
a totality,
At the
of
this
program
their
own,
not
(106).
stage attempts
reality.
themes a r e
d a t a p r o v i d e d by
a r e a as
community
make and compare
(103).
The s e c o n d
their
the
interact"
authorize
content
present
[to]
and s i t u a t i o n s
"does n o t
of
"regard the
...
use
from w i t h i n
it
observe
activities,
They a l s o
'split'
impress
issues
to
investigators
to
get
The i n v e s t i g a t o r s '
now d e v e l o p e d
into
a familiar situation
at
the
hunches
codifications.
in
people's
about
the
E a c h of
s u c h a manner t h a t
perception
the
peoples'
these
must
15
contradictions
and p r o b l e m s
obvious
nor t o o
it
lead
will
In t h e
people
for
obscure,
into
other
third
their
sociologist.
and t h a t
related
stage,
taped,
and i n p u t .
note
the
p e r s o n who p r e p a r e d them i n t e n d e d .
alchoholic,
of
tenement
whom t h e y
w o r r i e s who d r i n k s
manifestation
(111-112).
codes,
of
done
to
in
not
this
vice
Freire
hard
as
stage,
i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of
and a
stage
necessarily
cites
be a d e c e n t
escape h i s
virtue,
in this
is
be
the
the
the
what
example
w i t h an
lot
F o r them he was a
presenter
had
a c c u r a c y of
peoples'
what
worker w i t h a
lot.
the
the
discussion
identifying positively
p e r c e i v e d to
Thus d u r i n g
investigators'
is
w h i c h may not
residents
to
too
"decoding" of
and o b s e r v e d by a p s y c h o l o g i s t
people
a group of
or
re-presented
This
the
of
i n the
are neither
themes.
The i m p o r t a n t t h i n g t o
see
it
discussion,
these codes are
analysis
groups which are
implicit within
intended
the
themes
is
determined.
The f o u r t h and f i n a l
interdisciplinary
identified.
sciences
study
stage c o n s i s t s
of
Investigators
the
stage other
illustrate
representing
themes,
general
if
deemed n e c e s s a r y
relationships
investigators.
the
didactic material prepared.
Unfortunately,
It
an
exhaustive
themes t h a t
the
various
down,
have
suggesting
units
Finally,
Freire
was p a r t of
all
the
was n o t
his
plan
for
themes,
themes a r e
able
At
f o r c o n t i n u i t y or
between
to c a r r y
the
been
social
and t h e n a l l meet t o compare and amend.
the
process.
c o m p l e x of
e a c h t a k e a theme a n d b r e a k i t
and s e q u e n c i n g ,
of
this
to
may be a d d e d by
r e - c o d i f i e d and
out
this
post-literacy
stage
of
16
his
N a t i o n a l L i t e r a c y Program i n B r a z i l ,
the
1964
exist
An
coup t h a t
specific
also
f o r c e d him i n t o
accounts
investigation
of
on t h i s
considerable
resources
Freire-style
programs
subsequent
scale
of
is
educators
with t h e i r
problem then
becomes how t o
content
a c c o r d i n g to
investigator
classroom
teacher.
the
sustantial
changes
approach of
via
following
maintained.
These
operating
investigation
attempts
to
adapt
have
Elsasser
implementation
of
of
the
be
contrast,
perpetually
of
of
The
or program
when t h e
students)
only
is
the
process
been made,
but
the
basic
interpretations
materials
i n terms
"generative
and t h e m a t i c
By
Freire's
are described
definition
it.
with
themes,
testing
and r e - d e v e l o p i n g
accounts
implement
and c u r r i c u l a .
from p e r h a p s
i n methodology
procedure,
CLASSROOM THEMATIC
Nan
(aside
there
p r o g r a m s and
a course
generative
observation-discussion,
codifications,
setting,
structure
to
by
many F r e i r e - s t y l e
own needs a n a l y s e s
students'
available
In
Also,
already-established
institutions
to
and f u n d i n g .
tend
terminated
Nor do
attempts
i n North America
work w i t h i n
exile.
only possible
expertise
u n d e r - f u n d e d and u n d e r - s t a f f e d .
w h i c h was
have
of
been
their
themes,"
curriculum.
INVESTIGATIONS
and K y l e
Fiore
(1982)
a Freire
style
approach to
upgrading
in a c l a s s
Bahamas.
After
of
briefly
r e p o r t on
college
women community c o l l e g e
reviewing
the
English
students
Freire's definition
of
in
the
1 7
generative
describes
themes a n d i n v e s t i g a t i o n
procedure, Elsasser
h e r own:
A s t r a n g e r , u n a c c o m p a n i e d by a ' l i t e r a c y
t e a m , ' I c a n ' t f o l l o w F r e i r e ' s a d v i c e , and
i n my i g n o r a n c e I t u r n t o my s t u d e n t s f o r
help.
We d i s c u s s g e n e r a t i v e t h e m e s , a n d
t h e y e a c h s e l e c t t h r e e i s s u e s from t h e i r
d a i l y l i v e s t h a t they would l i k e to t a l k ,
r e a d and w r i t e a b o u t f o r t h e s e m e s t e r . . .
We d e b a t e them b r i e f l y a n d we v o t e , p i c k i n g
m a r r i a g e f o r t h e i r g e n e r a t i v e theme.
(p.
120)
The main theme was d i v i d e d
divorce,
further
sexuality
into
the
and domestic
investigation
violence.
on a t h e s i s
development
an e s s a y o u t l i n e .
a u t h o r e d an open l e t t e r
complaints.
This
Elsasser's
students
and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c
students
ask'
at
from t h a t
to
generative
In t h e
end,
of
students
collective
the
levels
students
co-
their
They
s h a r e d the
Thus a g r e a t
about
their
of
deal
themes.
Thus,
same
of
the
This
w h i c h may
E n g l i s h and
further
from
of
w h i c h may
adjustments
i n v e s t i g a t i o n must be made.
a great
d e a l of
work i n t h i s
been done by N i n a W a l l e r s t e i n and P i a M o r i a r t y
1979,
speakers
backgrounds, a l l
instructor.
theme
English
i n an E S L s e t t i n g ,
and c u l t u r a l
In N o r t h A m e r i c a ,
Wallerstein,
resulting
and E l s a s s e r c o u l d s i m p l y e x p l a i n
the
the
native
background.
different
linguistic
differ
and the
composition.
much more d i f f i c u l t
different
the
level
was p o s s i b l e ,
a p p r o a c h and ' j u s t
involve
statement,
were a l l
cultural
often
The p r o c e d u r e f o r
was p u b l i s h e d i n b o t h N a s s a u d a i l y p a p e r s .
college-entry
is
housework,
t o Bahamian men p r e s e n t i n g
studying
discussion
of
was t o have a g r o u p d i s c u s s i o n
in a consensus
of
subtopics
1980;
W a l l e r s t e i n , 1983,
area
has
(Moriarty &
1984).
They
have
18
elaborated
a Freire-style
phases:
"Listening",
1)
& Wallerstein,
generative
1979:
themes
Generative
students"
is
part
"own e x p e r i e n c e
and the
of
fieldwork"
culture
for
things
look
Conflict,
Freire
These
patterns
it
three
(Moriarty
of
stage.
"the
key c o n c e r n s
situations
of
that
lives,"
and
students'
is
of"
(Moriarty
part
for
(Wallerstein,
Development
to
of
testing
and r e v i s i n g
part
the
It
involves
the
and c l a s s
1983)
approach s i m i l a r
1983).
activities
and i n
the
to
community,
Specific
useful
them
and
suggestions
for
getting
in
"Student/Teacher/Learner: A
(Moriarty & Wallerstein,
codes based
and
"employing
classroom,
i n more d e t a i l
listening
both before
p r o v i d e d i n Language and C u l t u r e
ABE/ESL"
are discussed
themes c a n o c c u r
(Wallerstein,
themes a r e
approach to
of
daily
with a systematic
students'
generative
larger
as:
social
in t h e i r
"Action"
Investigation
"listening"
"the
classes.
the
at
1983),
generative
skills
anthropological
to
1983).
r e f e r r e d to
problems
for
course
observational
the
and 3)
includes
1979).
"Listening"
the
of
themes a r e
as
ESL w h i c h
"Dialogue",
Wallerstein,
students define
during
2)
(Wallerstein,
ScWallerstein,
approach to
1979).
in Chapter IV.
on t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s ,
in d i s c u s s i o n
with
students,
process.
T h i s work c a n n o t be done a l o n e , n o r w i l l i t
be c o m p l e t e d a l l a t o n c e .
The p r o c e s s
d e v e l o p s by c o n s t a n t i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h
students, incorporating teacher
observations
i n t o c u r r i c u l u m u n i t s which the s t u d e n t s can
l e a r n f r o m and c o r r e c t f o r a c c u r a c y .
In
t h i s way, s t u d e n t s a r t i c u l a t e t h e i r own
e x p e r i e n c e s i n E n g l i s h a t t h e same t i m e as
t e a c h e r s r e - e v a l u a t e t h e i r own p e r c e p t i o n s .
( M o r i a r t y & W a l l e r s t e i n , 1979:198)
and
are
also
19
In
1973,
Wallerstein participated
investigation
educators
Hispanic
and l o c a l
community,
extensively
this;
i n San J o s e ,
with
others
thematic
arose
their
an
talking
was
one
that
issues
The e i g h t
and C o n f l i c t ,
result
the
useful
c u r i c u l u m must
be
rooted
and t h u s
many s p e c i f i c s
of
the
Conf1ict
are
system,
to
the
themes has
of
or
done
in
problem-posing
units
are:
Neighborhoods,
w i t h how
students
English,
stress
at
work.
ESL t e a c h e r s
to
address
units
classes.
and l e s s o n s
m a i n l y as
i n Language
examples.
in a real h i s t o r i c a l
A
context,
themes i n L a n g u a g e and C u l t u r e
of
the
United States.
work on c l a s s r o o m
been
and
eight
p a r t i c u l a r immigrant groups,
and g e o g r a p h y
amount
project
c h i l d r e n speak
have come up i n t h e i r
thematic
unique
The
phone a m e d i c a l
deal
homeland,
of
contain
how t o
be a d a p t e d by o t h e r
in C o n f l i c t are
a substantial
They
but a l s o
i n the
Canadian c o n t e x t ,
San J o s e
with codes,
activities.
Culture
relatives
similar
generative
observing
i n L a n g u a g e and C u l t u r e
u n d e r s t a n d i n g when t h e i r
to
and l e g a l
community
o r g a n i z e d a c c o r d i n g to
subtopics
directions,
They a r e meant
and C u l t u r e
from t h e
i n f o r m a t i o n s u c h as
for
not
In t h e
and
An ESL c l a s s
H e a l t h , Work and Money.
or ask
leaving
into
Family,
straightforward
about
two months
are presented
and l a n g u a g e
Immigration,
that
The themes a r e
Autobiography,
feel
A team o f
officials,
informants.
units
each d i v i d e d
questions,
clinic
interviewing
experience
Conflict(1983).
units,
spent
thematic
were c h u r c h , women's and community g r o u p s .
teaching
from o t h e r
California.
residents
key
in a
i n Canada.
investigation
in
social
However,
of
The P a r t i c i p a t o r y
20
Research Group,
an i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g e n c y
in
been
Toronto,
has
accounts
of
has
produced a thematic
also
The
many of
instrumental
educational
from o t h e r
members o f
Budd H a l l
change.
Its
Research is
own r e s o u r c e s
development"
this
and m i l i t a n t
than o b j e c t i v e
and
to
focus
It
to
an
the
analysis
"a g r e a t e r
directed
them f o r
the
issues
identified
i n the
people
of
self-reliant
researcher
about
by
or m a r g i n a l i z e d
awareness
He o r she
the
of
it
Most
a problem i d e n t i f i e d
exploited
is
generative
connected
explicitly
process.
must
under
a c t s as
a
be c o m m i t t e d t o
investigation,
the
rather
detached.
discusses
that
have
been
encountered
most
relevant
some d i f f i c u l t i e s
p a r t i c i p a n t versus
expert
when p a r t i c i p a n t s e x p e c t
and
the
the
p a r t i c i p a n t s have
the
the
role
(this
is
of
contradictions
engage
the
outside
especially
researcher
how c o l l e c t i v e
to
and
by p a r t i c i p a t o r y r e s e a r c h e r s .
ESL i n c l u d e
p r o b l e m of
is
The ' o u t s i d e '
also
to
Freire's
describes
is
oppressed,
Hall
as
(1984)
and m o b i l i z e
(p.20).
of
of
necessarily
a collective
problem and s h o u l d l e a d
people
phase
definition.
a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l methodology.
a community of
facilitator
first
participatory research
toward s o c i a l
Group
p a r t i c i p a t o r y r e s e a r c h which d i s t i n g u i s h
k i n d s of
importantly,
people.
of
office
ESL c u r r i c u l u m .
t h o u g h not
program.
characteristics
the
Canadian
The T o r o n t o ESL C o r e
term " p a r t i c i p a t o r y research" m e r i t s
investigation,
their
its
i n s p i r i n g and p u b l i s h i n g
these p r o j e c t s .
a procedure s i m i l a r to
theme
in
with
to
act
researcher
complicated
a s an
a research process
in a substantial
Those
expert);
c a n be
degree
of
when
new
21
learning.
Some o f
these
Toronto ESL t e a c h e r s
research
to
issues
emerged
attempting to
i n the
engage
of
the
has been c o l l e c t i v e
in participatory
T o r o n t o p a r t i p a t o r y r e s e a r c h work i n E S L
m a t e r i a l s development.
Thus
'thematic'
c u r r i c u l u m p r o d u c t s have e m e r g e d .
chronicled
the
1982b,
process
1983,
b e h i n d many o f
1982,
Unda
theme" u s e d .
importance
need"
1984).
Rather,
In none o f
the
authors
collective
garment
piece-rate
point
f r u s t r a t i o n of
discussions
of
produce a s t o r y
teacher
song a r o s e
the
media images
of
term
"generative
students'
vital
"felt
"common home and work
of
photos
by a d d i n g an argument between
of
three
One i s
the
in
a worker who
the
loses
t i m e h e r m a c h i n e b r e a k s down.
students
out
of
in Barndt's workplace
classroom discussions
Similarly,
women,
student
describes
power s t r u c t u r e s
view
s h o w i n g what women's
a r r a n g e d the
have
(Sullivan &
"problems of
1978:4),
the
experience.
p h o t o g r a p h e d one
The c l a s s
(Barndt
accounts
the
activities.
system every
was a common o c c u r r e n c e f o r
and t h e
to
Barndt
a song a b o u t
i n d u s t r y , from t h e
ESL c l a s s ,
the
(1982),
investigation
w r i t i n g of
pay on t h e
This
refer
is
has
1981:27).
In J u s t G e t t i n g T h e r e
classroom thematic
Other
these
( S u l l i v a n & U n d a : 4 6 ) , and t h e i r
(Barndt,
Deborah Barndt
a n d J e a n Unda
to p a r t i c i p a n t s " (Barndt,
experiences"
several
these products
marino and B a r n d t ) .
been p u b l i s h e d by K a t h l e e n S u l l i v a n
Unda
of
.
One f o c u s
1982a,
experiences
the
out
of
same c l a s s
lives
are
classroom
decided
really like.
c o o k i n g d i n n e r f o r her
in order,
and c h i l d r e n
to
The
family.
and f u r t h e r e d the
husband, wife
about
story
over
22
who was
going
to
The t h i r d
response
to
h e l p w i t h the
activity
a request
dishes.
originated
outside
for m a t e r i a l s
job p r e p a r a t i o n course
for
the
from t h e
immigrant
classroom,
in
coordinators
of
a
women.
A w o r k i n g team was o r g a n i z e d , c o n s i s t i n g o f
a g r a d u a t e of t h e M a k i n g Changes c o u r s e ,
f o u r women from an E S L c l a s s who had
i n d i c a t e d an i n t e r e s t i n m a k i n g p h o t o s t o r i e s
and f o u r community e d u c a t o r s .
..
The
g e n e r a l theme was t o be ' l o o k i n g f o r w o r k , '
b u t a t t h a t p o i n t we d i d n ' t know t h e
p r o b l e m s t h e s e women had f a c e d .
So we a s k e d
them t o t a l k a b o u t l o o k i n g f o r w o r k , and we
r e c o r d e d what t h e y s a i d .
As t h e s t o r i e s
u n f o l d e d , the women began t o see common
elements.
The a c c o u n t s o f two women i n
p a r t i c u l a r s t o o d o u t , i n a way t h a t a l l o f
us u n d e r s t o o d i m m e d i a t e l y .
T h e s e two
s t o r i e s d e s c r i b e d the d i f f i c u l t i e s ,
both
l o g i s t i c a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y , of j u s t
g e t t i n g t o work o r an i n t e r v i e w .
(Barndt,
1982:19)
What r e s u l t e d
getting
lost
were two p h o t o s t o r i e s
on t h e
re-enacting
subway and g e n e r a l l y
of
the
problems
navigating
the
of
big
city.
Sullivan
difficulties
for
their
and Unda
of
(1982)
in-class
project
was
thematic
usefulness
unemployed
taking
along
that
arose
fictitious
idea
of
the
as
46).
teacher.
class
character's
creating
the
h a d been
their
The
received
situation
A researcher
as
a photo-novel
to
was
find
setting
a job
r u n by a
"to
a step
participated
worked on a p h o t o - n o v e l
the
explore
for helping
S u l l i v a n and Unda d i s c u s s
efforts
some of
unemployed,
p a r t i c i p a t o r y r e s e a r c h methods
(p.
the
for
A grant
r e c o r d and a n a l y z e
action"
with
of
of
investigation.
an E S L c l a s s
T o r o n t o community c e n t e r .
the
p r o v i d e an a c c o u n t
about
in his
s u g g e s t e d by t h e
toward
i n the
the
the
class
tensions
a
field.
teacher.
The
It
23
was
enthusiastically
resent
the
teacher
amount of
the
(p.
happens
time
students,
is
they
or o t h e r
identify
suggestions
that
do not
are
by B a r n d t
for
in-class
thematic
s u g g e s t i o n s a r e drawn f r o m t h e
force
ESL t e a c h e r s
Toronto.
Many a r e
strategies;
others
activities.
of
two c o l u m n s of
for
T o r o n t o has
(1979)
is
all
of
example,
photos
in places
are
from
production
f o r E S L : How t o
Choose
teachers.
experiences
of
a
task
A m e r i c a n community
with
them i s
also
to
of
they
a t y p i c a l day,
to
need
in Chapter
on
to
use
o r draw a
feel
English.
IV).
curriculum
D e v e l o p e d by t h e
a content-guide
their
show how t h e y
produced a f u l l - f l e d g e d
themes.
talk
w i t h Canada and
by B r e n d a Duncombe, Themes f o r
i n t e n d e d as
generate
in
h a v i n g s t u d e n t s compare and
dealing
where
listed
o r g a n i z e d by g e n e r a t i v e
and e d i t e d
integrated
neighborhood w i t h symbols
(Other a c t i v i t i e s
materials
Latin
draw a c o m i c - s t r i p a c c o u n t
encounters
theme
language-teaching
contrast
about
for
a r e more
The f o c u s
their
what
"listening"
themes b y ,
map o f
reflects
s i m i l a r to W a l l e r s t e i n ' s
possible
homeland,
the
investigation
a handbook f o r
Barndt's
the
the
for
agenda
to
own.
i n Themes a n d T o o l s
a n a l y z i n g the
and
"using
photo-novel
collective
Them and How t o Use Them ( 1 9 7 8 ) ,
came
r a t h e r than a r i s i n g
on t h e i r
involve
they
project,
had been
outsider's
imposed on a g r o u p ,
activities
of
but
t a k e n up by t h e
r a t h e r than the
teacher's
i s s u e s which they
listed
by t h e
S u l l i v a n and TJnda's e x p e r i e n c e
when t h e
Several
to
r e a l i z e d that
photo-novel
62).
investigation
the
class
and r e s e a r c h e r
group for
group"
agreed
for
Learning
ESL Core
Group
and T e a c h i n g
ESL, l i t e r a c y ,
24
u p g r a d i n g and c i t i z e n s h i p c l a s s e s .
generative
life
themes
situation
culture
of
reflection"
Housing,
is
"after
as w e l l
No a c c o u n t
is
as
topics,
of
the
their
any
a consensus
two o r t h r e e y e a r s
working group
...
g i v e n of
than that
of
was
study and
(III).
Immigration, Transportation
descriptive,
also
the
and c o n c e r n s
are: Consumption, Education,
divided into
activity:
topic
themes
...
procedure other
themes
operating definiton
interest
(I,III).
by members of
The e i g h t
is
"real
immigrant f a m i l i e s
investigation
r e a c h e d on e i g h t
theme
the
and t r a d i t i o n s "
specific
Health,
is:
Its
Family
and Work.
and e a c h t o p i c
has
three
Each
levels
p r o b l e m a t i s i n g , and a l t e r n a t i v e s .
furnished with a " c o n s c i e n t i z a t i o n
Life,
of
Each
objective,"
for
example:
Theme: E d u c a t i o n
T o p i c : The s c h o o l s y s t e m i n O n t a r i o
C o n s c i e n t i z a t i o n O b j e c t i v e : "The r e g u l a r
s c h o o l s y s t e m c a n be a h i n d r a n c e t o
e d u c a t i o n by k e e p i n g p r i v i l e g e s f o r a c l o s e d
s o c i e t y and p e r p e t u a t i n g c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s . "
(p.35)
Duncombe d e f e n d s
these c o n s c i e n t i z a t i o n
statements
of
underlying
the
personally
c o n v i n c e d of
is
curriculum.
one o f
w i t h which I wish to
years
of
as
t h e a d m i t t e d l y n o n - n e u t r a l s y s t e m of
consciousness-raising
This
objectives
tutors
have been t h e
"consciousness
She a s s e r t s
the
values
among t h e
i n the
issue.
students
of
It
Farmworkers'
experience
of
Sullivan
r a i s i n g among t h e
"if
values
the
teacher
is
w h i c h u n d e r l y them,
two s t a t e m e n t s
take
that
explicit
will
follow"
the Toronto
is
the
and U n d a ,
students"
investigators
experience
ESL C r u s a d e ,
(VI).
of
four
and a p p e a r s
that
in fact
rarely
to
25
follows
the
teacher's
Furthermore,
set
of
notions
although i t
is
of
correct p o l i t i c a l
true that
values,
stated
or n o t ,
investigation,
Freire
s p e c i f i c a l l y warns a g a i n s t
view o f
reality
Secondly,
participatory
influence
to
the
the
any t e a c h e r
generative
course
of
the
i n Themes a n d T o o l s B a r n d t
research for
generative
thinking.
will
bring
a
theme
letting
that
investigation.
describes
theme
investigation
as:
...
as s i m p l e a t a s k a s c h a t t i n g w i t h
s t u d e n t s d u r i n g c o f f e e b r e a k and f i n d i n g o u t
t h a t t h e y a r e c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e TTC f a r e
hike.
T h u s , y o u have a theme t h a t y o u know
i s o f r e l e v a n c e t o s t u d e n t s , and i t c a n be
made i n t o a l e s s o n d e a l i n g w i t h t r a n s i t ,
i n f l a t i o n , taxes, etc
(p.5).
This
seems a f a r c r y from t h e
assessment
c a l l e d f o r by F r e i r e .
suggestions
if
In f a c t ,
time-consuming.
s i m p l i f y and d e m y s t i f y
ESL t e a c h e r s
w i t h few,
if
seems d o u b t f u l t o me i f
the
any,
the
outside
thematic
can a p p r o a c h the
Freire
for
this
the
thesis
basis
I will
authentic
argue that
c o n c e r n s and e x p e r i e n c e s
their
issues
generative
themes.
and e x p e r i e n c e s
relationship
to
conducted before
proposed.
the
is
It
most o f
the
seem s i m p l e a n d
is,
of
course,
not
and t h e i r
However,
arrived
at
complexity required
the
out
students'
same t h i n g as
a deeper
by
must
themes
In
investigating
of
the
i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s and
generative
it
issues,
analysis
context
to
through
problem-posing content.
historical-cultural
of
necessary
accessible
resources.
analysis
finding
Rather,
an a n a l y s i s
professional
p r o c e d u r e t o make i t
t h e s e methods a l o n e
as
detailed
made by W a l l e r s t e i n and B a r n d t
straightforward,
to
lengthy,
be
c a n be
26
PROGRAM CONTENT OF THE FARMWORKERS E S L CRUSADE
My i n v e s t i g a t i o n
context
of
This
a Freire
the
is
the
style
development
is
of
Shortly
1980,
skills
their
the
to
program s e r v i n g
A detailed
outline
curriculum
after
the
the
the
Nicaragua with
country's
the
is
that
block
to
organizers
as
raise
consciousness.
By t h e
fall
of
1981
for
tutor
procedure
of
began
Secretary
in A p r i l
work h i s t o r y ,
and t i m e t a b l i n g
organizer,
members)
their
my
and
provide
their
to
by t h e
a needs
English
gain
and u n i o n
drawn up
1981).
by f u n d i n g
In
from
assessment
was
of
Sarwan B o a l ,
(both
to
farmworkers
English levels,
use
in
that
a p r o p o s a l had been
for E n g l i s h ,
The f i n a l
of
to
political
A questionnaire
farmworkers
formed
r e t u r n e d from a t r i p
State,
students'
need
homes.
was w r i t t e n
Steeves.
lack
efforts
and a s s i s t e d
preferences.
interviewed
in t h e i r
assessment
John
perceived
of
1982.
which covered p r o s p e c t i v e
size
members'
p r o g r a m (Cavanagh & S t e e v e s ,
with F r o n t i e r College
Department
program's
on how a p r o g r a m s i m i l a r
well
the
the
o r i g i n a l needs a n a l y s i s
as
cooperation
of
in
provided in Chapter I I I ;
N a t i o n a l L i t e r a c y Crusade might
a volunteer
the
immigrant farmworkers
description
recognized
some i d e a s
with English s k i l l s
in
C a n a d i a n F a r m w o r k e r s U n i o n was
leaders
One o f
place
materials.
would be a f u n d a m e n t a l
rights.
themes t o o k
Canadian Farmworkers U n i o n .
a p p r o a c h and p e r s o n n e l
purpose here
April
generative
ESL C r u s a d e o f
Vancouver a r e a .
structure,
of
developed
schooling,
English,
class
a b i l i n g u a l CFU
u n i o n members a n d n o n -
r e p o r t on t h e
Frontier College
needs
representative,
27
In a l l
62 p e o p l e
were
interviewed.
T h o s e most
i n an E S L p r o g r a m were women between t h e
had been
Half
of
i n Canada and d o i n g
t h e s e were
had h i g h e r
that
the
they
use
take
of
the
phone
needed
go
shopping,
curriculum
focus
these
to
topic
specific
involve
on t h e
content,
as
basic
taking
of
bus,
and u n i o n s ,
units
to
given
the
for
particulary
Freirian
the ESL
produce a guide
that
by v o l u n t e e r
are
language,
would
tutors
eighteen
use
units
cover
and s h o p p i n g ,
shopping
Only
with
t r a n s f e r r i n g the
and
structures
topics
telling
i n a department
two
units,
such
time,
store,
on h a z a r d
farmwork a l t h o u g h
skills
There are
short,
and
teacher-directed
and m a n i p u l a t i o n o f
or d i a l o g i c a l
1982).
approach
specifically
in
job,
takes a s i t u a t i o n a l
work s i t u a t i o n .
problem-posing a c t i v i t i e s ,
a better
to
produced
appointment.
deal
involving
was
that
w r i t i n g cheques,
reported
( S t e e v e s and B o a l ,
approach to
telephone
symbols
get
The c u r r i c u l u m t h a t
Its
three
persons
English skills
recommended t h a t
It
seven
c h i l d r e n and
and be u s a b l e
Learn.
students.
for a doctor's
other
needs,
repetition
phoning
suggestions are
for
who
years.
transactions
telephone,
was h i r e d t o
techniques
numeracy f o r
the
the
a functional
considerable
p a r t of
use
experience.
A Time t o
p r e s e n t s a range
for a l l
on " s u r v i v a l E n g l i s h "
w i t h no t e a c h i n g
was e n t i t l e d
A l l but
therefore
A curriculum writer
address
education.
and u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r
The r e p o r t
three
and o n l y
Many r e p o r t e d a need
in emergencies,
neighbors.
eight
up t o
45 a n d 5 5 ,
in Punjabi,
an i n t e r p r e t e r
English.
bus,
farmwork f o r
illiterate
than a grade
ages of
interested
nothing
approach.
learned
no c o d e s
that
in
or
reflects
a
28
Over t h e
teaching
four years
since
the
a p p r o a c h and m a t e r i a l s
student-centered
with F r e i r e ' s model.
the
first
year
of
the
but
found t h a t
it
p r o g r e s s e d too
for
their
used
the
weeks of
units
c u r r i c u l u m as
classes,
but
a c c o r d i n g to
In t h e
was
third
unsafe
issues
cabins,
fast
1983).
a resource
they
the
year
i n t r o d u c e d to
Important
program used the
(Neesham,
have
the
encourage
such as
especially
their
tutors
as
(Jackson,
1984),
description
questions
the
a day
of
of
plan
the
of
ten
Over
response
their
bleak,
to
visual
recognize
life
a tutor's
of
guide
identified
was d e v e l o p e d
a farmworker.
to
the
u s i n g the
tutor's
are
vans,
by
These
loosely
A Time t o Grow
codes,
contains
benefit,
suggestions
a set
a
of
on how t o
use
beginners.
two y e a r s
since
their
i n t r o d u c t i o n , use
t h e s e d r a w i n g s has v a r i e d .
style,
and some
students
i n the
f o r p r o b l e m - p o s i n g , and some
the
codes
about farmwork.
s c a l e s were
each code
few
l e s s o n s and
were drawn by S h i r l e y McGrew.
each problem for
codes with
have
first
codes are drawings d e p i c t i n g p r o b l e m a t i c s i t u a t i o n s ,
sequenced
enough
overcrowded labour c o n t r a c t o r s '
at
in
students.
a set
more d i s c u s s i o n
more
Tutors
basic
i n the
t r a i n e d to
ESL C r u s a d e ,
The c o n t e n t
D a v i d J a c k s o n , and t h e y
then,
the
extensively,
a n d was n o t
needs of
and b e i n g c h e a t e d
by u n i o n l e a d e r s .
curriculum
Since
been
specific
of
however,
have become p r o g r e s s i v e l y
and c o n s i s t e n t
students
program s t a r t e d
w h i c h many t u t o r s
f a r m w o r k e r s have
not
and can
as
put o f f
identify
The main i s s u e
see
as
w i t h the
style
and
has
been
p a t r o n i z i n g and
found a l i e n a t i n g .
by t h e
of
as a r e
Overall,
tutors;
problems d e p i c t e d .
most
Some
29
tutors
for
have
others
interest
reported excellent
they
have
f a l l e n completely
i n t a l k i n g about
a significant
factor
(Jackson,1984;
materials
to
in their
this
response
farm a n d t h e i r
curriculum
true
in the
is
together
format of
to
the
enthusiastically
and l i v e l y
Faigin,
ESL Crusade
by a l l
substantial
the
amount o f
have a r i s e n o u t
in t h i s
the
development
increasing
p r o b l e m a t i s i n g of
In
1985 a
literacy
a former t u t o r .
in
1986.
video
The. v i d e o
be
used
l i t e r a c y b a s e d on
The v i d e o and book
They were
were
received
and g e n e r a t e d
long
1986).
teaching experience
has been
of
to
needs
t u t o r s and
i n the d i r e c t i o n of
learning content
depicting situations
students.
the
t h e F a r m w o r k e r s U n i o n has d e v e l o p e d a
This
and m o t i v a t e
1984
genre
c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l in response
of
all
which are
l i t e r a c y book a r e t o
(Millard
students.
and of
develop
summer o f
t u t o r s and s t u d e n t s ,
years
been
some women w o r k e r s on a mushroom
approach.
discussions
Thus o v e r
work,
a video
to
Virtually
to combine p r o b l e m - p o s i n g w i t h b a s i c
introduced
overall
drawings
a p h o t o - s t o r y b a s e d on t h e
i n P u n j a b i ) and t h e
a language-experience
that
In t h e
to u n i o n i z e .
book was d e v e l o p e d by S y b i l
(which
the
movie v i d e o s ,
Zindabad,
s t o r y of
attempts
to
media s t y l e .
u s u a l l y m u s i c a l romance a d v e n t u r e s .
the
Students'
m i x e d r e v i e w has been
farmworkers watch and enjoy H i n d i
dramatizing
flat.
1986).
u s i n g a more p o s i t i v e
CFU p r o d u c e d F a r m w o r k e r s
a r i s i n g from them;
farmwork d o e s not a p p e a r t o have
Mi H a r d , 1 9 8 5 ,
One r e s p o n s e
discussions
on t h e
i n s u c h a way a s
However, t h e r e
has been no
to
topic
of
interest
systematic
30
attempt
of
the
to
their
them t o
survival
perceive
The a b s e n c e
of
the
p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the
perceive
like
investigate
of
o v e r a l l complex of
program;
needs,
in July
summer s e s s i o n
The
first
tutors,
this
of
question
opposed to
s u c h an a n a l y s i s
1984,
course
u n d e r s t a n d how
how t h e
themes
they
union would
them.
p r i m e i m p o r t a n c e by F r e i r e
office
as
to
generative
at
that
was
himself
when he was
i d e n t i f i e d as
in a v i s i t
the
British
addressed to
a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and s u p p o r t e r s o f
the
the
issue
C.F.U.
in Vancouver teaching
the U n i v e r s i t y of
Freire
to
an
a
Columbia.
assembled
E S L C r u s a d e was on
matter:
" I f t h e y have some k i n d o f e d u c a t i o n a l
p r a c t i c e , t h e y have t o have some c o n t e n t s .
What i s t h e r o l e of t h e f a r m w o r k e r s e n g a g e d
in t h i s p r a c t i c e in order to o r g a n i z e the
contents for t h e i r education, for t h e i r
t r a i n i n g , or i f they a r e not e n g a g i n g i n
t h i s , j u s t t h e t u t o r s g i v e them o r t e l l them
what, t h e y must know?"
Following a discussion
some of
interest
the
problems t u t o r s
students
of
the
had e n c o u n t e r e d
in both s u r v i v a l
recommended an a p p r o a c h of
initial
n e e d s a s s e s s m e n t and
in trying
E S L and u n i o n
continuous
thematic
to
issues,
Freire
investigation:
"How t o do t h a t ?
I t i s a l s o a q u e s t i o n of
doing.
I d o n ' t b e l i e v e t h a t you can f i n d a
p r e s c r i p t i o n for t h i s .
To t h e e x t e n t t h a t
t h e y b e g i n t o speak E n g l i s h , o r t h a t y o u
speak t h e i r l a n g u a g e , y o u c o u l d g e t t h e
p r o b l e m and y o u c o u l d go w i t h t h e m , l i t t l e
by l i t t l e , u n v e i l i n g t h e p r o b l e m .
The
q u e s t i o n i s not f o r y o u t o make a s p e e c h
a b o u t i t ; even i f i t was p o s s i b l e from t h e
l i n g u i s t i c p o i n t of v i e w i t s h o u l d be v e r y
bad from t h e p o i n t of view of t h e
p s y c h o l a n a l y s i s y o u have t o d o .
That i s ,
i t ' s not y o u r t a s k j u s t t o e x p l a i n t o t a l l y
t h e e f f e c t t o them, but t o c h a l l e n g e them i n
31
o r d e r f o r them t o . . .
i n the l a s t a n a l y s i s ,
t h e y need t o make . . . t h e a r c h e o l o g y o f
t h e i r s u f f e r i n g , and n o t y o u on t h e b e h a l f
o f them, b u t y o u have t o be w i t h them i n t h e
p r o c e s s o f making t h e a r c h e o l o g y , and t h e
a r c h e o l o g y c o u l d not s t o p j u s t a t t h e l e v e l
o f p s y c h o l o g y . . . i t s h o u l d be v e r y b a d ,
b e c a u s e t h i s k i n d of a r c h e o l o g y i s
eminently, s t r o n g l y , a p o l i t i c a l one."
Freire
to
also
adapt
identified
his
several
approach to
The d i f f i c u l t y
of
him i m m e d i a t e l y .
trying
to
awareness
that
it
is
necessary
what many t u t o r s
ambivalent
English
t h r o u g h the
teaching
conducting
struck
teach
the
problems
He f o u n d i t
teaching
of
for both to
very
that
learning English
language.
that
place.
He t h e n
a l t h o u g h he
their
attitude
the
point
f o r empowerment
they
very
we
were
raise
agreed
are
often
ambivalent
with Canadian
the
phrases
acknowledged
students are
cope
identified
characterize
He a l s o
because
attempt
i n one-word
strange
be d o n e .
in
starting
a foreign
English,
i n Canada and h a v i n g t o
first
i n the
t h r o u g h p r o b l e m - p o s i n g , and t o
toward b e i n g
the
of
'dialogue'
have d i s c o v e r e d ;
towards
inherent
fears
society
that
toward E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g s o c i e t y
through language
learning:
"In a r r i v i n g h e r e I c a n r e a l i z e t h e f e a r s
t h e s e p e o p l e s u f f e r ; f e a r of e v e r y t h i n g ,
f e a r because they d o n ' t u n d e r s t a n d a n y t h i n g
w h i c h h a s been t o l d them and has been t a l k e d
a r o u n d them.
One t h i n g i s f o r me t o be
s u r r o u n d e d by t h e s o n g s o f t h e b i r d s , some
sounds i n the f o r e s t as I f e l t l a s t y e a r
when I went t o s t a y w i t h t h e I n d i a n i n t h e
f o r e s t i n B r a z i l ; but I knew t h a t I c o u l d
have some k i n d of c o n t r o l on t h a t .
But t h e y
d o n ' t have any k i n d of c o n t r o l on t h i s w o r l d
here.
S e c o n d l y , through t h i s language they
are being discriminated . . .
then t h e r e i s
a l s o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y f o r them t o have
d i f f i c u l t i e s psychologically speaking,
emotionally speaking...
The v e r y l e v e l of
as
32
d i s c r i m i n a t i o n must be a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r
the d i f f i c u l t y to read the language of the
discriminator . . .
P o s s i b l y they f e e l
b l o c k e d t o speak E n g l i s h p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e
i n t h e d e p t h o f t h e m s e l v e s , t h e y know t h a t
t h i s l a n g u a g e has t o do w i t h t h e o p p r e s s o r s .
How t o t r a n s f o r m t h e b l o c k a g e i n t o
o p e n i n g - t h i s i s f o r me t h e f u n d a m e n t a l i n some moment t h e y need t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t
s p e a k i n g E n g l i s h on t h e one h a n d , d i m i n i s h e s
t h e i r f e a r s to the extent t h a t they can
c o p e , to the e x t e n t t h a t they can
u n d e r s t a n d , to the extent t h a t they can
d i m i n i s h t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s t o be c h e a t e d ,
and on t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e y n e e d t o p e r c e i v e
t h a t by s p e a k i n g E n g l i s h t h e y c a n a d d
something to t h e i r s t r u g g l e .
Thus F r e i r e
be p o s e d t o
their
of
students
fears.
in order
l e a r n i n g as
I encountered a l l
language
the
necessity
to
learn,
empowerment -
the
community
in the
investigator
the
Punjabi
absence
for
educational
about
these
issues
and t e a c h e r s
and d i f f i c u l t y o f
and the
STUDIES OF THE PUNJABI
In
of
t e a c h i n g and p r o b l e m - p o s i n g , the
motivation
the
of
it
to c o n s u l t
students'
COMMUNITY
share a
question
of
language
students'
learning
my i n v e s t i g a t i o n .
IN VANCOUVER
p u r p o s e of
makes s e n s e
establishing
for
every a v a i l a b l e
the
difficulty
combining second
the
subject
of
study a
an
ESL t e a c h e r -
source
c u l t u r e and c o m m u n i t y .
studies
the
an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y team t o
community has been
anthropological
of
-
do not
r e l a t i o n s h i p of
course
specific
program,
a problem which can
t o h e l p them a d d r e s s and overcome
c o m m u n i c a t i n g when s t u d e n t s
language,
and
sees language
of
information
The V a n c o u v e r
a number o f
dealing with issues
of
cultural
conflict
33
and
adaptation.
I consulted
these
studies
had been c o m p l e t e d ,
findings.
theirs
The d e g r e e
is
discussed
qualifications
fieldwork
out
in
to
60's
on t h e i r
since
the
relevance,
these
1980,
but
o f my
with
Two i m p o r t a n t
are
have
analysis
concur
however.
studies
there
and
reliability
in Chapter V.
and m i d - 7 0 ' s ;
community
of
my f i e l d w o r k
w h i c h my o b s e r v a t i o n s
in d e t a i l
bear
after
a measure
on w h i c h most of
in the
the
as
only
First,
based
been
was
carried
important
no s t u d i e s .
Also,
the
changes
most o f
the
r
informants
i n most of
households,
were
The
studies
that
women,
reviewed
on the
here
are
relations
i m m i g r a t i o n has
of
the
concluding
Canadian
that
of
members
of
explore
this
perceptions
relates
to
the
(1979)
of
types:
Indian
host
of
further
conflict
on t h e
gives
review
of
and
impact
and
be
reviewed
of
first.
the
"South A s i a n C a n a d i a n s " ,
tend
to
about
see
their
or
than
by c o m p a r i n g S i k h s '
with Canadian s o c i e t y
and
From i n t e r v i e w s
of
position
it
in
actually
interaction
B u c h i g n a n i and I n d r a
intra-group solidarity
contexts.
those
The f o r m e r w i l l
knowledge
society.
students.
relations
a general
none
immigrants
focussing
internal
established
and a l m o s t
my 4
as more h o p e l e s s and l i m i t e d
a lack
their
socio-cultural
and t h o s e
and s t r a t e g i e s
issue
of
3 out
two m a j o r
many S o u t h A s i a n s
society
because
of
heads of
i n my g r o u p ,
between E a s t
community.
problems
one
had on t h e
Norman B u c h i g n a n i
adaptive
were male
who c o m p r i s e d
C a n a d i a n "host" s o c i e t y ,
traditions
is,
studies
whom I had n o t
illiterate
focussing
the
of
the
with
(1980)
and F i j i a n s '
and how
this
pre-emigration
100
working-class
34
males
from e a c h g r o u p ,
they
found t h a t
t h e m s e l v e s a s more n e g a t i v e l y
Fijians.
Mohinder
interview
survey
presents
Ghosh
structure,
South A s i a n s
integration
couples
their
30's,
Overall,
social
and c o n t a c t
in Montreal
their
mostly
interviewed
argues
(i.e.
that
because of
the s o c i a l
Canadian
almost
and i n t e g r a t i o n
of
forty
(The P o r t u g u e s e
on how
and economic
Thirty
of
fruit
less
and i n a b i l i t y t o s e p a r a t e
private
and r e s t r i c t
religious
where
study
of
the
fieldwork
families
i n the
(1976-77)
living
lived
i n the
i n the
orchard owners).
Joy
successfully
life
c u l t u r a l emphasis
in
or o c c u p a t i o n .
interviewed
achievement,
life
study
integration
Sikh
t o t h e C a n d i a n way o f
less
Ratna
S i k h s and P o r t u g u e s e
and a h a l f
a r e a a n d were m a i n l y
race,
society.
d i d a comparative
a l l members o f
background,
activities,
society.
by e d u c a t i o n
women a v o i d e d
In a y e a r
He
a l l Hindu or Moslem, m o s t l y
t h e S i k h s have a d a p t e d
happily)
leisure
with Canadian
middle-class
Vernon/Kelowna a r e a .
Oliver/Osoyoos
status,
women i n t o
Annama J o y (1983)
adaptation
heads.
immigration trends,
perceive
interviewed,
Okanagan V a l l e y .
she
questionnaire-
a questionnaire-interview
Ghosh f o u n d t h a t
possible.
to
regard
by C a n a d i a n s t h a n do
conducted a
economic
conducted
of
were
(1981)
relating
education,
(1979)
perceived
tend to
of P u n j a b i - s p e a k i n g h o u s e h o l d
statistics
occupation,
family
Singh
Sikhs
than the
Portuguese
on i n d i v i d u a l
the spheres of p u b l i c and
and e t h n i c
expression
to
latter.
Other
experience
studies
have
focussed
on t h e
o f moving t o a new s e t t i n g
impact
that
the
h a s had on c u l t u r a l and
the
35
social
institutions
Michael
women)
style
the
Ames and J o y I n g l i s
from "the
of
life"
analysis
three
within
of
P u n j a b i community.
interviewed
broad 'middle'
(Ames & I n g l i s ,
the
effect
contrasting
of
ideal
s p e c t r u m of
I973:16n).
family patterns:
(of
and
contemporary Canadian p a t t e r n .
particulary
its
situation"
analysis
done
and
in
immediate
interesting
" c r i t i c a l factor
their
of
...
is
(p.27).
family organization
Canada.
and t h e
the
lives
of
relationship
organized
middle classes
East
for
of
family
1976)
Sikhs
women,
also
provides
the
extended
of
class
also
presents
(U.B.C.
generation
women,
emphasizing
have
controlled
it
in depth
relations
a detailed
analysis
valuable,
of
Sikh
religion.
Chadney's focus
of
a determining
by
focusses
in
the
Her work
on w o r k i n g
the
(U.B.C.
f a m i l y a n d work
an a n a l y s i s
is
their
own s o c i e t y .
t o mine b e c a u s e
social
in
1977)
James C h a d n e y ' s PhD d i s s e r t a t i o n
as
an
fieldwork
k i n s h i p system
forces
especially
competition
because
interpret
b a s e d on
especially
and,
economic
is
themes
and e t h n i c i t y ,
arenas
the
of
Vancouver)
analysis
(1974)
b o t h C a n a d i a n and t h e i r
work.
(of
He d i s c u s s e s m a i n l y t h e
them by s o c i e t a l
and e x a m i n e s
and a t
i n terms
themselves
and c h a n g e ,
Indians,
p a r t i c u l a r l y pertinent
class
and
i m m i g r a n t s and t h e i r C a n a d a - b o r n
nature
working-class
16
t r a d i t i o n a l Punjabi
generative
Marguerite Cassin's M.A. thesis
emphasizes
family
the
Ram S r i v a s t a v a
c u l t u r a l gap between
that
how t h e
men and
They p r o v i d e an
Their
to
1967
occupation,
Punjabi pattern
in relation
1960-61 a n d 1 9 6 7 - 6 9 .
children,
is
the
(24
age,
i m m i g r a t i o n on t h e
pattern
the
India),
40 S i k h s
In
of
on t h e
factor
the
importance
role
i n change
of
or
36
maintenance
further
of
of
traditional
article
(1977)
the community
proximity
to
conscious
effort
community's
the
impact
and
ethnicity
within
to
Freire's
moved
The
the
of
of
of
Bahamas
of
but
of
of
a
to
increase
(1981)
examines
separation
agencies
of
and
to
terms
religion
organizations
implemented
of
and
-
to
issues
attempts
themes
theoretical
Freire's
in
to
of
Toronto
i n an
for
a community
the
provide
investigation
was d e s c r i b e d
teachers'
Brazil.
adapt
their
to
students
Vancouver.
procedure
of
the Farmworkers ESL
development
of
curricular
how c l o s e l y
theory
plus
on which
they
context,are
to
materials,
approximated
is
based.
comments a n d
h i s pedagogical
c a n be e x p e c t e d
have
the program
Freire's
our s p e c i f i c
that
was t o
and p r a c t i c a l
theme
First
California
of
literature
the d i s t a n t
themes
of
on c o m b i n i n g
ESL in
the
from
but never
subsequent
in
of
investigate
difficulties,
the problems
Dusenbery
of
not only
leaders
theoretical
moved
assessment
the F r e i r i a n
of
religious
A
concentration
function
men w o r k ,
generative
accounts
needs
recommendations
teaching
the
and c o n c r e t e .
and the
These
review
the generative
discussed
practice
most
ideology
some o f
p r o c e s s and to
from
Crusade,
this
recommended,
original
were
of
for
discussion
arenas.
community.
immediate
-
of
as a
solidarity.
The review
investigating
The
on t h e p a r t
the procedure
procedure
the various
the demographic
on t h e p r o l i f e r a t i o n
context.
the
where
the Canadian
background
ESL
sawmills
purpose
affecting
discusses
social
the Sikh
The
the
of
in
in South Vancouver
the
the
ways
approach with
indicative
come u p i n
of
an E S L
the
some
in
37
generative
theme
difficulty
of
teaching
reality
communication
of
students'
from t h e i r
immigrants
as
logistical
f o c u s most
to
importantly
learn,
u n w i l l i n g and
i n which t h e i r
language
on
the
which
unwanted
v a l u e s and
experiences
irrelevant.
be t h e
studies
on t h e
pertained:
chapter
detail.
history
the
ethnic
of
also
the
of
reality
to
the
Its
purpose
of
conditions
is
and t h e
to
in Chapter V.
to
investigation
The
following
the
community
farmwork,
operating
provide
p r o c e d u r e d e s c r i b e d , i n C h a p t e r IV and t h e
presented
introduction
the
of
involved
theme
in Vancouver.
situation
Farmworkers U n i o n ,
ESL C r u s a d e .
w h i c h my
people
b a c k g r o u n d and d e s c r i b e s
political
outlines
the
provided a brief
community
historical
of
any g e n e r a t i v e
P u n j a b i community
economic,
It
point
This chapter
provides
cultural,
socio-cultural
starting
investigation.
the
but
the
combining second
and r e l u c t a n c e
position
in a society
The s p e c i f i c
must
fear
They i n c l u d e
and o f
with problem-posing,
rresults
seem
investigation.
the
the
structure
context
thematic
i n more
of
analysis
the
of
38
III.
CONTEXT OF THE INVESTIGATION
This chapter
context
of
specific
the
the
will
p r o v i d e a background sketch
investigation,
situation
constraints
b o t h on t h e
of
rooted
in a very
specific
First,
a brief
the
rise
to
activities
structure
of
described,
the
applies.
the
the
The
labour
was
settling
the
to
of
and l i f e s t y l e
background,
of
the
of
farmwork t h a t
a union,
and t h e
described
the
objectives
next.
The
the
of
the
four
participants
gave
and
operating
then
students
in the
Punjabi
who
investigation.
IN VANCOUVER
that
permanently
t o make t h e i r
general
are
situation.
The c o n d i t i o n s
Punjabi
initially
industry.
and c u l t u r a l
the
focus
identified
which
with p r o f i l e s
Vancouver area
lumber
themes
the
the
1984-85 F a r m w o r k e r s E S L C r u s a d e i s
COMMUNITY
many r e s p e c t s
of
and on
of
into
to
union are
ending
history
the
put
population
of
c o m p r i s e d my ESL c l a s s ,
THE PUNJABI
given
demographics
formation
of
as
the
a description
This w i l l
historical
is
in Vancouver,
the
as
investigation
results,
overview
immigration h i s t o r y ,
investigation
well
and p a r t i c i p a n t s .
generalizability
community
as
of
of
immigration to
other
valued
but
in Canada.
fortunes
over
similar
unwanted A s i a n g r o u p s
in
whose
who were b a r r e d o r h i n d e r e d
The f i r s t
were men who came
By 1908
B . C . is
in
Sikhs
1904
to
seeking
arrive
work
5 , 0 0 0 had a r r i v e d , most
i n C a n a d a and t h e n
r e t u r n to
from
in
in
the
planning
India.
They
39
were e m p h a t i c a l l y
not
D o m i n i o n government
were a t
mills
the
time
on t h e
which the
mostly
from t h e
effect
halting
of
stay.
remove
In
the
infamous
to
Komagata Maru
anchor
in Burrard
forbidden
gunboats
to
out
land,
of
Although
i n bunkhouses
in successful
any
of
the
of
origin
the
opportunity
to
no more t h a n
by t h e
early
to
Canada.
from I n d i a
of
to
further
incident;
Inlet
then
gradually,
the
but
s y s t e m was
the
remained
to
ship
was
its
back t o
over.
and more h i g h l y
N e a r l y 7,000
1969
A l t h o u g h t h o s e who came a t
independence
late
and
this
skilled
1971
time
to
after
is
1919,
of
estimated
i n Vancouver
1947
and
the
increased
immigrants
than p r e v i o u s
remain
police
1960's,
to
the
Calcutta.
in
(Chadney,
tended
In
advantage
It
system immigration
the
Japanese
was
by navy and
quota
introduced.
had
passengers
were l i v i n g
i n the
a
forced
i n Vancouver took
boom was
direct
this
were r e l a x e d
families
of
no
charter
India's
i n Canada between
Further
Since
After
real
around
procure
The r e s u l t
escorted
(who
lumber
issue
Canada,
two m o n t h s ,
bring their
1940's.
of
educated
for
the
the
Punjabi workers.
passengers.
15 P u n j a b i f a m i l i e s
implementation
arrived
376
and was
that
the
protest.
V a n c o u v e r h a r b o u r and s e n t
Sikhs
1908
community
near
i m m i g r a n t had t o
immigration r e s t r i c t i o n s
few
entire
in
B r i t i s h H o n d u r a s , an
arrival
b r i n g over
fact,
b a r r e d by an o r d e r - i n - c o u n c i l
ran d i r e c t l y
the
to
some V a n c o u v e r S i k h s p r o v i d e d f u n d s
steamship
point
to
that
country
lines
that
living
effectively
steamship
1914,
to
community o r g a n i z e d
which s t i p u l a t e d
passage
at
proposed
Fraser River)
i m m i g r a t i o n was
1910
encouraged
be
when
the
from I n d i a
1977:193).
better
immigrants,
the
40
majority
still
1970' s most
this
f o u n d work m a i n l y i n s a w m i l l s .
Punjabi
group; they
sponsorship
Punjab to
1974;
i m m i g r a n t s have
in turn
remains
the
Vancouver to
Chadney,
1977;
have
near
date.
(Ames & I n g l i s ,
development
of
area.
site
1 9 7 0 ' s OASIS
Society),
the
Fraser
a Punjabi
on S . E .
community,
Thus b o t h e c o n o m i c
leaders
Punjabi
There are
these
Street
forces
have
several
established
that
factors
closed-ness
of
South Vancouver
in
for
1969.
In
specifically
the
to
Drive
merchants a
"Punjabi
Market,"
early
p l a n n i n g on t h e
a concentrated
(Chadney,
its
Immigrants
near Marine
which c o n t r i b u t e
of
a conscious
leadership,
the
the
and 4 9 t h Avenue by t h e
and c o n s c i o u s
of
the
2nd Avenue t o
wealthy
dubbed t h e
of
l e d to
catering
of
employer
and
1977;
had
1980's.
part
of
closelyKhalsa
1983.)
and t h e
is
religious
much of
efforts
Srivastava,
largest
Ross S t .
agency
of
1979.)
from West
at
community i n V a n c o u v e r .
Diwan S o c i e t y ,
closeness
has
opened an o f f i c e
Through the
1973;
community i n t h e
relocated
Indian shopping area,
community
the
relatives
Family-class
concentration
mills
Marine Drive
grown up a r o u n d M a i n
of
ethnic
an i m m i g r a n t s e r v i c e s
on M a i n S t r e e t .
uniquely
been
the m i d -
i m m i g r a t i o n from
Craig,
( O r i e n t a t i o n Adjustment S e r v i c e s
"South A s i a n "
knit
River
The S i k h T e m p l e was
current
always
The c o n s e q u e n t
the
others.
commons means o f
B u c h i g n a n i , 1979;
immigrants.
population
sponsored
sponsored
most
The lumber i n d u s t r y has
Punjabi
been
Since
to
this
community.
collective
will,
to
both
The
religious
and e t h n i c
principal
fostered
keep u n t a i n t e d by C a n a d i a n
Sikh c u l t u r a l ,
the
by
society
heritage
as
the
as
41
possible.
identity
outside
is
(Sikhs
as
community
considered
re-inforced
to
is
for
community
Arranged marriages
for
a visit
Canada and s p o n s o r
the
spouse
two y e a r s
the
sometimes t h e
live
to
community.
extensive
housing
It
the
and w e d d i n g ,
to
follow,
it
constantly
to
is
then
the
quite
return
common
to
s o m e t i m e s up t o
In
as
work f o r
1974;
live
or e l d e r
most
as
as much
Chadney,
groom's
until
dwelling.
they
Whether
Finding
of
socializing,
factory
they
is
Cassin,
an
primarily
same
work and p r o f e s s i o n s ,
1977;
are
jobs,
from the
(Ames & I n g l i s ,
1976,
(or
P u n j a b i i m m i g r a n t s have
most
Punjabis.
from o t h e r
i m m i g r a n t s and
brothers
o r among p e o p l e
of
rent
with the
in Vancouver.
well
outside
other
sponsored
own s e p a r a t e
kinship lines
fact,
own homes o r
Recently
k i n s h i p network
Srivastava,
norm.
same house o r n o t ,
organized along
people
are
cases
someone from
are
ties
parents
their
and s p o u s e s ,
village.
to marry
strong
frequently
bride's)
establish
i n the
Thus m a r r i a g e
retains
Punjabi families
newly-married couples
ready
separate
later.
Almost a l l
members o f
in India.)
young p e o p l e
India
as
maintaining a
way t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l v a l u e s
and t h e
r e t u r n to
of
v i r t u a l l y unknown, and i n most
preferable
In t h i s
homeland.
a long h i s t o r y
a minority population
the
India.
have
most
1973;
1977;
Dusenbery,
1979)
There are
and s o c i a l
small
Punjabi doctors,
w o r k e r s who s e r v e
p r o p o r t i o n of
immigrants
is
to
set
it
the
(Singh,
up t h e i r
dentists,
lawyers,
community,
1981).
own s m a l l
but
travel
they
The a i m of
business,
agents
are a very
many P u n j a b i
typically
in
42
real
estate,
farming.
where
the
trucking,
The m a j o r i t y ,
they
green
are
usually
chain.
longshoremen,
attendants,
canneries
flyers
berries
1976,1977;
labour c o n t r a c t i n g ,
still
restricted
to
work
as
gas
Common j o b s
factories,
lumber
taxi
get
and p a r k i n g
Cassin,
1977;
crops
i n the
Singh,
1981;
lot
part-time
summer.
Steeves
in
dishwashing
and t h o s e w i t h
and k n i t t i n g Cowichan sweaters
and o t h e r
as
women a r e w o r k i n g
newcomers,
levels
such
drivers,
station
for
or
mills,
jobs
j a n i t o r i a l work,
Old people,
and s k i l l
in
heavy-labor
jobs
workers,
and j a n i t o r s .
educational
picking
however,
construction
and garment
delivering
sales,
O t h e r men f i n d
and house c l e a n i n g .
lowest
retail
the
work
in winter,
and
(Chadney,
& Boal,
1982.)
FARMWORK
The most
recent
demographic
B.C.
(Hawthorne,
1986)
they
were
1954
of
this
women,
time
about
Punjabi
as
residence
had been
another
73% o f
half
their
been
were o v e r
sources
between
school
45% h a d c o m p l e t e d
(mainly
all.
less
of
five
and were
age,
as
October).
spoke
length
years,
or more.
of
and 85%
Almost
in Punjabi,
secondary
personal
farmwork and unemployment
farmwork
and a l l
average
illiterate
The a v e r a g e
in
f a r m w o r k e r s were
and e i g h t
years
than
of
(from June to
Their
three
farmworkers
conditions
50 y e a r s
language.
farmwork f o r
no E n g l i s h a t
of
Fraser V a l l e y seasonal
first
to
the
p i c k i n g season
i n C a n a d a was
doing
had n e v e r
spoke
i n the
reflects
study
schooling.
income
insurance)
half
and
54%
from a l l
for
the
As
43
year
was
crops
-
less
than
$5,000.
strawberries,
Most f a r m w o r k e r s worked t h e
raspberries,
t h r o u g h A u g u s t ; an a v e r a g e
half
continued
carrots,
to
work
of
i n the
open-ended
and h e a l t h i e r ? " ,
complaints
about
A l l of
the
Insurance
in
are
must
order
for
unable
any of
to
unemployment
for
receives
payment
responsible
be
eligibility
from t h e
at
grower
several
for
pickers'
contractor
also
transports
the
the
i n the
40% ( C . F . U . ,
are
1984).
insurance
the
off
and p i c k e r s .
eligibility,
farmworkers
same
employer
As many
jeopardized
most
growers
if
they
work f o r
farms.
fruit
a
Thus f o r
transportation
of
the
The c o n t r a c t o r
picked,
and
this.
day.
wages,
who h i r e
fulfill
low
system
For
to
this
sometimes up
to
P u n j a b i workers
a translating
steady
is
The
from South Vancouver
their
A l l contractors
and t h u s
and t h e
workers'
wages o u t
workers
a percentage
themselves P u n j a b i ,
between g r o w e r s
the
F r a s e r V a l l e y and back e v e r y
he d e d u c t s
with
s t e a d y work t h r o u g h o u t
p a y i n g the
service
work,
c a n be
for
fields
for
Consequently,
contracts
that
insurable.
of
who c a n p r o v i d e
s e a s o n by t a k i n g out
t o make y o u r
Unemployment
stipulate
to
peas,
labour contracting
employed.
seven days
a grower.
contractor,
the
seven days
those days
guarantee
work and t r a v e l ,
of
About
sprouts.
farmworkers responded
regulations
insurance
work d i r e c t l y
labour
symptoms
from J u n e
crops:
"What c o u l d be done
most
work a minimum o f
-
hours a day.
and b r u s s e l s
farmworkers are
eligibility
ten
on v e g e t a b l e
long hours of
these are
under w h i c h most
(only)
fall
question
work s a f e r
pay.
15 w e e k s ,
broccoli, cauliflower
To t h e
and b l u e b e r r i e s
berry
work,
function
unemployment
and t r a n s l a t i o n ,
most
44
farmworkers a r e dependent
for
considerable
personal
include
m o r a l s of
result
in
benefits.
each
season
(Vancouver
this
the
are
Act,
to
may be g i v e n
r e q u i r e d to
Columbia,
transfer
by t h e
"persons
to
i n the
federal
holiday
Columbia,
but
calculated
the
pay,
months
to
basis.
system
Punjabis;
insurance
are
however,
and
regulations
and
Employment S t a n d a r d s
e m p l o y e d on a
piecework
or b e r r y crops"
are
g o v e r n i n g minimum wage,
work o u t
especially
to
at
thinner.
by W o r k e r s '
then
all.
entrenched
historically
crop is
use
and
on h o u r s of
work
T h e r e a r e minimum p i e c e - r a t e s
in hourly terms,
end of
though
a relative
other
but
which
worth
the
even
labour c o n t r a c t i n g
Under t h e
always
covered
non-payment
Some c o n t r a c t o r s
assets
vegetable
wages,
government,
several
and r e s t r i c t i o n s
1981).
t h e s e do not
were n o t
1983.)
from p r o v i s i o n s
s e a s o n when the
injuries
been
the
advances),
unemployment
fruit,
excluded
and o v e r t i m e
(British
crops,
who have
and
of
pay on a w e e k l y
o n l y made p o s s i b l e
the
pay w o r k e r s a t
Punjabis e x p l o i t i n g
hand-harvest
specifically
to
paying workers at
inherent
not
their
provincial legislation.
basis
of
legally
a problem of
protected
B.C.
they
on
allows
common p r o b l e m s
season,
contributions
common p r a c t i c e
Sun; B r i t i s h
is
an e n t i r e
to
is
situation
i r r e g u l a r payment
It
b a n k r u p t c y , not
system
for
The most
repay
The a b u s e s
partly
vans,
This
depending
farmworkers h a v i n g to
opportunity
declare
unsafe
insurance
(though
contractors
contractor.
back-wages
unemployment
can
of
of
and e x p l o i t a t i o n ,
the
overcrowded,
witholding
of
abuse
on c o n t r a c t o r s .
the
the
for
all
minimum wage when
beginning
Before
1983,
Compensation.
and end
farmwork
The
45
agricultural
sector
enforce
working c o n d i t i o n s
the
safe
B.C.
education.
formation
Agency,
(Hawthorne,
These
are
of
the
the
FWOC a c h i e v e d
$80,000
the
first
at
victory
the
of
of
of
to
of
the
standards
three
when a s t r i k e
(Vancouver
the
Sun, J u l y
u n i o n have
been
and t o
good:
the
7,
to
of
the
within
strengthened
but
the
union,
had l e d
end o f
1985.
to
18
1979).
provided for
1983
changes
position
of
In
four
insurance
Camp A c t
at
Initial
the
u n i o n had
eligibility
to
the
employers
recession
farmworkers
and
under
1984).
In
farms and c o n t r a c t s
a n d weakened
that
governing
contractors,
Labour Code,
of
for
regulations
(C.F.U.,
five
in
certified
years
of
The
labour
on f a r m s .
migrant
decertification
The e c o n o m i c
rally
payment
changes
the
into
and l i c e n s i n g
Industrial
the
prompt
Workers Compensation coverage
u n i o n had c e r t i f i c a t i o n s
these,
the
effect
eliminate
unemployment
workers
cabins
and
The
C a n a d i a n Farmworkers U n i o n .
i m p r o v e d Employment S t a n d a r d s
payment
the
1979
and a c q u i r i n g c o n t r a c t s
from 25 d a y s
1984
in
a C l e a r b r o o k farm f o r c e d
FWOC became
units
with
1978.
s y s t e m by o r g a n i z i n g w o r k e r s
farmworkers,
the
p r i m a r i l y concerned
Farm
in
reduction
inclusion
own s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g
Farm W o r k e r s O r g a n i z i n g Committee
i n b o t h a r e a s was
regular
is
instead,
the
legislation,
rule
its
that
to
discriminatory
achieved
has
regulations
industries;
i s s u e s and c o n d i t i o n s
of
bargaining
in other
which
two main g o a l s
contracting
from the
1986).
i n back wages
1980
success
exempt
which l e d
its
by b e r r y p i c k e r s
April
still
Farmers A s s o c i a t i o n
H e a l t h and S a f e t y
of
is
all
hit
but
the
one
at
which
that
of
unit
province
by
in
the
46
the
early
willing
on t h e
1980's
to
increased
the
number o f
work under any c o n d i t i o n s ,
part
jeopardize
of
union sympathizers
their
union continued
jobs.
to
Despite
deliver
to
that
and unemployment
continued
sustained
its
to
willingness
any p r o t e s t
these d i f f i c u l t i e s ,
services
insurance
be d e l i v e r e d ,
people
and d e c r e a s e d
risk
s u c h as
members w i t h u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e s
wages,
unemployed
free
in
aid
the
for
u n p a i d back
The o t h e r
and t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e
organizing efforts,
might
1985
legal
complaints,
problems.
that
service
union
was
the
Farmworkers ESL
the
Farmworkers ESL Crusade
Crusade.
THE E S L CRUSADE
The o r i g i n s
have
been
describe
discussed
the
a p p r o a c h of
involvement
the
took
over
the
Crusade as
as
November
1984,
s t u d e n t s at
year,
1985,
a volunteer
basic
the
the
section
year
tutor.
i n w h i c h my
of
The
C r u s a d e , and
over
will
teaching
year
W h i l e the
following
kept
teaching
the
four years
coordinator/volunteer
structure
ESL C r u s a d e began
and
was my s e c o n d
been m o d i f i e d
the
This
personnel,
students.
have
group c l a s s e s
1985
chapter.
c o o r d i n a t o r of
Crusade's operation,
The
This
same g r o u p of
tutor/family
previous
structure,
place.
a p p r o a c h and m a t e r i a l s
the
of
Crusade's t h i r d
i n the
I took
teaching
i n the
operating
investigation
year,
and b e g i n n i n g
has
remained
with tutor
and ended w i t h a b i g p a r t y
unaltered.
orientations
for
a S o u t h V a n c o u v e r community c e n t e r
all
tutors
i n May,
in
and
1985.
of
47
T h e r e were t w e l v e c l a s s e s ,
two
hours
until
from e a r l y
the
mostly
end o f
December
May).
of
to
w h i c h met
the
The c l a s s e s
one
Westminster
i n R i c h m o n d , one
(Millard,
The c o o r d i n a t o r
Jackson.
1985).
of
the
development.
the
tutors,
first
farmwork;
t h e y and a g u i d e
about
Twelve
women;
of
of
anglophone.
teacher,
of
halfway
the
these
and f o r t y .
set
'codes'
for
the
there
than o v e r ,
anglophones
are
experience
in teaching
supportive
of
the
1984;
Millard,
1985,
under
40,
no f u l l - t i m e
typical
tutor,
1985
except
materials
1986)
the
about
to
ESL C r u s a d e were
and t h e
university
worker,
Most t u t o r s
the
supervising
were d i s t r i b u t e d
t h a n any o t h e r
E S L , but
work of
and
most a r e
union.
T h u s as
a
were
a g e s of
a
twenty
retired
and two who were
of
other
years
more p e o p l e
occupation,
have
little
or
of
the
under
and more
no
f a m i l i a r w i t h and
(Neesham,
female
ESL e x p e r i e n c e ,
f o r my ( m o s t l y
rest
students,
more women t h a n men,
than P u n j a b i s .
with
use
t h e y were t y p i c a l
more s t u d e n t s
East
p r o d u c t i o n of
i n the
an o f f i c e
always
in
C r u s a d e s was D a v i d
were between t h e
They i n c l u d e d s e v e r a l
As a g r o u p ,
homes,
program.
tutors
tutors
my c a s e
i n New
problem-posing
their
through the
a house p a - i n t e r ,
Crusade;
1985
the
for
for
i n South Vancouver.
two were P u n j a b i - s p e a k i n g ,
Most of
unemployed.
and one
administration,
fifteen
(in
included training,
David a l s o completed
Crusade's
tutors
and
April
were two
in Delta,
1984
t w i c e a week
in students'
there
M i n e met
His r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s
and s u p p o r t i n g
end of
met
i n South Vancouver, a l t h o u g h
Vancouver,
40
each
1983;
Jackson,
anglophone
I was a
theoretical,
at
student
fairly
that
time)
48
knowledge
about
Freire.
The s t u d e n t s
students
in other
i n the
1985
years,
with a s l i g h t l y
young p e o p l e
than u s u s a l .
years
Crusade
2/3
of
the
o l d people
means
between
to
has
1/3
range.)
women,
13 young women,
distribution
class
latter
same
1985,
and t h e
type).
out
of
2/3
of
women t o
few
50 s t u d e n t s
of
rest
young p e o p l e ,
primarily
three
English
or s e m i - l i t e r a t e
intermediate
(Jackson,
levels,
1984;
level
Millard,
approach.
several
problem-posing
were
steps,
consistent
tutors
i n the
and t h e
encouraged to
use
P h y s i c a l Response,"
the
of
teach
of
the
were composed o f
Every c l a s s
tending
was
to
be
mostly
skills.
on t e a c h i n g E S L
with a
Freirian
orientations
i n c l u d e d Stephen K r a s h e n ' s "Natural
James A s h e r ' s " T o t a l
literacy,
to
one
1986).
techniques
Those p r e s e n t e d
Crusade
with
i n b o t h s p e a k i n g and w r i t i n g
1985,
old
The
and young p e o p l e
The C r u s a d e ' s p h i l o s o p h i c a l v i e w p o i n t
incorporates
20
members o f
with o l d people
beginners,
the
(mine was
were composed o f
that
"young"
evenly
older people
( i n c l u d i n g mine)
men, a n d
in
varied,
three
of
four
50;
were
10 o l d men, and 7 young men.
and n e i g h b o u r s were a l l - w o m e n c l a s s e s .
illiterate
1985
students
there
the
1/3
( " o l d " means o v e r
are very
Most c l a s s e s
mixed a c c o r d i n g to
the
higher percentage
a g e s and s e x e s w i t h i n c l a s s e s
f a m i l y ; the
friends
at
there
composed p r i m a r i l y
distributed,
the
of
that
young p e o p l e
middle
t y p i c a l of
The p r e v a i l i n g r a t i o o v e r
been
20 and 30;
In
C r u s a d e were a l s o
Nina
for
the
Approach,"
Wallerstein's
Language E x p e r i e n c e a p p r o a c h to
photo-stories
to
students'
(Millard,
specific
1985).
Tutors
needs u s i n g
the
49
c u r r i c u l u m as a resource o n l y , to encourage i n f o r m a l t a l k i n g , to
stay away from d r i l l s and worksheets, and to use c o l o r f u l
visual
a i d s and m o t i v a t i n g m a t e r i a l s such as games as o f t e n as
possible.
Thus the t e a c h i n g c l i m a t e of the 1985 ESL Crusade was
condusive t o the i n n o v a t i o n necessary f o r the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of
students' g e n e r a t i v e themes.
A l s o , with the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the
"code" drawings the Crusade's p e d a g o g i c a l p r a c t i c e was b e g i n n i n g
to more c l o s e l y approximate i t s F r e i r i a n theory, and f u r t h e r
movement i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n was d e s i r e d and encouraged.
f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s the students of my c l a s s
The
in d e t a i l ,
demonstrating that they a r e t y p i c a l of Crusade students and of
farmworkers, and s i t u a t i n g them w i t h i n the Vancouver
community i n g e n e r a l .
Punjabi
To p r o t e c t t h e i r p r i v a c y , the students'
names and those of t h e i r
f a m i l i e s have been
changed.
STUDENT PROFILES
Baldev
Baldev i s i n her l a t e
s i n c e the l a t e
baby son.
forties.
She has been i n Canada
1960's, when she immigrated with her husband and
T h i s son i s now 19; he l i v e s at home and works f o r a
towing company owned by the son of a f r i e n d of the f a m i l y .
Baldev has two daughters, who are i n grades 8 and 10, and
another son i n grade 6.
I n d i a , and has worked
Her husband, L a i , was a truck d r i v e r i n
on the green-chain at a nearby lumber
mill
50
since
has
he came
asthma
to
and i s
Canada.
Due t o
i n the
process
the
of
dust
from t h i s
obtaining
a
j o b he
now
disability
pension.
The f a m i l y
They l i v e
on t h e
Most of
Canada.
the
lives
the
Lai's
brother
possible.
although
She
daughters
suits
at
children
berries
is
can
there
not
to
cut
is
their
hair,
home and t o
to
attend
m a r r y someone
any of
the
for
and she
the
likes
from I n d i a ,
length
translation
but
and downtown
and
in
mill.
a home
Punjabi
eat
actively
them t o
fast
involved
permit
wear
She wants a l l
although
as
food,
Canadian
She d o e s not
temple.
in
nothing
her
Punjabi
her
has
yet
them.
illiterate
drive,
d r i v i n g out
traditional
B a l d e v n o r h e r h u s b a n d speak
also
She does n o t
Ama r j i t
the
keep as
in Richmond.
now l i v e
Abbotsford area,
and c o o k s o n l y
of
their
above
a beginner
residence
in
name.
in a l l
can get
on t h e
She
relies
English-speaking
around her
bus.
level
Canada.
i n P u n j a b i and E n g l i s h , a l t h o u g h
r e a d numbers and p r i n t h e r
hospital,
sides
summer,
working at
to
in South Vancouver.
basement.
and h e r h u s b a n d a r e
which
English, despite
daughters
the
on b o t h
every
a vegetarian
B o t h she
temple,
Neither
is
out
her c h i l d r e n and husband f r e q u e n t l y
been a r r a n g e d f o r
Baldev
relatives
made an e f f o r t
f o o d and m e a t .
their
and r e n t
house
owns a farm i n t h e
own c a r when L a i i s
B a l d e v has
of
floor
family's
family picks
their
in
top
i n a two-bedroom
heavily
on
she
her
encounters.
neighborhood,
to
the
51
Amarjit
years.
is
21,
She came o v e r
family
in India.
Gurnam,
and h e r
house
the
previous
time
get
1985
since
had been
married,
Amarjit
bought
i n Canada
leaving
Gurnam's
who s p e a k s
are
i n the
their
sister
the
English
(who s p e a k s
suite
own h o u s e ,
her
of
Baldev's
f o u r d o o r s down
leukhemia
the
and h e r h u s b a n d and c h i l d r e n
only
near-native
a downtown h o t e l .
two
behind a l l
basement
family's
at
for
l i v e d w i t h her husband,
Her m o t h e r - i n - l a w had d i e d o f
summer.
job at
to
1985
father-in-law
i n Haney; they
Gurnam,
law
In
( t h e y have
street).
live
and i n
relatives
fluency,
Both A m a r j i t
no E n g l i s h - a t a l l )
pick
in
Canada.
has
a part-
and h e r
berries
father-in-
during
the
summer.
Amarjit's
India
as
attend
Amarjit
was
w h i c h was
family
B a l d e v ' s husband,
They a l s o
father
husband's
the
same
village
run by h e r
and m a r r i a g e were
temple,
teacher.
the
apparent poverty,
family
Except
to d o c t o r ' s
does a l l
the
the
family's
food,
but
to
arrived
in
and i s
the
same
last
in school
family
The e x p e r i e n c e
for her;
still
they
she
of
was
visit
for
two
Despite
r e g u l a r l y s e n d money back
her
sister-in-law,
Amarjit
never
go t o
the
leaves
temple,
the
i n c l u d i n g hand w a s h i n g
l a u n d r y i n the
She c o o k s
sink.
experiment
mainly
w i t h some C a n a d i a n
or
house.
c o o k i n g and c l e a n i n g ,
to
farm,
immigration
ill
very homesick.
her
to
India.
appointments,
likes
in
name.
in India;
She l i v e d on t h e
traumatic
she
Amarjit's
11
four uncles.
very
have
same v i l l a g e
i n Richmond.
grade
months a f t e r
family's
from t h e
and t h e y
had gone up t o
the
is
She
all
Punjabi
recipes
go
in
52
order
to
cater
nieeices.
thematic
she
tastes
was
when she
attended
attended
first
walk.
English is
h e r h u s b a n d and C a n a d i a n - b o r n
d u r i n g the
and had a baby boy
classes
although
some e v e n i n g
arived,
Her spoken
of
pregnant
investigation,
no l o n g e r
written
the
Amarjit
Amarjit
to
to
but
somewhat
in March,
ESL c l a s s e s
at
the
part
I visited
ceased going
English is
first
the
after
her
at
because
of
which
often.
a local
it
was
school
too
far
intermediate
level;
her
to
1980
better.
Ranjeet
Ranjeet,
their
55,
and h e r h u s b a n d came
youngest daughter,
young c h i l d r e n .
Baldev.
sawmill
community.
also
and a l s o
and some o f
the
Ranjeet
left
teaching
positions.
of
him o f t e n
government
India.
30,
Their
leaving
the
other
A l l of
with both
of
husband,
three
in
age
i n grade
Ranjeet
for
ladies
join
two
from
in a
in a
in
food
the
2 and k i n d e r g a r t e n .
in the
helps
summer.
with
the
They
cooking
housework.
and h e r
judge,
to
He works
works on c a l l
sews P u n j a b i s u i t s
grandchildren.
families
the
Parmjeet
and h e r h u s b a n d b o t h p i c k b e r r i e s
the
street
born i n Canada.
The g r a n d c h i l d r e n a r e
babysit
court
h u s b a n d was
in
her husband and t h e i r
f o u r h o u s e s down t h e
Fraser Valley.
packing p l a n t ,
Ranjeet
They l i v e
Parmjeet's
i n the
Parmjeet,
Canada
who was a d r i v e r
daughters
their
eldest
for
and a son
the
and
son d i e d s e v e r a l
a widow and two c h i l d r e n .
of
their
c h i l d r e n occupy c l e r i c a l
years
Jammu/Kashmir.
or
ago
at
T h e y speak
of
s o r r o w and p r i d e ; he worked f o r
state
circuit-
the
53
Parmjeet
middle-class
furnished
and h e r h u s b a n d ' s
Canadian.
Canadian,
stereo
and t h e r e
households
it
of
the
system.
with t h e i r
the
volunteer
other
is
Amarjit
other
students.
has
the
large
but
is
still
are
well
speaks
been
the
English
the
and
with
speak
same
temple
Ranjeet's
husband, with
active
supplying
b u i l d i n g of
this
in
the
temple.
school
Her spoken E n g l i s h
q u i c k l y becoming l i t e r a t e
in
understand Punjabi
The f a m i l y a t t e n d s
has
primarily
S i k h g u r u s as
Parmjeet
had some e l e m e n t a r y
in Punjabi.
no E n g l i s h a t
of
and B a l d e v .
families,
labour for
Ranjeet
she
not
conspicuously
The d e c o r a t i o n s
grandparents.
i n Richmond a s
literate
is
a r e no p i c t u r e s
c h i l d r e n , a l t h o u g h they
men of
house
is
and e q u i p p e d w i t h a m i c r o - w a v e oven and a
sophisticated
her
Their
lifestyle
is
in English.
education
and
is
beginner-level,
and
Her h u s b a n d
speaks
all.
Gurminder
Gurminder
to
live
is
with her
They l i v e
i n the
Mohinder,
has
f o r most
wife
son,
of
quite
good E n g l i s h .
grade
two,
her
the
1985.
works on c a l l
next
door to
i n Canada
for
60's.
She came t o
daughter-in-law,
house
been
machine-operator
off
i n her e a r l y
City
for
of
in
Baldev.
Gurminder's
years.
He i s
son,
a
V a n c o u v e r , b u t he was on
is
1981
and t h r e e g r a n d c h i l d r e n .
fifteen
His English
near n a t i v e
i n a nearby o l d - a g e
Gurminder's eldest
grandson
Canda
hospital;
fluency.
she
granddaughter
i n k i n d e r g a r t e n , and h e r
lay-
also
is
youngest
His
speaks
in
54
granddaughter
not
Gurminder
never
entirely
who has
left
of
other
Mountie
Punjabi
but t h e
Gurminder
has
sometimes
winter
she
live
Their
the
attend
and e n t h u s i a s t i c
group,
as
reading
she
she
street
grandchildren
These
students,
the
she
has made t h e
signs
to
of
mantelpiece
the
Golden Temple.
Punjabi
summer s i n c e
she
i n the
in India,
temple.
about
suits
at
friends.
arrived,
fall.
She
is
turns
most
65.
In
and
the
for
of
so
in
basic
in
English.
that
is
she
can
beginner-
any member of
opportunities
things
learned
literate
Her E n g l i s h
progress
on l o n g w a l k s ,
ask h e r
but
becoming l i t e r a t e
s e e k s out
f o u r women a r e
but
on t h e
vegetable
attended
a b l e n d of
t o y s and Canadian
school
local
after
actively
Temple, which
i n Richmond
apply for Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p
a pension
but
is
Gulf.
children.
Punjabi
level,
one
c h i l d r e n wear
on t o p i c k
l i t e r a c y at
collect
from t h e
p i c k e d b e r r i e s every
Persian
Ross S t r e e t
c h i l d r e n have C a n a d i a n
Punjabi
to
the
great
Her o t h e r
on t h e
lifestyle
f o o d and t h e
babysits
intends
in Qatar,
w h i c h were
in Vancouver,
Gurminder's
f l a n k a framed p i c t u r e of
Gurminder d i d not
She
(to
and modern C a n a d i a n :
stayed
reasons
her m a r r i a g e to a H i n d u .
students.
statuettes
They e a t
family
differences
Punjabi
for
She has a d a u g h t e r
family attends
some d o c t r i n a l
traditional
has
t o me.
and s o n - i n - l a w
Gurminder's
home,
school.
her husband i n I n d i a ,
clear
because
daughter
by t h e
in
been d i s o w n e d by t h e
distress)
has
yet
to
the
practice,
and e n c o u r a g i n g h e r
in
t y p i c a l not
English.
o n l y of
E S L CRusade
o l d e r and more t r a d i t i o n a l women i n t h e
Punjabi
55
community
with
in general.
families;
integrate
cope
to
they
into
the
extent
level
of
sojourn
in
about
society,
necessary
to
is
not h i g h ,
they
setting
for
in
the
the
free,
fulfill
their
families
convenient,
next
theme
chapter.
plan
attend
to
be a b l e
for A m a r j i t ,
a formal
union they
and r e l e v a n t .
Their
whose
learning
and j o i n e d b e c a u s e
investigation
to
middle-class
labourers here.
i n the
be
family
were
and ( e x c e p t
would n e v e r
generative
Canada t o
but m e r e l y w i s h t o
F a r m w o r k e r s ESL C r u s a d e ,
w o u l d be
to
a n d do not
Through p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s
lessons
described
expected
I n d i a and a r e w o r k i n g - c l a s s
was b r i e f )
the
brought over
They and t h e i r
education
institution.
a r e not
Canadian
responsibilities.
landowners
They were
This
heard
the
is
procedure
the
56
IV.
THE PROCEDURE OF THEMATIC INVESTIGATION
T h i s chapter p r e s e n t s both t h e methodology which
I used and
my o b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a n d p r o b l e m s i n h e r e n t i n
the procedure
of classroom thematic
investigation.
F i r s t , the
i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f g e n e r a t i v e themes i s d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n t o
qualitative
techniques
i n educational research.
This i s
f o l l o w e d by an o v e r a l l o u t l i n e o f t h e d e s i g n o f my
and
the chronology
out.
of c l a s s e s and e v e n t s
i n which
C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of classroom a c t i v i t i e s
s t r a t e g i e s t h a t were s u c c e s s f u l
are d i s c u s s e d .
Finally,
fieldwork
and o b s e r v a t i o n a l
i n generating potential
Some o f t h e s e p r o b l e m s a r e common t o a l l
f r o m my
particular
b u t many, I b e l i e v e , a r e i n h e r e n t t o t h e p r o c e s s o f
classroom thematic
applicability
i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and r a i s e q u e s t i o n s about t h e
of F r e i r i a n
pedagogy t o C a n a d i a n
ESL.
Deborah Barndt
nor N i n a W a l l e r s t e i n have c r i t i c a l l y
their
i n v e s t i g a t i o n procedures;
thematic
examination
i s necessary
revealed are really
chapter
themes
the t e a c h e r , t h e c l a s s , and t h e
r e s e a r c h , a n d some o r i g i n a t e d
situation,
I carried i t
the problems and i s s u e s of thematic
i n v e s t i g a t i o n as they a f f e c t
r e s u l t s a r e examined.
investigation
I contend
i n order t o determine
g e n e r a t i v e themes.
Neither
examined
t h a t s u c h an
i f what i s
The p u r p o s e
of t h i s
i s t h e r e f o r e not o n l y t o d e s c r i b e t h e methodology but t o
comment on i t s l i m i t a t i o n s .
57
GENERATIVE
THEME INVESTIGATION AND EDUCATIONAL
RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY
The
Freire
investigation
i n Pedagogy
of
of
the
participant-observation
educational
Wieder
define
the
in
explaining
order
define
the
elicit
people's
inquiry
purpose
of
perception
the
in a l l
ethnography
The
and
specific
informants,
reality
exactly
Freire
themes:
the
with
in education
and t h e
fields
as
various
participant
must
t h o s e employed
by t h e
investigation.
people
the
key
In
of
fact,
in
research.
analysis,
key e l e m e n t
observation,
be assumed
of
W a l l e r s t e i n and B a r n d t
recommended by F r e i r e ,
the
to
levels
world" (1970:84).
educational
For a l l ,
as:
organizing
defines
"the
(cited
and LeCompte
Wallerstein
artifact
observer
but
live."
Thus t h e s e
what
describing
interviews,
taped d i s c u s s i o n s .
investigator
seeing,
research
a
"to
participant observation,
of
is
of
Paulo
of
elements of
key
under
of
terminology
of
participant
task
world" (1984:?).
techniques
Barndt include
by
Zimmerman and
research as:
Preissle-Goetz
qualitative
and q u a l i t a t i v e
investigation
the
recommended by F r e i r e ,
but
focus
curriculum design.
1975:17).
identify
specific
world i n which they
t h e m s e l v e s and of
procedures
overlap
go a b o u t
people's generative
of
the
ethnographic
"definition
their
aim to
elements of
of
with
for
i n the
Bogdan and T a y l o r ,
constructs
study
aim of
themes e l a b o r a t e d
O p p r e s s e d c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as
needs a n a l y s i s
u n d e r s t a n d how p e o p l e
and
generative
not
in
and t h e
only
by
and
the
use
analysis
the
role
of
the
whose community and themes
are
58
Participant-observation
data
collection.
content
spent
of
I taped almost
analysis.
much t i m e
students'
I d i d not
talking
families.
s u r r o u n d e d by t h e
culture.
but
the
I
kept
of
subjected
order
to
of
content
their
I taught
sound,
of
the
areas
of
greatest
r e l a t i o n s h i p to
topic
generative
future
interviews,
but
informants,
members
in students'
homes
and t a s t e s
lesson
for
plans
were
of
I
I
was
their
and m a t e r i a l s ,
the
audio
tape-
I t r a n s c r i b e d t h e s e and
to
a content
analysis,
with a quantitative
interest
and t h e
lessons
key
data c o l l e c t i o n
my o b s e r v a t i o n s
analysis
the
smells
transcriptions
my p r i m a r y method of
formal
n o t e s and a l l
means
complement
topic
of
classroom discussions.
later
of
all
conduct
Since
field
therefore
informally with
objects,
principal
recordings
was
to
students.
areas
themes,
in
measure
The p r o c e d u r e
identified,
as
well
are discussed
as
in
Chapter V .
Another
was a c a s e
the
data
that
and G a l l ,
study
is
objective
only
study.
setting
possible
for
important d e s c r i p t o r
for
the
can
In e d u c a t i o n a l
is
the
collection
inform
of
research a case
concentrated,
theory
testable
For generative
to
design
theme
an e d u c a t i o n a l
community under
composed of
chapter.
Strictly
of
the
detailed
in-class
that
This
is
is
as
makes
it
my o b s e r v a t i o n s
a
because
generative
theme
i n the
(Borg
case
the
My "case" was
on
often
qualitative
program s p e c i f i c a l l y
investigation.
it
study
investigation,
f o u r women d e s c r i b e d
speaking,
the
research,
is
on w i d e r p o p u l a t i o n s
only appropriate context.
ESL c l a s s
effectiveness
my m e t h o d o l o g y
participant observation
1983:489)
the
of
and
the
previous
the
investigation
and
59
the
topic
only.
areas
I have
other
and themes
shown,
ESL C r u s a d e
however,
students
C h a p t e r V shows t h a t
are
substantiated
entire
Punjabi
Punjabi
i d e n t i f i e d p e r t a i n to
the
and o f
This
by o t h e r
community.
In
is
an a r e a
regard to
investigative
the
of
the
emerged a s
for
further
my t e a c h i n g
situations
rare,
as
most
c u r r i c u l u m or t e s t s ,
flexibilty
on t h e
illiterates
relevant
i n v o l v e an i n f o r m a l
teachers,
to
the
very
'Freirian'
However,
to
I
believe
ESL t e a c h i n g
no
required
independence
and t h a t
and l o w e r - l a n g u a g e - l e v e l
the
immigrant
was not
classroom,
a community b a s e ,
p a r t of
them
Canadian ESL t e a c h e r s .
as a r e u n i o n - s p o n s o r e d p r o g r a m s .
that
apply
my comments on
are e x p l i c i t l y
problems I encountered are
to
investigation.
situation
of
and
involving
o r t o women i n o t h e r
programs,
situations
relevant
The themes may o r may not
programs a r e
the
t y p i c a l of
anthropological studies
Homefront
that
are
situation
farmworkers i n g e n e r a l ,
g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of
process,
representative
my s t u d e n t s
themes t h a t
men and young p e o p l e ,
groups.
that
this
attempt
and
to
teach
learners.
CHRONOLOGY OF THE INVESTIGATION
The
lessons
1985.
investigation
h e l d between
The c l a s s
and
other
late
met a t
weekday a f t e r n o o n s ,
cancelled, during
took p l a c e
for
this
holidays,
November
over a t o t a l
1984
B a l d e v ' s house
two h o u r s a t
period,
six
of
and t h e
thirty-nine
end of May,
i n S o u t h V a n c o u v e r on
a time.
Five classes
two
were
were m i s s e d due t o C h r i s t m a s
and some were p r e - e m p t e d f o r
collective
60
c o o k i n g and s h o p p i n g .
January;
twenty-seven of
Events
the
course
of
Amritsar,
the
multiplying
the
support
before
holiest
in
our c l a s s e s
safety
state
of
agitation
of
of
affairs
of
was
leadership
of
the
most
in mid-
l e s s o n s were
lives
affected
the
Sikh
effect
of
state
of K h a l i s t a n .
was
by v i o l e n t
anti-Sikh
s t u d e n t s were
concerned
i n P u n j a b , and e s p e c i a l l y
T h e r e was a l s o
with
the
considerable
Vancouver P u n j a b i community,
strongly
at
fundamentalist
I n d i r a Ghandi
Thus the
The
G o l d e n Temple
T h i s had t h e
followed
t e m p l e s was
taped.
investigation.
a separate
started,
f a m i l y and f r i e n d s .
within
the
shrine.
favour
i n D e l h i and P u n j a b .
w i t h the
10,
and s t u d e n t s '
in Vancouver for
a s s a s s i n a t e d and h e r d e a t h
riots
Lesson
I n d i a n army had s t o r m e d t h e
Sikhs'
movement
at
thirty-nine
l e s s o n s and t h u s
June,
political
the
began
in both world a f f a i r s
previous
Shortly
Taping
and
the
nationalistic
and
reactionary.
Two p e r s o n a l
of
the
go
to
investigation.
India
She was
to
Punjab)
her
and s h o p p i n g
the
Amarjit
had h e r
class
rest
March the
Gurminder's
baby,
house;
significantly
for
the
visa
for
affected
Baldev decided
sister-in-law's
absent
B a l d e v was away,
of
First,
by weeks o f
arranged that
while
see
therefore
was p r e c e d e d
in
events a l s o
mother,
month of
problems
presents
in
take
six
days
and c e a s e d a t t e n d i n g
r e m a i n i n g two
however,
these
the
i l l .
It
trouble
was
in A m a r j i t ' s
Baldev
classes.
s t u d e n t s and I met
two o f
very
to
The d e p a r t u r e
back.
after
course
December
who was
March.
w o u l d meet d o w n s t a i r s
however,
late
( b e c a u s e of
to
the
suite
left
For
the
at
l e s s o n s were
cancelled
61
because
Gurminder
nephew's
taped
wedding,
for various
was.very
i n v o l v e d i n the
and t h r e e
of
reasons.
By e a r l y A p r i l ,
back and c l a s s e s were m e e t i n g
attendance
May.
those
at
that
Although these
nevertheless
of
were h e l d were
h e r house
and no f u r t h e r c a n c e l l a t i o n s
and c o n s e q u e n t l y
preparations for
however,
again;
until
in-class
reflected
investigation
important events
in students'
off
visited
the
nurse's
airport,
visit,
and a t t e n d e d
T h e r e were
three
that
took
during
list
of
that
might e l i c i t
as
main s t a g e s
this
of
students'
themes,
It
realized
that
The l i s t
was as
activity):
after
ended
of
classes
lives
public
and
health
wedding.
was t o
This
process
generate
and o b s e r v a t i o n
discussion.
in
they
data-collection
The f i r s t
a
strategies
included
and B a r n d t
as
the
well
of p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v a t i o n .
a checklist
and w h i c h I w i s h e d
was n o t
it
the
of
those
had p r o v e n s u c c e s s f u l
to
for
test
techniques
which
elicting
in a
different
o r g a n i z e d or adhered to c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y ,
n o r d i d I make a p o i n t
On r e v i e w i n g
time.
strategies
experience
situation.
to
Wallerstein, Moriarty
s e r v e d p a r t l y as
others'
the
good
I saw B a l d e v
G u r m i n d e r ' s nephew's
theme-related
suggestions
list
during
classroom techniques
some more g e n e r a l
This
in
place
possible
specific
Amarjit
was
was
activities,
for p a r t i c i p a n t observation:
at
there
course
p r o v i d e d more s c o p e
not
Baldev
classes
i n t e r r u p t i o n s impeded t h e
her
of
trying
to
c o m p l e t i n g the
I had a t
follows
least
(*
implement e v e r y t h i n g on
fieldwork,
attempted almost
indicates
I d i d not
however,
every
try
it.
I
activity.
this
62
A.
Classroom A c t i v i t i e s
1. M a p p i n g of n e i g h b o r h o o d , p l a c e s E n g l i s h i s s p o k e n ,
f e e l i n g s a s s o c i a t e d , p l a c e s t h e y go and why
* 2. D r a w i n g of a s t u d e n t ' s t y p i c a l d a y , d i s c u s s i o n of
activities, priorities
3. P h o t o - s t o r i e s of c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s , e g . f i e l d t r i p s , u s i n g
a l a n g u a g e - e x p e r i e n c e approach to c r e a t e a w r i t t e n
product
4. B r a i n s t o r m i n g on s p e c i f i c t o p i c s , e g . h o u s e w o r k , f o r
words known, f e e l i n g s , p r i o r i t i e s
* 5. R a n k i n g : d i s c u s s i n g and l i s t i n g p r e f e r a b i l i t y of c h o r e s ,
f o o d s , E n g l i s h needs
6. F i e l d t r i p s o f p l a c e s o f i n t e r e s t t o s t u d e n t s ,
followed
up by d i s c u s s i o n i n c l a s s
7.
D i s c u s s i o n of v i s u a l s :
a) p i c t u r e s c o m p a r i n g s i m i l a r a s p e c t s o f
and i n the homeland
life
i n Canada
* b)
* c)
8.
9.
B.
m a g a z i n e a d s : s t e r e o t y p e s and images
p h o t o c a r d s o r t i n g / r a n k i n g on v a r i o u s t o p i c s ,
eg. occupations,
feelings
d) p i c t u r e s r e p r e s e n t i n g d i f f i c u l t o r p r o b l e m a t i c
situations
e) f i l m s and v i d e o s
G u e s t s i n c l a s s , t o ask and answer q u e s t i o n s o f s t u d e n t s
D i s c u s s i o n o f p e r s o n a l common e x p e r i e n c e s ,
eg. i m m i g r a t i o n : each s t u d e n t ' s plane t r i p to Vancouver.
Observational A c t i v i t i e s
1.
In-class
a) n o t e body l a n g u a g e , n o n - v e r b a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n
b) n o t e a c t i o n s s u c h a s a b s e n c e , l a t e n e s s ; r e a s o n s
c ) n o t e s t u d e n t s ' v e r b a l and n o n - v e r b a l r e a c t i o n s t o
p i c t u r e s and drawings
d) n o t e t o p i c s o f s t u d e n t s ' i n f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s
2. Out o f c l a s s
a) a t t e n d c u l t u r a l f e s t i v a l s w i t h s t u d e n t s
b) o b s e r v e t i m e s o f c u l t u r a l
i . t r a n s m i s s i o n : s o c i a l r i t e s , eg. weddings, c h i l d
raising practices
i i . p r e s e r v a t i o n : a s p e c t s of n a t i v e c u l t u r e s most
important to preserve in Canada, eg. d r e s s , food,
language
i i i . d i s r u p t i o n : i m m i g r a t i o n , t r a v e l , moving
c ) v i s i t and p h o t o g r a p h n e i g h b o r h o o d p l a c e s
d) become f a m i l i a r w i t h l o c a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s and
w h e t h e r s t u d e n t s use them
e) c h e c k o u t l o c a l l i b r a r i e s f o r c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l
3. A r t i f a c t a n a l y s i s
a) r e a d e t h n i c p r e s s , m a g a z i n e s s t u d e n t s o r t h e i r
f a m i l i e s read
b) n o t e i t e m s o f i m p o r t a n c e i n homes.
63
( B a r n d t 1979, 1981: M o r i a r t y & W a l l e r s t e i n , 1979; P r e i s s l e - G o e t z
& L e c o m p t e , 1984; P r i e s t l y e t .
a l . , 1978; W a l l e r s t e i n , 1983.)
list
The s e c o n d
s t a g e was
to
in lessons
and o t h e r
contacts.
plan a lesson
mind,
but
to
or
set
seemed more
(as
very often
area
for
topics
a new
the
four or
often
current topic
t r a n s c r i b e each
observational
to
two o r more p e o p l e
topic
of
whenever
for
to
tape
each c o n v e r s a t i o n
each changed
(this
analysis).
transcription
representing
Jan.
the
same
later
20
the
else
topic
other
tried
interest
on t h e
in
It
there
time,
the
aided
that
tape
various
The f i r s t
lesson,
was
impossible
were
the
generally
in
speaker
counter
in timing
was
adding
usually
I made n o t e s of
and n o t e d
noted.
on one
when
in
the
something
i n two w a y s .
details.
The a c t i o n s
were a l s o
list
to
waning.
t a p e s w o r d - f o r - w o r d as
conversations
Tues.
from t h e
w i t h i n a week of
Instead,
this
idea
I generally
record observations
t a l k i n g at
if
d u r i n g which
none d i d ,
I recorded these
languages.
content
If
activity
be
it
we f o c u s s e d
a time,
n o t e s and c o n t e x t u a l
t r a n s c r i b e the
different
Typically
seemed t o
or e v e n t s .
on
My u s u a l a p p r o a c h was
i n t a l k i n g about
lessons at
s t a g e was
suggestions
go t h r o u g h w i t h
came up n a t u r a l l y .
The t h i r d
to
did).
'theme-eliciting'
lessons
to
interested
five
the
l e s s o n s w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r theme
be p r e p a r e d n o t
students
they
of
implement
and
number
calculations
accompanied
The f o l l o w i n g
is
a
sample
minutes:
15
0 - R a n j e e t w i t h paper w i t h procedure f o r r e p o r t i n g P o l i c e ,
A m b u l a n c e , F i r e ; d i a l o g u e w i t h 5 s t e p s i n c a s e of m e d i c a l
e m e r g e n c y , p l u s form w i t h m e d i c a l i n f o t o f i l l o u t t r a n s l i t e r a t e d i n t o P u n j a b i ; she b r o u g h t a f i l e w i t h a l l
p r e v i o u s h a n d o u t s i n c l u d i n g t h i s o n e ; went o v e r i t w i t h h e r ,
she
64
r e a d i n g , as o t h e r s a r r i v e d
70 - B a l d e v : W o r k e r s C o m p e n s a t i o n had phoned t h a t m o r n i n g ;
r e p o r t i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n ; p r o b l e m s i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n ; P u n j a b i word
f o r ' b r e a t h i n g , ' ' a s t h m a ' - d o e s n ' t know t h e s e i n E n g l i s h ;
h u s b a n d c a n o n l y do e a s y work, not h a r d work; t h o u g h t she t o l d
them t o phone b a c k l a t e r , but she was s a y i n g ' l e t t e r ' ; f o r them
t o s e n d a l e t t e r ; phone r e p o r t r e p e a t e d t w i c e .
- a t same t i m e , G u r m i n d e r and R a n j e e t g o i n g o v e r m e d i c a l s h e e t ,
t a l k i n g Punjabi
- B a l d e v u n d e r s t o o d a " l i t t l e " E n g l i s h on t h e phone
135 - G u r m i n d e r w r i t i n g CANADA on b o t t o m o f R a n j e e t ' s s h e e t , t h e n
w r i t i n g g r a n d s o n ' s name ( a l s o R a n j e e t ' s s o n - i n - l a w ' s name);
B a l d e v l i s t i n g names of h e r c h i l d r e n
154 - A m a r j i t a r r i v e d ; b e a u t i f u l s h a w l , from I n d i a
165 - a l l i n P u n j a b i
170 - R a n j e e t and s h e e t , r e a d i n g s t e p s f o r m e d i c a l e m e r g e n c y ; o t h e r s
i n P u n j a b i ; me s h o w i n g my m e d i c a l c a r d
220 - A m a r j i t s h o w i n g h o u s e k e y ; had been s t u c k i n l o c k ; t o o k a l o n g
time t o get i t out
227 - I s u g g e s t e d s h e l v i n g m e d i c a l s h e e t , t h e y a s k e d me t o w r i t e i t
on b o a r d
240 - me a s k i n g A m a r j i t how she i s f e e l i n g ; n e x t d o c t o r ' s
a p p o i n t m e n t i s n e x t week, S a t u r d a y ; n u r s e comes i n on Wednesday
and S a t u r d a y
250 - them g e t t i n g me t o w r i t e m e d i c a l s h e e t on b o a r d
253 - A m a r j i t a s k e d i f my s k i r t i s new; s a i d n o , l a s t y e a r i t was
t o o s m a l l , t h i s y e a r I'm s m a l l e r ; she t r a n s l a t e d ; d i s c u s s i o n o f
my s k i r t ; c h a i n o f c o i n s on f r o n t ; G u r m i n d e r : b i g , medium,
small; ' o l d , ' confusion with 'gold'
In a d d i t i o n t o
t r a n s c r i b i n g tapes
w h i c h I r e c o r d e d my i m p r e s s i o n s
going,
which t e c h n i q u e s
relevant
a n d how t h e
investigation.
that
homes
outside
of
notes a l s o
reasons
class
how t h e
eliciting
s t u d e n t s were
These
for various
for
of
were
time,
I kept
field
investigation
themes seemed
reacting
to
taped,
and f i e l d
in
was
most
the
included accounts
not
notes
visits
to
t r i p s and
of
classes
students'
cultural
events.
The t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of
content
analysis
students'
themes
investigative
the
t a p e s were
w h i c h forms t h e
in Chapter V .
procedure
itself
basis
of
the
for
the
my d e s c r i p t i o n
The f o l l o w i n g
is
data
analysis
based p r i m a r i l y
of
on t h e
of
the
field
65
notes,
supported
discussion
eliciting
from t h e t a p e s .
of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
activities
strategies.
and
by e v i d e n c e
This
issues attending
classroom
isa
of s u c c e s s f u l i n - c l a s s
and t h e most u s e f u l
i s followed
First
theme-
observational
by an a n a l y s i s o f t h e key p r o b l e m s
i n v e s t i g a t i o n of
generative
themes.
CLASSROOM A C T I V I T I E S FOR REVEALING
The
for
activities
w h i c h t h e outcome,
more o r l e s s
what
They were t h o s e
a
an
that
sustained
hour),
potential
I deemed t o be " s u c c e s s f u l " were
i n terms of thematic
I had hoped
which h e l d
period
"unsuccessful"
( u s u a l l y between
which r e v e a l e d
by t h r e e
those
was
the a c t i v i t y .
of t h e e n t i r e group f o r
Successful a c t i v i t i e s
activities
information,
f o r when p l a n n i n g
the i n t e r e s t
of time
and l e d t o t a l k
themes.
THEMES
new
t e n m i n u t e s and h a l f
information
(which
about
outnumbered
t o one) s h a r e d
several
characteristics.
Most
inspired
taped
police
importantly,
by s t u d e n t
dialogue
input
in this
spontaneously
exercise
were t h o s e
or i n t e r e s t .
accompanying
to report a prowler
interest
again
with
they
about
directly
One s u c h a c t i v i t y
i n h e r back y a r d .
The
My
was a
and p r e s s i n g ;
students'
t h e y had
emergency numbers d u r i n g an
on m a k i n g a d e n t i s t a p p o i n t m e n t , a n d b r o u g h t
i n t h e m i d d l e of composing
samosas.
were
d r a w i n g o f a woman p h o n i n g t h e
t o p i c was e v i d e n t
begun a s k i n g
that
a photo-story
i n q u i r y as t o i n s t a n c e s
i t up
on making
when one m i g h t
need t o
66
phone t h e
police
experiences
g e n e r a t e d many s u g g e s t i o n s
and f e a r s :
break-ins, prowlers,
from
their
d r u n k s on
the
street.
By c o n t r a s t ,
every
unsuccessful
stemmed from my agenda o r
involving
mapping t h e i r
the
technique,
the
physical lay-out
the
locations
students
them.
than
of
interests.
of
n e i g h b o r h o o d more o u t
their
houses,
well
that
practice,
and much g r e a t e r
Punjab,
interest
in photos
of
interest
them f o r
i n maps o f
yawns o f
concentration
of
a n e i g h b o r h o o d e v e r y b o d y a l r e a d y knew t h e i r
challenge
thematic
activities
or c o n t r o v e r s y .
comparison
of
Sikh
considered
also
An example
temples
of
Temple by t h e
ancient
to
cut
I n d i a n army,
and of
their
hair
Successful
either
The
tell
students'
of
the
distress
when m o v i n g t o
thematic
of
three
discussion
interested
the
parks
Fraser
Valley
boredom and l a c k
t o draw a map
way a r o u n d .
of
was a p h o t o
persecution
the
to
literacy
which opened
damage done t o
at
in
the
c o n t a i n e d an e l e m e n t
this
try
about
answers
schools,
pointless
Golden
of
necessity
S i k h s by
for
S i k h men
Canada.
investigation
activities
a l e a r n i n g o r a s h a r i n g need on t h e
'religion'
rhetorical;
i n Canada and i n I n d i a ,
up i n t o a s p i r i t e d d i s c u s s i o n
Moghuls,
it
to
on t h e i r p a r t
in l o c a l
of
Successful
they
exercise
a desire
I a l r e a d y knew t h e
and r e v e a l e d by t h e i r
that
an
that
My q u e s t i o n s
and banks were
showed much g r e a t e r
when I b r o u g h t
of
interest
neighborhood.
shops
and shops
and t h e
was one
I attempted
from any e x p r e s s e d
knew p e r f e c t l y
They
activity
gave t h e
p a r t of
also
the
answered
students.
s t u d e n t s an o p p o r t u n i t y
and s y m p a t h e t i c
anglophones
(myself
to
and
67
two v i s i t o r s )
to
them.
about
a variety
of
They assumed a l m o s t
and u s e d
the
photos
as
aids
things
complete
to
history
the
hand, answered a k e e n l y - f e l t
other
written
form o f
the
dialogue
The e d u c a t i o n a l
clear.
that
album.
attached
This
c o m p l e t e d by v i r t u e
of
enthusiastic
about
having
pictures
been
their
ordered they
came t o
realize
English
words
about
cups
and o f
excited
teaching
about
get
book a b o u t
to
indicated
once
of
they
grow
that
tape
and
the
was
also
was a
the
we o r d e r e d
a n d p l a c e d them i n an
four
l e s s o n s and was
The s t u d e n t s
r e p r i n t s of
interested
literacy
who have
product
only
were
see
measure
never
based
of
used
point
the
u n d e r s t o o d the
I
on
teaching
recipes
for
of
an
making a
w o u l d be no p r o b l e m t o
my b e l a b o u r i n g o f
had
ingredients,
in English
the
photos
them.
gardens,
how t o make t h e m .
maybe I h a d n ' t q u i t e
the
in discussing
never
They c o u l d not
show me a g a i n , a s
classes
in their
when t h e y
producing a written
who was
the
I photographed
teaching
c o o k i n g samosas when i t
show anyone
offered
but
illiterates
undetermined audience.
respect
upon i t .
saw no f u r t h e r p o i n t
spices
on
me how t o make samosas and l i k e d
taken,
and t a b l e s p o o n s
t r y i n g to
over
my i n s i s t i n g
the-futility
for
activities
and i n s u b s e q u e n t
dragged out
lesson,
studied.
recipe.
them,
parts
p r o c e d u r e and S i k h
requested,
backfired in t h i s
captions, to
activity
copies
important
on our
l e a r n i n g need;
successful
photo-story
s t u d e n t s making samosas,
photos,
of
very
The ' p o l i c e '
carefully
purpose
One a c t i v i t y
language-experience
the
temple
and c u r r e n t a f f a i r s .
was p l a y e d and r e p l a y e d many t i m e s ,
were
ignorance
explain
doctrine,
that
In f a c t ,
just
they
subject
first
time.
68
By
far
students'
was,
the
most
themes was not
nevertheless,
students
to
students;
quiet.
successful
connected
a conscious
"just
talk."
in fact,
it
and i f
would ask
further questions
l o n g as
on
students'
others
possible.
doctors'
appointments,
everyday
environment,
or
the
crochet
underlying
tensions,
concerns
lesson
OBSERVATION
p r i m a r y means
on
in-class
of
be
get
up a t o p i c
interested
and e n c o u r a g e
them t o
the
in
it
I
conversation
reflected
to
what
well
as
interested
one
what
comings
of
the
and g o i n g s
group.
homesickness
about
their
every
for
go
was
and
their
neighbors,
They a l s o
India,
abilities
lesson,
them i n
of
be
or ask a
f a m i l y work s c h e d u l e s
revealed
family
as
learners.
and sometimes
pre-
entirely.
activities
collecting
additional
and d i s c u s s i o n s
were
i n f o r m a t i v e d a t a about
i n f o r m a t i o n and i n s i g h t s
This
t r i p s and e v e n t s ,
family
would b r i n g
to
such as
about
from o b s e r v a t i o n .
field
their
of
plan
more d i f f i c u l t
encouraging
STRATEGIES
Although
notes
a p r o b l e m w i t h my
seemed t o
such as
and a m b i v a l e n c e
empted t h e
was
never
of
it
day,
such as
They o c c u r r e d i n j u s t
themes,
as
project
any p l a n n e d a c t i v i t y ;
These c o n v e r s a t i o n s
minds day t o
investigating
that
student
question,
as
the
This
to
method of
strategy:
was o f t e n
F r e q u e n t l y , one
on
in-class
focussed
were
students'
p r o v i d e d by my
on c l a s s r o o m
and on i t e m s
the
in students'
interaction,
homes and
relations.
N i n a W a l l e r s t e i n recommends
several
foci
for
in-class
69
observation.
absence
about
male
get
One o f
these
and l a t e n e s s .
family
is
to
to
f a m i l y members o r v i s i t o r s
i n the
middle of
class,
obligation
attendance,
and p r e v e n t e d
it
attendance
because
she
insurance
student
of
that
spent
several
outside
some of
the
early
d e a t h of
baby,
resentment
come
or
tutor
for
back.
i n t e r f e r e d with
for Amarjit
illness
class
after
she
affected
came
the
late
f o r an unemployment
f o r her to
hours v i s i t i n g
go away.
class
time.
grandparents,
suits.
a son,
the
over
pressure
a husband's
I also
of
One
trips,
Through these v i s i t s
visitors,
cups
and s a m p l i n g t h e
in students'
or
as
to
these
care
items
of
homes
hide
a
concern.
things
games w h i l e
I experienced
also
for
and
interpreters
snacks
the
strained
from
for
wives
the
consuming c o u n t l e s s
savory
in
visits
such as
family roles
husbands w a t c h i n g hockey
provided to
issues,
emerged as
young c h i l d r e n a c t i n g
The a r t i c l e s
was d u r i n g
drinking,
observed
families
l e a r n i n g to
speaking E n g l i s h
hospitality
tea
It
students'
important p e r s o n a l
teenagers
parents,
of
clues
infrequently
r e t u r n i n g from s h o p p i n g
with a daughter-in-law
interaction:
Punjabi
of
most
Through these v i s i t s
their
late
gave
or p r e p a r e t e a
Once, a student
waiting
students'
on $1.49 d a y .
homes,
relations
women.
and was
frequently
I also
their
older
investigator
especially
that
D o c t o r ' s appointments
the
mostly
and t h e n
altogether
had m i s t a k e n a v i s i t i n g
was
this
for
s t u d e n t s would not
was a r e l a t e d
a mother.
reasons
cook meals
Babysitting
became
the
F o r my s t u d e n t s ,
responsibilities:
up and l e a v e
note
generous
obligatory
accompanying
reveal
sewed
it.
cultural
70
priorities.
channels
do not
Every
Every
and v i d e o
have
fresh
ingredients
for
new c a r ,
family
to
various
photos
is
guest.
indicating
women do the
garden,
the
prominently,
Every
a coffee
table
living
or t h a t
that
grandparents
Participation
in
the
service
visits
and a g a i n
religious
Baisakhi,
religious
the
brotherhood),
gruesome
life.
the
as
justification
India.
T h i s h e l p e d me t o
were b e i n g
couch
to
large
every
bed;
the
themes.
once e a c h
the
these
women
for
are
sleep
spent
the
the
for
a
several
of
of
family
Khalsa
(Sikh
listening
to
S i k h women by P u n j a b i
separatist
terrorist
u n d e r s t a n d how t h e
s h a p e d by t h e
These
celebrating
the
hours
the
regular
between
parade
birth
allowed
I visited
connections
I attended
treatment
Hindus,
issue
For every
a w e d d i n g a n d a baby d e d i c a t i o n .
and a f t e r w a r d s
of
displays
pictures
f o o d and t e a
certain
holiday celebrating
stories
machine
and c u l t u r a l e v e n t s a l s o
p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n about
and p u b l i c
entire
f o u r have
men and a l l
by my s t u d e n t s ,
for
a sewing
large,
sleep with g r a n d c h i l d r e n .
expand my u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f
temples attended
good
Every household
more t h a n one
all
grown
c a r r y i n g the
the
two
hand).
f a m i l y owns a
rooms.
offering
Most bedrooms c o n t a i n
together,
me t o
for
of
of
but
l a u n d r y by
i m p o r t a n c e of
and t h r e e
pay
in which are
E v e r y woman has
in their
with
Punjabi movies,
symbol c a p a b l e
functions.
s o m e t i m e s a r r a n g e d so
the
(the
t r a d i t i o n a l cooking.
gurus or temples
there
two
watching
vegetable
a status
television
making t r a d i t i o n a l P u n j a b i s u i t s .
family
of
a large
a colour
for
machines
spices,
fairly
for
machine
washing
f a m i l y has
mainly
f a m i l y has
temple
action
students'
leadership.
in
views
I
on
71
photographed a l l
students
guage
to
of
in c l a s s ,
w h i c h were
these
e v e n t s a n d went
in order
t h e most
to
get
f o o d as
suits,
photos
with
i n f o r m a t i o n and
important aspects
the
course
w e l l as
one o f
of
of
to
each c e l e b r a t i o n
several
classes
I was g i v e n c o p i o u s
gifts.
These
measurements,
suit
shopping for
t o o k up a g r e a t
which a l l
was t a u g h t
rice,
the
students
how t o
A l l of
experiential
and f a m i l y t h a t
In some
students'
I used
of
the
reference
these
that
samosas,
making o f
for
the
observations
to
discover
how a l l
the
students
in class
everyday
experience.
different
were
taking
the
first
process
interest.
I
and s a f f r o n
cashew-shortbread
issues
r e l a t i n g t o home
and
part
of
discussions.
confirmed ideas
a n d i n some
verify observations.
'observation'
for
which
p r o v i d e d me w i t h an
had emerged i n c l a s s ,
activities
the
style,
and was a
emerged i n c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s
themes
usefulness
teach
these a c t i v i t i e s
respects
in-class
a n d one o f
p a r t i c i p a t e d with great
sweets,
amounts o f
Punjabi
and b e i n g f i t t e d
time and e n e r g y ,
cook P u n j a b i
frame o f
gift
D e c i d i n g on t h e
fabric
d e a l of
and endeavoured to
cookies.
i n c l u d e d two
w h i c h was a c o r p o r a t e c l a s s
B a l d e v b r o u g h t back from I n d i a .
242
further
the
them.
Over
in
over
the
about
respects
The p r i m a r y
investigation
was
c o n c e r n s and i s s u e s e x p r e s s e d
i n t e r r e l a t e d i n t h e i r c u l t u r e and
to
by
72
PROBLEMS AND ISSUES IN THEMATIC
The
activities
considerable
They a l s o
process
discussed
The
i n f o r m a t i o n about
however,
d e s c r i b e d above
students'
some
teacher-conducted
generative
obvious
themes
to
analysis
language.
a c c o r d i n g t o my o b s e r v a t i o n s
and t a p e d
them by t h e
real-life
parameter.
students
were
speaker.
S p a n i s h , the
order
that
a more f l u e n t
between
to
the
language
of
speak
such as
many of
asked
if
backgrounds.
students'
willing,
working out
this
their
of
a
not
of
t r a i n e d , or not
institutions
potential
students
p o o l of
come
English
however,
In my s i t u a t i o n ,
b i l i n g u a l union s t a f f ,
had been
in
there
who c o u l d
however,
these
interested.
Most
o r community p r o g r a m s
translators
from a v a r i e t y of
Communication would a l s o
level
attached
is
students;
not
especially
of
for a non-Punjabi tutor
English.
the
their
people
have even
content
difficulty
have c o m m u n i c a t e d more e f f e c t i v e l y ;
ESL t e a c h e r s
data
wondering
basic
potentially
were
A
students.
m e a n i n g and e m o t i o n s
this
of
B o t h N i n a W a l l e r s t e i n and D e b o r a h B a r n d t
them t o
other people,
do not
are
of
and t h e
p r o b l e m of
Nevertheless,
had s p e c i f i c a l l y
force
the
level
myself
I had c o r r e c t l y u n d e r s t o o d even
many c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , much l e s s
my
These
of
if
is
I was c o n t i n u a l l y c o n f r o n t e d w i t h t h e
speak
investigation.
the
a thorough i n v e s t i g a t i o n
i n an E S L c o n t e x t
c o m m u n i c a t i o n had been p o s s i b l e
to
themes.
important problems in
thematic
barrier
would be much more r e l i a b l e
whether
generative
revealed
below.
most
thematic
and o b s e r v a t i o n s
revealed,
of
INVESTIGATION
t o draw o n ,
linguistic
have been e a s i e r
intermediate
or
if
higher;
the
73
Amarjit
about
could t e l l
the
me t h i n g s
others.
Nevertheless,
themes t o o ,
and i n t h e
translators
the
possible
accurate
or l e s s
thematic
that
exact
is
able
from t h e
that
to
the
test
to
has
than
is
will
the
to
amount o f
it.
of
I was a b l e
1983:20).
other
By t h e
time
I
and c o u n t l e s s
an e a s i l y
connections
because
of
felt
that
of
and r e a d y t o move on t o
whole c o m p l e x o f
such a code,
depict
themes,
r e q u i r e d which cannot
and
the
left,
create
requirements
must be p a r t
of
a
recognizable everyday
(Freire,
tired
to
full
but n e i t h e r
too
must p o s e p r o b l e m s , and r e v e a l
to c r e a t e
in order
the
t r i p s t o and
r e p r i n t s and e n l a r g e m e n t s
topic
addition,
that
tapes,
given
it
classroom
transcribing
was p a r t l y
themes
less
visiting,
i n which c o n t r a d i c t i o n s are p r e s e n t ,
to
be
innovative
experience
connections
be
must
I found that
on t h e m a t i c
it
It
as
to c o n c e n t r a t e
it
obscure;
much
context.
good c o d e :
o b v i o u s nor t o o
reliable
time and energy
and W a l l e r s t e i n s t i p u l a t e
must d e p i c t
or
so
film,
reflect
possibly
effectiveness
a n d even
get
This
teachers
in a monolingual
infer
generative
t o be overcome as
attending events,
them.
both F r e i r e
bilingual
results
after-class
p h o t o shop t o
me w i t h no t i m e
b e g i n n e r s have
o b s e r v a t i o n and i n t u i t i o n .
investigation,
creating materials,
codes
barrier
to devote
planning,
I c o u l d o n l y guess or
of
l i m i t a t i o n on t h e
investigation
t i m e on t h e
lesson
language
however,
Another
teacher
absence
through gesture,
accepted,
that
the
a view
1970:106-110, W a l l e r s t e i n ,
I had enough
i n f o r m a t i o n on a
the
were
students
something e l s e .
r e l a t i o n of
of
the
be a c h i e v e d u n t i l
In
theme
to
overall picture
is
the
one
usually
end o f
the
the
74
investigation,
when a l l
I d i d not
enough
have
production
time
to
the
d a t a c a n be e x a m i n e d
information,
together.
overall perspective,
produce codes while
the
Thus
or
investigation
was
in
to
with
process.
One s o l u t i o n
to
this
less-than-ideal
codes
one would be t o
have
the
codes.
that
be
themes had been
teaching
a range
to
available
that
on t h e
events.
the
This
teacher,
visiting
investigation
students
information
the
entire
test
revealed
complex
of
observational
of
I had t h e
data
advantage
of
t h r o u g h which I had a c c e s s
students
overcome
students'
this
that
is
Nina
not
Wallerstein
by f r e q u e n t l y
neighborhoods,
and
talking
to
community and c u l t u r a l
places
an a d d i t i o n a l
b u r d e n of
if
the
and c u l t u r a l
students are
stresses
that
of
the
conducting
teacher
experience"
subjective
(Wilson:250)
role
is
time
from
and energy
on
different
groups.
a r e compounded by t h e
roles
to
normally
and a t t e n d i n g
"insider/outsider
between t h e
similar
better
street,
The l o g i s t i c a l
observer"
setting,
teachers
especially
neighborhoods
conflicting
type
a c l a s s r o o m ESL t e a c h e r .
systematically
peole
the
i n f o r m a t i o n about
recommends
thematic
teacher-investigators.
to
experiment
identified.
in a home-front
of
the
with
preliminary u n t i l
A r e l a t e d problem i s
available
teachers
case,
s e e n as
be
c o u l d be q u i c k l y p r o d u c e d ; a
other
In e i t h e r
could only
problem might
of
stress
a
thematic
resulting
investigator
(Spradley:56)
or
must
p a r t of
play.
"dynamic
p a r t i c i p a n t and t h e
an a c c e p t e d
from
role
the
The
tension
of
participant-
75
observation
research.
investigation
role
defines
partially
In t h e
a third
the
aids
role,
context
that
researcher's
but
of
of
a
classroom
'teacher,'
activity
as
partially conflicts
is
added.
This
'participant,'
with
the
role
roles
of
and
of
'observer.'
A related
friend,
tension
and r e s e a r c h e r
students
for
one
a friend;
classes
i n the
emerged
in c l a s s e s ,
relations
conflict
the
everything
reluctant
or get
roles
concerns
of
use
whether
o r not
their
union's
goal
of
our
assume
least
(becoming
this
by l a r g e l y
conflict
representative
problems
until
the
control,
The
and f r i e n d came o u t
the
tapes,
at
Tutors usually
bring
up t h e
they
to
to
members)
open d i a l o g u e ,
to
roles
instructions.
discomfort
s t u d e n t s appear
own s o l u t i o n s
and
in
a n d was
t a k i n g notes
on
said.
persuading people
action
an a p p r o a c h of
at
even
among t u t o r s
ESL C r u s a d e , a f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t i o n
to
but
i n f o r m a l i t y of
to
and
the
two
follow
of
taught
a teacher,
or unable
the
teacher
between t h e s e
researcher
union r e p r e s e n t a t i v e .
of
the
them t o
of
about
d i d and
responsibility
course
The c o n f l i c t
when b e c a u s e of
often
they
I had a l r e a d y
a common e x p e r i e n c e
by my own f e e l i n g s
In t h e
as
is
be q u i e t ,
students'
accentuated
role
this
between t h e
between t h e
They v a l u e d me a s
ESL C r u s d e .
I was
them t o
that
and f r i e n d .
year.
more as
tell
is
issue
be
of
the
some
farmwork,
a very
people
identified.
i g n o r i n g my r o l e
start
of
teacher's
The
specific
seems i n c o n s i s t e n t
i n which the
have
feel
the
interested.
follow
also
is
as
identify
I
with
their
addressed
union
p i c k i n g season
was
76
a p p r o a c h i n g and the
this
time
state
they
students'
m i n d s were more on f a r m w o r k .
were more w i l l i n g
p l a i n l y whether
o r not
to
they
discuss
agreed
the
with
issues,
the
By
and
to
union
viewpoint.
The c o n f l i c t i n g
teacher,
of
the
friend,
pose'
to
observe
a c c o r d i n g to
the
union's
general,
and a r e compounded,
of
a thematic
this
"tension
constantly
teacher
their
conflicting
roles
and t e a c h i n g
effect
experience.
into
the
notes,
in
than a m e l i o r a t e d ,
by
responsibilities
It
following
on t h e
was o n l y
after
priorities:
1)
union r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ,
and a l e v e l
of
o r d e r and c o n c e n t r a t i o n
In s h o r t ,
order
it
for
the
a daunting
returned to
the
demands on t h e
investigation
task
the
under the
to
the
use
analysis
for
to
an ESL
roles
with
of
nature
both
stress
on t h e
that
students'
I had r e o r g a n i z e d by
teacher,
that
the
2)
friend,
stress
acceptable
to
was
3)
relaxed
both
myself
classes.
teacher-investigator
be t h o r o u g h -
best
to
different
and t h u s
4)
students
but
in a level
researcher,
and t h e
may be a b l e
of
are
participatory
tasks associated
class
lead
'problem-
setting
(Wilson:250)
can r e s u l t
course
p l a n and
and to
research
Researchers
theory,"
the
Role c o n f l i c t s
supposedly
time-consuming
has a d e t r i m e n t a l
learning
to
between p a r t i c p a n t d a t a and o b s e r v e r
combined w i t h the
observation
rather
investigation.
affected
objectives.
c l a s s r o o m and the
researcher,
my a b i l i t y
p a r t i c i p a n t observer
refine
the
roles:
and keep c o m p l e t e
to
the
these
in a f f e c t i n g
inherent
demands of
the
of
and u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ,
investigation
lessons,
demands
of
are
-
in
s u c h as
to
circumstances
for
one
make
77
individual.
Ideally,
the
effort,
m a t e r i a l s and
s h o u l d be s h a r e d among a number of
similar
students.
be o v e r c o m e ,
however,
contradictions
generative
Even
i n the
is
there
the
F e b r u a r y my f o c u s
Despite
between
the
the
i n the
first
difficulties
serious
the
r e q u i r e m e n t s of
inherent
two m o n t h s .
of
good
the
themes,
a p a r t of
t h r o u g h to
disintegration
of
completion.
the
classes
when A m a r j i t
Gurminder and R a n j e e t
My own f e e l i n g s
were
b o r n e out
B a l d e v went
b o t h a p h i l o s o p h i c a l and p e r s o n a l c r i s i s
a while
in order to
class,"
to
the
Over
classes
satisfy
re-establish
pressure
the
on
just
over
the
of
a planned
about
by s t u d e n t
c a n c e l l e d many c l a s s e s .
to
to
i n t e r r u p t i o n s were more
had h e r b a b y ,
in a decision
began
process.
these a c t i v i t i e s ,
became h a r d e r and h a r d e r t o c a r r y
this
J a n u a r y and
this
frequent,
and i t
theme
and t e a c h i n g
became e r r a t i c ,
resulted
of
role
lessons
For December,
needs came up a s
energy and i n t e r e s t
primary
weeks a t t e n d a n c e
in March,
could
In my i n v e s t i g a t i o n ,
d i r e c t i o n that
was on e l i c i t i n g
linguistic
activity
with
classroom investigation
a n d good ESL t e a c h i n g .
after
whatever
r e m a i n some
p r o c e d u r e of
p r o b l e m became e v i d e n t
take
logistical
c o n t r a d i c t i o n , r e l a t e d to
that
investigation
to
these
like-minded teachers
themes.
The p r i m a r y
conflict,
if
observations
I
to
the
behavior
I n d i a , and
experienced
confidence
which
t r y more t r a d i t i o n a l t e a c h i n g
students'
expectations
some d i r e c t i o n , a n d t o
for
relieve
for
"English
some
of
myself.
following
were c a n c e l l e d .
two months a t t e n d a n c e
Lessons
focussed
was good and no
on more t r a d i t i o n a l
78
ESL t o p i c s ,
s u c h as
and d i s c u s s i n g
the
plots
these
of
medical vocabulary,
work s c h e d u l e s ,
Punjabi
l e s s o n s were
movies,
ESL-related
they
were
taught
i n as
this
time
I
materials
portion
of
or S i k h
temple
themes
i n the
the
s t u d e n t s were
investigation
was
I believe
in
following
that
the
lesson
reason
for
well
F o r me,
this
this
conflict
Crusade's
Freirian
F r e i r e ' s pedagogy
o r an e q u a l
between s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r
discovered,
'deposits'
up.'
versus
a
knowledge
the
amount o f
foreign
language.
information
unless
to
somebody
problem that
teachers,
the
'banking'
The t e a c h e r
students
tells
Punjabi
necessary
is
them.
to
to
a very
formal
the
to
know what
they
i n the ESL
responsible
they
trust
mutually
teacher
they
are
ESL i s
i n order to
do n o t
for
have
The ESL C r u s a d e f a c e s
students are accustomed
personally,
to
need
of
to
'filled
that
a
teach
a
conveying
and c a n n o t
the
get
additonal
venerating
through family contact
system
the
assumes an
is
the
until
apply t h i s
that
and a r e a c c u s t o m e d ,
teacher
inherent
knowledge
students
is
the
between
r e l a t i o n s h i p of
wherein
The p r o b l e m w i t h t r y i n g t o
certain
is
' b a n k i n g ' model where
into
as
plans.
English
'dialogue,'
and
l e a r n i n g and were
themes and t e a c h i n g
approach of
but
I
At
as
eliciting
approach.
possible.
interesting,
with t h e i r
course,
few m o n t h s ,
instruction,
less
f a r more s a t i s f i e d
more c o o p e r a t i v e
first
Farmworkers U n i o n .
Of
needs and what
" d i a l o g i c a l " a manner a s
by t h e
cooking,
routine.
expressed
i n t r o d u c e d more l i t e r a c y
created
messages,
r a t h e r t h a n on P u n j a b i
b a s e d on s t u d e n t s '
had p e r c e i v e d as
t a k i n g phone
if
education.
They
know a n d t o
teach
not
expect
it.
In
79
some r e s p e c t s
the
latter
dialogical,
in that
more
teaching
formal
understanding
I
of
relevant
solution
to
this
'investigating'
again,
to
lessons
the
without
A related
issue
participate
as
participatory
generative
the
of
whether
that
of
people
the
the
Freire,
sense.
This
possible
themes
overall
those
of
different
investigation,
materials,
the
not
union,
a basis
was one
One
letting
brings
'in
of
must
not
identifying
The ESL
of
not
that
all
investigation
by t h e m .
for
up
to
agendas
and o b j e c t i v e
the
and
picture.
The " p r o b l e m " of
The p r o d u c t o f
curricular
r a t h e r than
My r e s e a r c h was
"dialogue"
for
balance
is
by m y s e l f ,
more
stage p o s s i b l e .
whose themes a r e u n d e r
themes was d e f i n e d
the
knowledge
W a l l e r s t e i n and B a r n d t
co-investigators.
in this
it
the
s t a g e made
students'
of
are
the
the
the
students.
development
students d i d
of
not
about.
For
English,
them,
attending
was
the
our l i f e
Gurnimder).
it
the
latter
throughout,
"conscientization"
care
desire
students'
earlier
i n the
benefit
is
C r u s a d e ' s a p p r o a c h of
relevant
the
However,
a c c o r d i n g to
issue
the
was
chronological stages.
and s t u d e n t s .
that
investigation
c o n t r a d i c t i o n w o u l d be t o
u n d e r s t a n d and t e a c h
insist
prevail.
distinct
however,
teachers
the
allowed
and ' b a n k i n g '
into
progress,'
finally
of
I had a c q u i r e d i n t h e
delivery
them f a l l
stage
" p r o b l e m " was:
is
bad" (as
Amarjit
They had t a k e n a c t i o n
English classes.
free,
"Because
convenient,
They
once
we d o n ' t
know
translated
to address
j o i n e d the
and made e s p e c i a l l y
this
for
problem:
ESL C r u s a d e
for
them,
because
not
80
because
they
wanted t o
analyze
times,
w i t h and w i t h o u t
nature
and p u r p o s e o f
that
to
the
gulf
their
I
procedure
greater
find
most
concern at
them t h a t
a book
the
I would l i k e
at
to
the
after
people
to
I assured
would hear
i n her the
insurance
benefits
attending
English classes.)
about
the
tapes,
the
procedure
or the
results
use
in
that
of
the
like
the
next
results
to
year
t a p i n g of
fear
off
be r e t u r n i n g
I
she
her
showed
the
last
analysis
no f u r t h e r
class,
of
the
one
classes,
data,
of
for
the
found
as
a
union,
or
son had
'caught'
concerns
interest
in
I attempted
by w h i c h t i m e
f i n d i n g a matching blue yarn
illustrate
They
'legal'
investigation.
write
unemployment
were
A s i d e from t h e s e
also
also
(Gurminder's
that
if
the
give
evinced
no n e w s p a p e r ,
tapes.
to
in order to
who a r e
of
their
t a l k about.
them t h a t
the
students
I used to
a
keep t r a c k
m i g h t not
university,
w o u l d be c u t
completed a p r e l i m i n a r y
to
of
as
students
I
impediment
than that
w o u l d know what
To t h i s ,
unallayable
t h e s e w i t h them on t h e
knitting
realize
i n an i m p r o v e d E S L c u r r i c u l u m .
instilled
interested
they
i n what E S L s t u d e n t s
t o me,
government
share
came t o
investigation
implication that
r a t h e r odd but a g r e e d
favour
I
would h e l p t e a c h e r s
because
than
f o r my t e a c h e r s
interested
this
the
interested
interesting.
following year,
told
them i n
whereby we w o u l d r e c o r d o u r c l a s s e s
this
several
interest
investigation.
ended up e x p l a i n i n g t h e
English classes
students
to
attempted
c u l t u r e and e d u c a t i o n was a g r e a t e r
we t a l k e d a b o u t ;
better
the
thematic
I
lives.
translation,
u n d e r s t a n d i n g and b e i n g
language.
what
of
their
but t h e y
the
to
I had
were more
sample
points
the
than
of
in
the
81
ranking
of
results.
Freire
writes
regard
to
deepen
their c r i t i c a l
those
the
that
the
their
of
task
He warns
r e a l i t y on t h e
investigation
'dialogical'
must
these
it
r e a l i t y and,
of
that
c o n c e n t r a t i n g on a l l
students
is
will
the
interested
in a process
experience
of
the
their
that
view
the
of
However,
a t r a i n e d teacher
1970:99).
in
an E S L c u r r i c u l u m
needs.
a r e a l i t y p e r c e i v e d i n the
them
From my
to
They a r e
" c o m m u n i c a t i o n and o f
'becoming'" ( F r e i r e ,
problems
imposing t h e i r
s u c h an i m p o s i t i o n .
job of
of
interesting
whole c o n c e p t
r e a d i l y agree
out
(1970:97).
i n some r e s p e c t s
and i n d e e d the
education,
of
but
they
in spelling
or
against
in
i d e a of
of
investigators
men t a k e
more
reality"
people,
needs a r e and how t h e y c a n be m e t .
constant
the
illiterate
investigation,
itself,
part
thematics,
to
be b a s e d on a n d r e s p o n d t o
consider
of
an a t t i t u d e
no a d v i c e on e x p l a i n i n g t h e
unpleasant
experience,
awareness
thematics"
lives.
their
take p o s s e s s i o n
he g i v e s
"generative
in
e x p l o r a t i o n of
thematics,
However,
"the more a c t i v e
they
know what
not
t h e common
c o m p l e x i t y of
They
just
its
want
to
learn
English.
The l a c k
of
research process
provided
by t h e
students'
does not
them more t e n t a t i v e
of
students'
this
reality,
a unique problem,
attend
the
i n v a l i d a t e the
t a p e s and t h e
render
the
p a r t i c i p a t o r y involvement
efforts
of
observations.
their
however,
own.
the
informative data
and s p e c u l a t i v e ;
not
in
It
does,
this
is
I do n o t
however,
my a n a l y s i s
believe
but a c o n t r a d i c t i o n t h a t
any F r e i r i a n
educators working with
that
must
people
82
whose p o l i t i c a l
significantly
Despite
discussed
class
part
from t h e
the
this
students'
lives.
This
notes,
the
process
own.
and the
of
inherent
generative
data
themes
activities
priorities,
differ
contradictions
described
i n the
informative
and c u l t u r e ,
upon w h i c h t h e
is
life
p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v a t i o n and
i n f o r m a t i o n , c a p t u r e d on t a p e ,
the
of
1
did y i e l d considerable
interests,
consitutes
students'
educator's
investigation
chapter
about
and e x p e c t a t i o n s
difficulties
above,
thematic
of
consciousness
and
in photos
following
in-
first
data
everyday
and
in
analysis
of
based.
T h i s i s s u e i s e x a m i n e d i n g r e a t e r d e p t h by B l a n c a F a c u n d o i n
I s s u e s f o r an E v a l u a t i o n of F r e i r e - i n s p i r e d P r o g r a m s i n t h e U . S .
a n d P u e r t o R i c o ( 1 9 8 4 ) , and by D a v i d J a c k s o n ( M . A .
Thesis,
U.B.C,
1987).
1
83
V.
PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
This chapter
deals
w i t h the
investigation:
the
they
one a n o t h e r ,
The
relate
to
topics
i m p l i c a t i o n of
are discussed
Part
these
and themes t h a t
this
chapter
of
the
content.
II
presents
III,
in
Part
three
depth.
criteria
topic
Part
integrally
DATA
topic
for
to
how
ESL l e a r n i n g .
f o r ESL c u r r i c u l u m
areas
development
related
the
ranked a c c o r d i n g to
for
topic
descriptive
priority.
interrelationships
the
themes,
theme
p r o c e d u r e by w h i c h
analyzed
and d i s c u s s e s
and t h e i r
generative
the
t a p e s were
IV d i s c u s s e s
topics
data
i n terms of
and g r o u p s
the
In
are
Part
examined
Freire's
topics
into
three
areas.
and themes d i s c u s s e d
analysis
is
a methodology
of
analyzing text.
of
of
the
below
combining q u a l i t a t i v e
In e d u c a t i o n a l
a n a l y z i n g the
(Lewin:252;
identification
manifest
of
content
generative
of
It
is
identified
Content
analysis
and q u a n t i t a t i v e
research,
modes
it
is
frequently
studies,
as
a
raw d a t a g e n e r a t e d
Borg and G a l l : 5 1 2 ) .
were
taped d a t a .
in conjunction with observational
means of
"the
the
identified,
relevance
describes
class
areas
through a content
the
were
of
ANALYSIS
The
used
results
in Chapter V I .
I of
the
and t h e i r
findings
transcriptions
results:
substantive
by t h e
systematic
observations
p a r t i c u l a r l y relevant
themes,
communications"
for
it
examines
to
both
(Borg and G a l l : 5 1 1 )
and
84
"the
psychological
institutions,
information
state
...
or s o c i e t i e s "
about
the
[and]
(Weber:9).
two e s s e n t i a l
themes:
"the
of
that
r e a l i t y h e l d by e d u c a t o r s
In
fact,
contents
of
"decoding dialogues"
"the
investigation.
investigators
implicit
i n the
is
[can]
third
as
of
the
begin
to
list
of
generative
the
a f f i r m a t i o n s made d u r i n g
perception
(Freire,
of
the
this
the
groups,
1970:86).
the
taped
"thematic
s t a g e of
a result
of
provides
recommends a n a l y s i s
i n the
It
of
and p e o p l e "
specifically
circles"
it
men, and . . .
Freire
the
patterns
Thus
aspects
r e a l i t y which mediates
investigation
theme
cultural
generative
process
that
themes e x p l i c i t
the
sessions"
or
(Freire,
1970:112-113).
In o r d e r t o c o n d u c t a c o n t e n t
must be d e v i s e d
which d e f i n e s
coding categories.
for
theme
(Weber:22-23).
my d a t a ,
units
as:
these
were
my c o d i n g u n i t s
defined
as
a verbal
was
on t h e
same
i n t e r a c t i o n on one
of
the
actions.
tape
counter
a n d / o r a c t i o n changed
speaking a l l
topic
as
at
and i n t h e
once,
same
text
r e a l l y appropriate for
words.
"conversations."
and a s s o c i a t e d
I made a n o t e
everyone
as
well
etc),
and whole
l i n g u i s t i c a l l y unsystematic,
as
the
common o p t i o n s "
(idioms,
None of
defined
topic,
"six
paragraph,
and p h y s i c a l c o n t e x t
speaker,
the
word s e n s e
units
scheme
be c o d e d and
sentences),
actions
tape
word,
to
a coding
(within
w h i c h was
more s p e a k e r s ,
units
R o b e r t Weber l i s t s
classification
sentence,
the
analysis,
topic
and i n c l u d e d
I
therefore
A conversation
i n v o l v i n g one
was
or
When I t r a n s c r i b e d e a c h
number whenever
( d e p e n d i n g on
and i f
so,
language).
the
whether
whether
it
From t h e s e
was
all
notes
85
the
time
in minutes
Conversations
allowed
for
mechanics
phrases,
the
of
c o d i n g of
r u n n i n g the
characteristics
materials
topic
areas
c o d i n g of
of
the
the
Because
they
of
went o v e r
story
about
person
plural
the
need
reporting
take
several
verb
on t h e
telephone
such as
this
content
or
so
as
to
and
of
them.
remove
areas,
in
it
revision
was
the
to
time
was
It
need
for
also
The
intent,
practise
in order
in
rather
activity
reporting,
to
Conversations
one
and
This
f a m i l y members,
topic
code,
For example,
structure.
arose,
the
the
frequently
daily activity.
activity
lesson
a preliminary
lives
content:
were c o d e d a c c o r d i n g t o
intent,
photos
i n v o l v e d a tape
sentence
a part
for
topic
lessons
work s c h e d u l e s of
messages
the
coder.
meaning.
teaching
from w h i c h t h e
by
preparing a
distinctions
of
of
'thematic'
d a i l y work r o u t i n e .
forms,
work as
repetitions
d a t a were v e r y d i f f i c u l t
levels
language
the
and r e - d e f i n e d
in peoples'
different
This
incorporated
and w h i l e
by a n o t h e r
a nurse's
about
transcribing, after
Some segments of
that
I
calculated.
areas."
were d i c t a t e d
I revised
situations
several
talk
lessons,
data.
data,
use
"topic
observations,
make some a r b i t r a r y
involved a topic:
or
the
of
body of
scheme f o r
involved e x p l i c i t
third
areas
of
later
w i t h no a p p a r e n t
from the
involved several
exercise
picture
topic
process
everyday
to
was
with
phonics
definitions.
whole
definitions.
as
the
aspects
necessary
class,
and n a t u r e
i n the
coding
involve
the
information
into
data d e a l i n g
conversations
Most of
descriptive
each c o n v e r s a t i o n
were c o d e d a c c o r d i n g t o
and o t h e r
relevance.
for
to
activities
than
language
intuition
or
86
familiarity
activity
I
coding
with the
when
scheme
beginning,
six
indicator
of
80%,
hours of
the
level
acceptable
coding categories
after
the
intent
of
r e l i a b i l i t y of
t e s t e d on a sample
m i d d l e and end of
was
the
data myself,
had been
of
agreement
or p e d a g o g i c a l
the
coding.
coded the
transcripts
situation
tapes
the
from t h r e e
data
reliability.
final
covering
lessons
investigation.
established
and t h e i r
of
the
from
the
Inter-coder
by K r i p p e n d o r f
The f o l l o w i n g
is
as
an
a list
of
definitions:
ADMINISTRATIVE:
r e f e r e n c e s t o a l l t h i n g s h a v i n g t o do w i t h t h e
m e c h a n i c s of r u n n i n g t h e c l a s s and making o t h e r a r r a n g e m e n t s .
I n c l u d e s : t e a c h i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s , p r o p s and t e a c h i n g a i d s ,
a r r i v a l s , p a r t i n g s , and excuses f o r l a t e n e s s or a b s e n c e ,
i n v i t a t i o n s , p l a n s and arrangements f o r c l a s s or o u t s i d e - o f c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s , t a p e s , p i c t u r e r e p r i n t s , and m i s c e l l a n e o u s
p e r s o n a l comments.
CLOTHING: r e f e r e n c e s t o c l o t h i n g and t h e making o f c l o t h e s .
I n c l u d e s c o n t r a s t between I n d i a n and C a n a d i a n c l o t h e s , m a k i n g of
Punjabi s u i t s , f a b r i c s , jewellery, embroidery, c o l o r s .
FAMILY: r e f e r e n c e s t o f a m i l y members, r e l a t i o n s h i p s , h o u s e h o l d
r o u t i n e s , d u t i e s a n d r o l e s , p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s o f home.
Includes
h o u s e w o r k , n o n - w o r k a c t i v i t i e s o f f a m i l y members, f a m i l y i s s u e s
(eg. d i v o r c e ) , house maintenance
FOOD: a l l r e f e r e n c e s t o f o o d .
Includes Indian v s . Canadian
food, recipes, ingredients,cooking vocabulary, procedures,
meals,
preferences.
HOMELAND: a l l r e f e r e n c e s t o I n d i a , l i f e i n I n d i a , a t t i t u d e s
toward I n d i a .
I n c l u d e s geography, t r a v e l to I n d i a , phoning
I n d i a , homesickness, former a c t i v i t i e s i n I n d i a , s e c u l a r
politics.
LANGUAGE LEARNING: d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e form of l a n g u a g e and
t h e p r o c e s s of l e a r n i n g a l a n g u a g e .
I n c l u d e s : whether t o speak
P u n j a b i i n c l a s s , my t e a c h i n g , t h e i r c o n f i d e n c e , p r o g r e s s , and
w i l l i n g n e s s t o do homework, t h e e a s e / d i f f i c u l t y o f l e a r n i n g
languages at d i f f e r e n t a g e s , attempts to decode (sound out)
words r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r m e a n i n g , p h o n i c s ,
letters,
s y l l a b i c a t i o n , grammar: v e r b f o r m s , p e r s o n s , p r o n o u n s , p l u r a l s ,
t e n s e s , word o r d e r .
LEISURE:
references
to
a n y t h i n g they
do f o r
enjoyment
in
their
87
spare
park,
time.
other
Includes: Punjabi movies, P . N . E . ,
peoples' l e i s u r e , holidays.
trips
to
the
MEDICAL: r e f e r e n c e s t o p e r s o n a l and f a m i l y members' h e a l t h , t h e
h e a l t h c a r e s y s t e m and means of a c c e s s i n g i t .
Includes:
a n a t o m y , i l l n e s s e s and symptoms, m e d i c a t i o n s and t r e a t m e n t s ,
d i e t i n g , s a n i t a t i o n , phoning for d o c t o r s ' appointments,
getting
p r e s c r i p t i o n s , medical insurance.
NEIGHBORHOOD: r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e i r p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t i n
C a n a d a : n e i g h b o r h o o d , c i t y , c o u n t r y , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and g e n e r a l
o r i e n t a t i o n ; a l s o t o community a c t i v i t i e s a n d s e r v i c e s ,
local
news, and s h o p p i n g .
E x a m p l e s : r e a d i n g s t r e e t s i g n s , bus
t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , i m m i g r a n t s e r v i c e s , l o c a l b a n k s and s t o r e s .
PHONE: d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e m e c h a n i c s o f u s i n g t h e p h o n e ,
p h r a s e s t o use f o r t a k i n g p e r s o n a l m e s s a g e s .
( O t h e r w i s e code
f o r t o p i c of phone c o n v e r s a t i o n . ) I n c l u d e s : r e c i t a t i o n of phone
n u m b e r s , p r a c t i s i n g o f phone g r e e t i n g and message p h r a s e s .
RELIGION: r e f e r e n c e s to r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s , a c t i v i t i e s ,
persons,
c e l e b r a t i o n s , temples, p o l i t i c s .
Includes: physical description
of t e m p l e s , t e m p l e s e r v i c e s and c u s t o m s , l o c a l t e m p l e p o l i t i c s
and s p e c i a l e v e n t s , B a i s a k h i p a r a d e , baby d e d i c a t i o n s ,
funerals,
weddings, engagements,
the P u n j a b i s c h o o l , p e r s o n a l d e v o t i o n s ,
s t o r i e s of t h e g u r u s , r e l i g i o u s f i g h t i n g i n Canada a n d I n d i a ,
t h e G o l d e n T e m p l e , and r e f e r e n c e s t o C h r i s t i a n and o t h e r
religions.
SYSTEM: r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e l e g a l s y s t e m and g o v e r n m e n t
bureaucracy.
I n c l u d e s p h o n i n g f o r p o l i c e , f i r e and a m b u l a n c e ,
p o l i c e d u t i e s , t r a f f i c f i n e s , p r i s o n s and c o u r t s , i m m i g r a t i o n
r u l e s , g e t t i n g v i s a s , p e n s i o n s , c i t i z e n s h i p , a l l l e v e l s of
government.
TIME: d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e s to t e l l i n g t i m e , r e a d i n g c l o c k s ,
r e m e m b e r i n g t i m e and c a l e n d a r v o c a b u l a r y , ways o f r e p o r t i n g t h e
time.
I n c l u d e s : d i g i t a l v s . c l o c k f a c e t i m e , names of weekdays
and m o n t h s , c o r r e c t p h r a s e o l o g y f o r t e l l i n g t i m e .
WORK: r e f e r e n c e s t o a l l j o b s ( p e r s o n a l , f a m i l y , g e n e r a l ) , work
r o u t i n e s , a l l u n i o n s , employment i s s u e s .
Includes: needing,
s e e k i n g , and f i n d i n g j o b s , unemployment, l a y - o f f a n d f i r i n g ,
o c c u p a t i o n s and work r o u t i n e s of f a m i l y members, wages and
benefits,
f a r m w o r k , in-home p a i d work ( e g . k n i t t i n g s w e a t e r s ) ,
C . F . U . , other unions.
Once t h e
to
these c a t e g o r i e s ,
topic
to
conversations
the
total
a r e a was c a l c u l a t e d ,
amount o f
time
spent
i n the
d a t a had been
time
and t h e
on them.
of
conversations
topic
This
coded a c c o r d i n g
areas
was
to
for
each
ranked a c c o r d i n g
give
an
indication
88
of
the
relative
students.
the
interest
Because
of
of
the
the
arbitrary
c o d i n g p r o c e d u r e , however,
areas
presents
various topic
definitions
a simple
importance
in the
ranking
to
a more d e t a i l e d q u a l i t a t i v e
account
the
the
specific
overlaps
contexts
table
presents
topic
area,
spent
on e a c h .
results
the
rank,
lives.
i n which they
results
total
of
the
of
the
analysis
of
the
came u p .
content
the
of
the
topic
The
of
follows.
Table
I - Ranking
Results
TOPIC AREA
HOURS
PERCENTAGE
1)
Food
5. 2
1 2
2)
Administrative
5. 1
1 2
3)
Neighborhood
4. 2
10
4)
Language
3. 9
9
5)
Family
3. 4
8
6)
Religion
3 . 23
7.5
7)
Work
3 . 19
7.4
8)
Medical
3 . 06
7
9)
Homeland
2. 9
6
System
2. 2
5
2
4.6
11 ) Clothing
this
into
areas
and
following
analysis
significance
their
subjected
taking
by
topic
i n terms
h o u r s and a p p r o x i m a t e p e r c e n t a g e
A discussion
10)
the
n a t u r e of
Therefore, I
and s u b - c a t e g o r i e s
to
necessitated
ranking
an o v e r s i m p l i f i e d p i c t u r e of
students'
areas
these
of
of
time
89
12)
Time
1 .75
4
13)
Phone
1 .68
4
14)
Leisure
1 .6
4
There are
Most
in
of
the
the
some s u r p r i s e s among t h e
fourteen
thematic
curricula
ESL C o r e G r o u p ,
'language,'
It
ranking
is
not
as
to
for
s u r p r i s i n g that
time.
for
lateness
several
or absence
and t h e
logistics
ranking
activities
living
of
the
of
activities
took
late
every
of
message had been
up g r e a t
or l e f t
time
and t h e
situation
more t h a n a p a s s i o n
logistical
on t h e i r
and E n g l i s h
b l o c k s of
time
e a r l y and t h e
this
' a d m i n i s t r a t i v e ' category
English
the
up
d e p a r t u r e s and e x c u s e s
up c o n s i d e r a b l e
of
that
uncommonly t o o k
occurred.
of
Thus t h e
reflects
demands of
for
Also,
aids
them up i n
time.
part
as
class
teaching
e x p l a i n i n g them and s e t t i n g
low l e v e l
fact
not
i n v o l v e d an a s s o r t m e n t
room took
its
p i c t u r e r e p r i n t s and
Arrivals,
also
w o u l d come a t e m p o r a r y h a l t
the
second
and p a r t l y by t h e
versions
satisfaction.
many o f
took
and c o n f i r m e d i n b o t h P u n j a b i
frequently arrived
Baldev's
the
'administrative,'
'administrative'
as
out-of-class
questioned
everyone's
students
t o u c h e d on i n some way
T h i s c a n be e x p l a i n e d p a r t l y by
on s u c h t o p i c s
an h o u r once
conveyed,
areas.
by N i n a W a l l e r s t e i n and
exceptions:
a "catch-all" category,
arrangements
half
least
topic
and ' r e l i g i o n . '
conversations
to
are at
developed
with three
i n terms of
function
topics
individual
the
high
students'
the
teaching
administrative
details.
The o t h e r
two
'surprise'
topic
areas
a r e a more
interesting
90
indicator
first
were
learning
in
drive
to
in
for
fact
important
read
This
of
the
their
was
in
reading
place
reading
simple
names
involved
to
be
nature
to
read
and
the
a
my
decides
and
go
of
to
on
quit
a
sustained
personal
than
for
Examples
Baisakhi
about
the
job
daily
logo
story
making
in
meaning.
They
's'
metalinguistic
learning,
were
religion),
(coded:
that
which
in
Woody
when
the
homeland),
for
time,
usage
as
a
of
in
far
and
work).
language
the
focus
included
and
a
had
trying
page
Woodpecker
doughnuts
also
and
interest
showed h i g h
lifesavers
plural
prepositions,
marker.
like
the
They
in
interest,
P u n j a b i / E n g l i s h vowel
certain
definitions
greater
in
coded
reading
o n my n o t e p a p e r ,
in
obscured
'language'
that
These
was
voyage.
showed
and
content
holes
students
pronouns,
routine
task.
Punjabi,
(coded:
(coded:
on
motivating
the
include
coded d i r e c t l y
the
of
of
and
The
language
parade
India
linguistic
card,
sea
prime
activities
meaningless
the
his
periods
consonants,
of
to
in
somewhat
restriction
part
children's
long
Overall
decoding
a
the
references
the
such
student
half
by
o n a map o f
of
the
is
these
conversations
generally
illiterate
became
Gurminder
concentrate
students
sentences
Literacy-related
is
to
to
topic.
of
wanted
'language'
only
efforts.
integral
pictures
who
when
learning
data
substantive
banners
they
of
language
specific
an
topic
March,
subsequently
their
direct
it
Baldev,
literacy
of
The
during
classes;
while
all
analysis
to
priorities.
attending
behind
coding
as
India.
importance
the
students'
emerged
Ranjeet
away
of
contrasts,
silent
frequently
difference
for
asked
between
91
"talk"
and " s p e a k , "
had d e f i n i t e
they
v i e w s on t h e
expresssed
bemoaned
their
frequent
heated
o l d age
arguments
"Joanne,
reading practice
students'
especially
because
and have
their
however,
they
challenging
to
care"
i n the
not
progress
for
more t h a n a few
not
because
the
she
minutes
uneducated
curiosity
like,
motivates
linguists
for
of
its
Punjabi
was
most
on t h i s
language
and
a believer
to
one:
form,
that
for
sophisticated
members,
a
intrinsic
whose l i t e r a c y
concentrate
Perhaps
they
an
needs.
leisure
l e a r n i n g as
own
the
in
'survival'
by f a m i l y
Baldev,
a time).
approaches
less
the
reference
regard language
at
of
a c e r t a i n amount o f
students c r e d i t
albeit
learn;
with pressing
case
and
in Punjabi).
t o me,
with
ease
T h e r e were
speaking
c o u l d or would not
meaning-based
apparent
topic
explicit
exercise
which
language,
form of
a surprise
They
(from G u r m i n d e r ) .
s u r v i v a l needs t a k e n c a r e
intellectual
Wallerstein's
[I]
adults
can a f f o r d to
The o t h e r
the
on any one
t h e s e women have
( T h i s was
weakness o f
whether
without
low-level
Possibly
low-level,
you
interest
approaches
for
the
intelligence.
motivation
interest
l e a r n i n g came a s
meaning-based
rewards.
of
learning,
( t h e s e were u s u a l l y
their
statement
of
about
in c l a s s
t a l k e d about
of
language
They o b s e r v e d
and l a c k
explicit
process
of
and " s p e l l i n g . "
g r a n d c h i l d r e n p i c k e d up t h e
s h o u l d be a l l o w e d
These
"letters"
subject
frequently.
w i t h which t h e i r
They a l s o
and between
it
is
t e n d not
did
on
it
to
give
a
intellectual
than,
that
which
and E S L t e a c h e r s .
surprise
nor the
category
was
that
of
religion.
ESL C o r e G r o u p ' s c u r r i c u l u m even
Neither
touches
92
on t h i s .
F o r my s t u d e n t s ,
attested
to
by t h e
discussions
on i t .
however,
intensity
as
it
well
was v e r y
as
the
important,
length
particular
c u l t u r e and r e l i g i o n ; many of
consulted
stress
i n s e p a r a b i l i t y to
and c u l t u r a l
1979;
Sikh
the
identity
Dusenbery,
temples
as
social
centers
formed
the
(Chadney,
1981).
for
their
discussions
the
in Punjab,
of
is
Joy,
of
relgious
and d e s p i t e
Local
Buchignani,
importance of
the
as
temple
or
issues,
they
far
despite
upheaval
in
d i d come u p ,
Chadney e x p l a i n s
a mechanism o f
and
activities
fundamentalist
topic
I
religious
on r e l i g i o n ;
politics
Punjabi).
activity
studies
financial, political, cultural
our d i s c u s s i o n s
soon t e n d e d t o
religious
i n the
the
the
their
1982;
reflected
( a l t h o u g h a d m i t t e d l y when t h i s
discussions
terms
1976;
S i k h s of
communities.
p a r t of
outweighed
Vancouver
This
educational,
largest
strife
of
T h i s may be p a r t l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o
students'
as
anxiety
this
in
reduction:
In t h e c a s e of many of t h e V a n c o u v e r S i k h s ,
t h e e n t i r e p r o c e s s o f a s s i m i l a t i o n was, and
i s , very s t r e s s f u l .
A n d , even t h o u g h n o n religious institutional adaptational
p r o c e s s e s - may have been r e a s o n a b l y
e f f i c a c i o u s i n m e e t i n g t h e demands of
a s s i m i l a t i o n , c l o s e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with
t e m p l e a c t i v i t i e s a p p e a r s t o have been a
major i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s e t o t h e f e l t
stress.
(1976:196-197)
My s t u d e n t s '
In
their
using
of
Punjabi
videos
are
once
to
they
is
when t h e
one
lives
of
p e r s o n a l as
housework
p r a y e r beads
a p o r t r a i t of
and energy
Sikhism,
however,
spare time,
a s t r i n g of
corner
time
faith,
of
the
that
the
is
well
done,
as
cultural.
they
a r e u s u a l l y hung o v e r
gurus.
gurus.
Their
They a l s o
over
their
initial
the
favourite
devoted
e x p l a i n i n g t o me v a r i o u s d o c t r i n a l
got
pray,
great
aspects
s u r p r i s e that
I
was
of
93
interested
immigrant
activity
the
i n h e a r i n g about
group to
is
real
lack
of
concern
or t h a t
related
to
indicator
for
they
language
of
fact
'religion'
groups,
it
bias
on t h e
very
relation
to
religious
topic
them,
life
has
i n Canada,
TOPIC AREA
As
and t h u s
for
fact,
most
three
others
may be
other
p a r t of
need
however,
curriculum
be
not
an
writers.
for E n g l i s h
about
their
to
learn
1
in
the
cultural
overall attitude
motivation
a
ESL s t u d e n t
The i m p o r t a n c e o f
something
that
reflects
a p r i v a t e matter
activities.
earlier,
coding tend
of
all
these
the
the
types
conceal
topic
areas
situations.
nature
dimensions
"be p e r c e i v e d
to
the
overlap v i r t u a l l y
in real
identifying
"significant
can
as
It
religious
curricula
may a l s o ,
on t h e i r
only
toward
English.
INTER-RELATIONSHIPS
c o n n e c t e d n e s s of
of
p a r t of
actual
reveals
life.
thematic
a b e a r i n g on t h e i r
was m e n t i o n e d
necessary
little
however,
that
It
the
and communal
everyday
on t h e
learning.
may have
priorities
of
in other
Students
to
piety
regard r e l i g i o n
secular
their
S i k h s a r e not
whom p e r s o n a l
an i m p o r t a n t
a b s e n c e of
it.
as
of
of
an
the
definitions
actual
inter-
in students'
lives.
i n s e p a r a b l y w i t h two
Freire
these
of
stresses
interactions
so
the
of
total
reality"
or
importance
that
i n d i v i d u a l ' s contextual
dimensions
In
reality"
i n s u c h way
as
A n e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s i s Our L i v e s , a s m a l l b o o k l e t of l a n g u a g e e x p e r i e n c e s t o r i e s and a c t i v i t i e s c o m p i l e d by J e a n U n d a , i n
w h i c h P o r t u g u e s e women d i s c u s s t h e i m p o r t a n c e of t h e i r r e l i g i o u s
tradit ions.
1
94
to
"begin
their
to
i n t r o d u c e men t o
world"
of
connections
between t o p i c
i l l u s t r a t e d by an i n - d e p t h a n a l y s i s
t y p e s of
topic
areas.
"food,"
representing
family,
religion,
'survival'
"phone,"
topic
In t h i s
topic
the
topic
areas
and h o m e l a n d ) ;
areas
t h i n k i n g about
'mechanical'
time,
areas
of
i n my d a t a
three
topic
different
areas
system,
t y p e s of
and l a n g u a g e )
their
'food'
ranked f i r s t
leisure,
the
and m e d i c a l ) ;
topic
are analyzed
and o f
of
(clothing,
"work," r e p r e s e n t i n g
(neighborhood,
major s u b t o p i c s ,
with other
section
'cultural'
representing
(administrative,
their
form o f
(1970:95).
The n a t u r e
c a n be
a critical
primary areas
and
areas
i n terms
of
of
overlap
areas
FOOD
The t o p i c
spent
a r e a of
discussing
codable
category
conversations
factor
anthropological
other
thematic
place
was a l s o
in Punjabi
However,
t o my s t u d e n t s
cultural
conflicts.
Conversations
as
food
on t h e
topic
of
clear
the
is
time
easily
"food"
the
activities
not m e n t i o n e d a s
adjustment
t o u c h e d on o n l y
by
f o o d were
an
the
briefly
a "family" or
a symbol o f
of
of
cut,
b o t h by p l a n n e d
Food
p a r t of
is
most
e a r l y p a r t of
cultural
and i s
curricula
the
initiated
discussion.
studies,
the
Almost a l l
during
They were
i n spontaneous
important
This
definition.
took
investigation.
and
it.
i n terms
in
"health"
the
unit.
many i m p o r t a n t
of
f o u r main
types.
95
The l a r g e s t
recipes
used)
to
of
for a v a r i e t y
'recipe'
was a s e c o n d
versus
both
as
expressed
students'
battleground
culture
third
and t h e
the
descriptive
floor
day.
sharing
of
energetic,
relating
the
stove,
to
reasons;
b u y i n g or
were v e r y
was
being
short,
served
t o n e of
as
they
of
the
i n the
the
their
to
fire
on t h e s e
snacks,
as
tea
on
the
and
conversations
conflicts.
topic
a r e a of
'homeland,'
the
'family.'
my s t u d e n t s a r e
refused
in
a
up w i t h
wistful
within
A
spontaneous
to
to
home.
growing
was p o s i t i v e
a tie
one
Punjabi
c o o k i n g over
dishes,
conflict
possibility
or of
of
larger
cultural
of
is
direct
recipes
the
of
revealed
food
i n the
conversations
i m p o r t a n c e as
'religion,'
food;
The t o n e o f
for
Canadian
preferences
were more
advantages
whatever
Thus c o n v e r s a t i o n s
cultural
about
f o o d p r e p a r a t i o n and c o n s u m p t i o n
A fourth category
relating
from them,
maintenance
Canadian c u l t u r e
relative
in contrast
to
of
Related
c h i l d r e n and
for Canadian
between t h e
of
food.
personal
of
implements
arising
saw t h e i r
food c o n v e r s a t i o n s
o r a gas
ingredients.
discussions
of
and
sharing
These c o n v e r s a t i o n s
students
conflict
comparisons
I n d i a and C a n a d a ;
on t h e
i n the
families.
incipience
subcategory
procedures
conversations
abandon t r a d i t i o n a l
for
i n v o l v e d the
and o f t e n
more g e n e r a l
concern with which the
grandchildren
time,
I n d i a n and C a n a d i a n
conversations,
food,
the
of
ingredients,
of
a r e a of
Indian
members of
that
i n terms
( i n c l u d i n g the
these
the
these,
eat
containing
eggs.
reveal
and as
an a r e n a
'Food'
is
vegetarians
Canadian
'food'
for
snacks
also
its
of
related
religious
b e c a u s e of
Most i m p o r t a n t l y ,
the
the
to
96
area
of
food p r e p a r a t i o n
which t h e i r
traditional
appreciated
and v a l u e d .
discussed
later
is
one
roles
i n which s t u d e n t s
and a b i l i t i e s
The t h e m a t i c
in this
are
excel,
and
in
still
significance
of
this
is
chapter.
WORK
It
is
with
specifically
in
the
topic
concerned.
s t u d e n t s a s e n s e of
area
The g o a l
identity
corresponding
consciousness
exploitation,
resulting
level
(i.e.
union's
the
the
of
years
have
for
My d a t a
reflects
their
this
moreover,
the
into
our
the
most o f
of
the
the
as
the
from t h e
is
develop
Millard,
The ' w o r k '
conversations
topic
a result
of
tutors
minor
1985,
area,
much more t h a n
on work t o o k
as
many
a relatively
1984;
includes
the
relative
materials,
is
their
grassroots
c o n t r a r y to
Crusade's
farmwork
investigation,
is
d e g r e e and c a u s e s o f
(Jackson,
fourteen,
ESL C r u s a d e
f a r m w o r k e r s and a
However,
well.
the
place
1986).
which
farmwork;
in
the
activities
by me.
Like
'food,'
four
subtopics.
conversations
based
Crusade to
the
union).
students
of
initiated
of
in united action
found t h a t
r a n k s s e v e n t h out
part
that
farmwork-related teaching
concern
latter
of
'work'
as
e x p e c t a t i o n s and d e s p i t e
abundance
over
joining
of
on t h e
farmwork
the
topic
area
The f i r s t
of
of
on farmwork were
'work'
these
is
i n the
drawings
( t h e s e have
b r o k e n down
farmwork.
context
"Farmworkers, Zindabad" video
'code'
c a n be
of
Most
of
lessons
and l i t e r a c y
been d e s c r i b e d
book
in
or
97
Chapter
II).
to t e l l
anecdotes about
focussed
Both the
on
the
A second
unions.
s e e n on
l o n g h o u r s and
the
" h o l i d a y , " and
the
l e s s o n s on
'Family'
frequently
initiated
schedules
i s the
or
f o u r t h type
with
and
of
husband's d i s a b i l i t y
The
with
primary
and
of
pains are
areas
In t h e
invariably
work
issues
of
complex
they
a
'work' s u b t o p i c .
in this
i n the
Students
the
and
of
the
f a m i l y members
interest
to
in
the
Baldev's
own
unemployment
video,
the
welfare.
f o r the
'work' t o p i c
to i t s o v e r l a p with
'Work' a l s o o v e r l a p s
c u r r e n t nature
students
related
claim, students'
of o v e r l a p
'medical,'
those
these
'graveyard
their
concerned
context
had
nurse's
a r e a ; most o f
'lay-off,'
these
and
o f f , " " l a y o f f , " and
t h i s c o n t r i b u t e d to t h e i r
jobs a v a i l a b l e
overlaps with
"day
' p a r t - t i m e . ' Most o f
f o r t a k i n g messages.
types
general
terms
i s connected
to the
turn
the
insurance
area
' s y s t e m , ' due
the
was
From e x p e r i e n c e ,
between c o m p e n s a t i o n
'family'; this
'time,'
third
Many o f
c l a i m s , and,
difference
these
students
p h y s i c a l work.
'work' c o n v e r s a t i o n ,
bureaucracy.
Insurance
prompted
a p i c t u r e s t o r y about
problems.
familiar
'on-call,'
official
hard
conversations
were u n d e r - or u n e m p l o y e d ;
the
video
experiences;
d i f f e r e n c e between
work d a y .
shift,'
own
the
i n c l u d e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of p i c k e t l i n e s
T.V.,
were a l r e a d y
their
'work' s u b c a t e g o r y
This
involved
d r a w i n g s and
o f work
as compensation
'phone'
and
thereof)
families.
and
is
with
(or l a c k
to students'
area
This in
aches
and
concern.
of c o n c e r n s
Farmworkers Union does not
c e n t e r i n g a r o u n d work,
play a very
big role.
The
the
union
is
98
r e g a r d e d as
do,
a
and s i n c e
perks
the
'good t h i n g , '
the
but a s
CFU d o e s not
offer
$ 6 0 . 0 0 m e m b e r s h i p dues
money f o r no f o r s e e a b l e
something
a dental
are
tangible
for
seen as
other
plan
a poor
or
people
to
other
risk
of
t o many a s p e c t s
of
results.
PHONE
The
'phone'
students'
topic
lives.
It
many c o n v e r s a t i o n s
appropriate
such as
language,
long-distance
the
'phone'
response
to
Again,
purposes
that
of
i n the
a
a
were
this
demand.
constant
this
taking
a message
afraid
of
other
the
many of
their
exercise,
'medical'
f o r a f a m i l y member.
message w r o n g .
families
serious
getting
This
c o n v e r s a t i o n was m a k i n g d o c t o r s '
importance
emergency
of
Most
(For
the
conversations
these
The s t u d e n t s
was e s p e c i a l l y
of
I prepared in
concerns
were
very
an E n g l i s h phone c a l l ,
worked on c a l l ,
consequences.
'phone'
discussion.
The f i r s t
topics
and a b o u t p h o n i n g
i n c l u d e d phone
topics.)
for
i m p o r t a n t as
b a s e d on a c t i v i t i e s
I have
b e i n g home a l o n e ,
getting
coded
f o u r major s u b c a t e g o r i e s .
analysis
because
around memorizing
They a s k e d a b o u t
'recipe'
conversations
were c o d e d f o r
c o u l d have
were a l s o
phone.
m i d d l e of
are
category
c o n t i n u a l l y b r o u g h t up t h e
the
m i d d l e of
there
a separate
but c o n v e r s a t i o n s
'system'
The s t u d e n t s
i n the
connected
revolved s p e c i f i c a l l y
communicating over
numbers
is
was c o d e d a s
' m e d i c a l ' and
exercises.
of
phone
area
important
and
as
and a m i s t a k e n message
The s e c o n d m a j o r t y p e
and d e n t i s t s '
of
phone
appointments.
99
The
students
considering
Punjabi.
that
a s u r p r i s i n g degree
their
The t h i r d
motivation
category
of
showed
for
was
phoning.home
The
'phone'
'homeland,'
was
fear
logistics,
to
(and t h e i r
major c a t e g o r y
this
the
doctors
of
of
interest
in
assistants)
was e m e r g e n c i e s .
b e i n g home a l o n e .
i n terms
of
price,
this
all
speak
Again
the
The f o u r t h
times
and
steps,
India.
topic
'medical,'
area thus
overlaps
'system,'
'work'
with
and
'time,'
'family.'
It
is
of
i
most
importance
doctors'
English
calls
i n the
appointments
speaking
force
which they
threatening
fuelled
fear
of
is
call
often.
principal
Their
powerless
Incoming
their
over
important.
direct
motivation
to
but
to a s i t u a t i o n
and w h i c h c o u l d be
their
feel
emergencies,
home o c c u r o c c a s i o n a l l y ;
responsibility
b e i n g made t o
latter:
respond in E n g l i s h
strangers.
by t h e i r
the
and e m p l o y e r s
no c o n t r o l ,
English-speaking
is
to
situation
of
and c a l l s
friends
students
have
context
contact
to
with
handle
families,
and c o n f u s e d
This
it
well
and by
in their
the
own
homes.
DATA IN TERMS OF FREIRIAN CRITERIA
I
d i d not
my d a t a
Freire
makes
theme"
than a c o l l e c t i o n
of
topics
it
code
salient
characteristics
of
the
clear
of
Oppressed.
to
that
of
FOR THEMES
i n terms
there
is
of
more t o
descriptive
peoples'
"generative
lives.
generative
themes
T h e s e have
been
the
themes,"
"generative
i n f o r m a t i o n on a
He d e f i n e s
in Chapter
described
as
the
III
variety
distinctive
of
in Chapter
Pedagogy
I;
here
100
I will
briefly
First,
specific
life
the
generative
themes
reality,
the
Third,
perceptions
form of
key
criteria.
themes a r i s e
"limit-situations"
(86).
four
from and a r e embedded i n a
h i s t o r i c a l - c u l t u r a l context
generative
to
review
"the
levels
the
of
is
(92).
relationships
that
situation
(93).
or
Fourth,
should include a concern for
that
a situation
imply tasks
real-
of
w i t h w h i c h men r e f e r
perceive
between
in
key component
language
which they
h i s t o r i c a l action"
thematics
The s e c o n d
thought
at
and a r e e x p r e s s e d
and
"responses
"the
the
reality"
peoples'
in
the
meaningful
l i n k s between
themes"
(99).
As
it
I attempted
became a p p a r e n t t h a t
could best
of
to apply these c r i t e r i a
topic
actions
t e r m s of
known),
generative
be d e s c r i b e d i n t e r m s o f
areas
f o r which the
and l i n k a g e s
students'
the
are
"minimum t h e m a t i c
sources
of
and s o u r c e s
fear
of
three
theme
areas
perceptions,
is
unknown),
tension
topic
between
therefore
sources
the
of
area,
i n them
comprised
implicit
The f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s
universe"
(the
each
themes c o n t a i n e d
situations,
similar.
to
of
presented
strength
the
in
(the
two.
SOURCES OF FEAR
The
situations
'medical,'
society
and
that
threatening.
third-world
and e x p e r i e n c e s
'neighborhood'
to
the
areas
women i n my c l a s s
They a r e
society
topic
represented
to
is
all
new,
represent
urban,
'system,'
a
unknown and
i m m i g r a n t s from a r u r a l ,
a white,
i n the
traditional,
industrialized
setting.
101
They
live
in material cirucumstances
that
a r e more
than
they
were
they
have
demotion
in
from one
India to
groups
this
one
assimilative
peoples'
doing
place
jobs
individual
the
most
exploited
The h i s t o r y
p a r t of
i n the
are
is
Punjabi
Avenue.
members
their
of
for
economy
the
is
that
phone.
personally;
most
is
homes
1982
rides
know t h e
others.
'system'
is
as
excursions
Their
labourers
their
Their
is
of
many of
assessment.
within walking
Streets
when t h e y
it
need
get
to
o r answer
English
speaker
are Punjabi
with
unemployment
of
the
relationship
s u c h as
the
university,
(or
the
on
When t h e y
society
is
do
have
usually
help
they
in
in
strangers
on
knew
don't
Canadian
inurance.
lack
49th
family
and t h e y
the
the
and
a r e dependent
main c o n n e c t i o n
of
it
no f a r t h e r away t h a n
they
neighbors
students'
needs
visits
with Canadian
only white
collectors
notion
institutions
the
my
as
C.F.U.
l i m i t e d to
o r bus
of
a r o u n d M a i n and F r a s e r
other
of
in
and c o u n t e r -
unskilled
society,
make m e d i c a l a p p o i n t m e n t s ,
I was
"ethnic"
and
community.
of
groups
settlement
society,
Punjabi
with Canadian
independently
emergencies,
welcome
peoples'
key c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
ridden circumstances:
v e r y vague
their
t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and t r a n s l a t i o n .
interact
anxiety
and l e a s t
Canadian
from t h e
shopping areas
For a l l
relative
shunned by n a t i v e - b o r n C a n a d i a n s .
relations
of
suffered
been c h a r a c t e r i z e d by e x c l u s i o n
personal mobility
distance
but
t h e more p r o s p e r o u s and p r e s t i g i o u s
on t h e
that
India,
f a r m w o r k e r s s u r v e y e d by t h e
Their
the
in
responses
Isolation
to
of
c o u n t r y has
to
of
i n Canada.
discrimination
the
used
comfortable
They have
thereof)
u n i o n , and
the
between
a
1 02
unemployment
office.
my
fall
t a p e s not
lack
and
of
temples
also
into
information
community
This
was
the
hands
increases
"gatekeepers"
in a l l
their
An
factor
choice.
society
is
all
India
brought
Feb.
of
in the
that
A l l came b e c a u s e
them;
their
interactions
perception
from C a n a d i a n
of
s u c h as
shapes t h e i r
important
reflected
w o u l d r a t h e r be
of
U.I.C.
dependence
the
that
This
on f a m i l y
leadership
of
members
the
society,
and
it.
students'
are
not
s e n s e of
here
family decisions
to
concern
investigators.
with Canadian
they
living
these emotions
in their
in
the
India.
isolation
by t h e i r
that
own
were made
Baldev's
trip
for
to
fore:
14
- me a s k i n g a b o u t t h e p r e f e r e n c e s o f I n d i a n p e o p l e f o r
C a n a d i a n and I n d i a n f o o d ; R a n j e e t and G u r m i n d e r s i d e t r a c k e d
onto ' f r u i t '
- A m a r j i t : d i d n ' t e a t f o r 20 d a y s when she f i r s t a r r i v e d ;
v e r y s i c k , f e v e r of 106; b e c a u s e she came a l o n e , was v e r y
h o m e s i c k ; b e f o r e she got m a r r i e d ; l i v i n g i n the same p l a c e ;
knew G u r n a m ' s f a m i l y from b e f o r e , i n I n d i a ; d i d n ' t e a t on
t h e p l a n e ; t h e r e was a n o t h e r g i r l i n t h e same s i t u a t i o n as
h e r on t h e p l a n e ; t h e y s a t t o g e t h e r
- G u r m i n d e r t e l l i n g t h e s t o r y o f h e r p l a n e f l i g h t and what
she a t e ; b r o u g h t h e r own f o o d
- me a s k i n g a g a i n what C a n a d i a n f o o d t h e y l i k e ; A m a r j i t :
bread
- B a l d e v s a y i n g s h e ' s n o t c o m i n g back from I n d i a :
" e v e r y b o d y l i k e I n d i a , no l i k e C a n a d a "
April
2
- B a l d e v n o t happy t o be b a c k , c o n s t a n t theme t h a t
e v e r y t h i n g about I n d i a i s b e t t e r than e v e r y t h i n g about
Canada: "everybody a l l the time happy"; s t i l l v e r y
h o m e s i c k , d i d n ' t want t o come back t o C a n a d a ; smuggled a
l o t o f I n d i a n f o o d t h r o u g h c u s t o m s p a c k e d between c l o t h e s
in s u i t c a s e s
Students
favorably
to
compared the
that
of
India:
Canadian
social
welfare
system
103
Jan.
12
- d i s c u s s i n g a r r a n g e d v e r s u s l o v e m a r r i a g e s , I p o i n t e d out
t h a t 50% of C a n a d i a n m a r r i a g e s end i n d i v o r c e
- them: d i v o r c e i s unknown i n I n d i a ; b u t p o s s i b l e h e r e
b e c a u s e ( G u r m i n d e r ) : "government c a r e " ; f a m i l y a l l o w a n c e ,
w e l f a r e , no s u c h t h i n g i n I n d i a : "government no c a r e " ; have
to stay with family
- I s u g g e s t e d t h a t maybe t h a t way t h i n g s g e t worked out
i n s t e a d of g i v e n up o n ; t h e y e i t h e r d i d n ' t u n d e r s t a n d o r
d i d n ' t agree
May
23
- G u r m i n d e r : " I n d i a p e o p l e no c o m p e n s a t i o n , no w e l f a r e , no
unemployment, no h e l p " from government
- G u r m i n d e r and R a n j e e t i n P u n j a b i ; G u r m i n d e r : i n I n d i a ,
w e l f a r e might come t o $ 5 0 . 0 0 p e r month; some d i s a g r e e m e n t ,
argument i n P u n j a b i
- R a n j e e t : " I n d i a o l d man"; S y b i l a s k i n g i f t h e y g e t
p e n s i o n s ; R a n j e e t : y e s ; G u r m i n d e r and B a l d e v i n P u n j a b i
- Gurminder: " f i n g e r , farmworker, f i n g e r broken, union
o f f i c e c o m p e n s a t i o n , no u n i o n w o r k e r , no c o m p e n s a t i o n ? "
(Can y o u o n l y g e t c o m p e n s a t i o n i f y o u ' r e a member o f t h e
union?)
- me e x p l a i n i n g t h a t c o m p e n s a t i o n i s n o t from t h e u n i o n ,
b u t from t h e g o v e r n m e n t ; d o e s n ' t m a t t e r i f y o u ' r e i n a
u n i o n (them d i s c u s s i n g i t i n P u n j a b i )
Despite
this,
unemployment
however,
insurance
Gurminder's fears
benefits
w o u l d be c u t
that
off
her
were
unallayable.
Overall,
the
students expressed
e v e n t s and i s s u e s
not
(we
lessons
spent
pictures
slightest
they
of
the
they
related
on t h e
V a n c o u v e r Peace
interest).
presented
though
lives
several
directly
their
Their
ideas
smoke and d r i n k
in general
food and P u n j a b i
March
their
failed
perception
to
to
indifference
me f o r
and a r e
of
to
to
but my
arouse
even
Canadian people,
verification,
immoral, they
and t h a t
they
local
own community
Baisakhi parade,
t h a n do P u n j a b i s ,
people.
great
was
have
the
as
that
happier
dislike
Punjabi
1 04
My s t u d e n t s '
their
in
relation
the
perceptions
to
it
are
anthropological
of
Canadian
borne out
for
society
the
and p e o p l e
community
in
and
general
studies.
Most S o u t h A s i a n i m m i g r a n t s have come t o
Canada from s o c i e t a l c o n t e x t s c h a r a c t e r i z e d
by a s t r o n g s e n s e o f community and v e r y
dense s o c i a l networds.
Canadian s o c i e t y is
such that i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to b u i l d
s t r u c t u r a l replacements for these s o c i a l
n e t w o r k s t h a t a r e a n y t h i n g b u t p a l e shadows
of the o r i g i n a l s . . .
many S o u t h A s i a n s f i n d
t h e m s e l v e s more s o c i a l l y i s o l a t e d t h a n e v e r
before in t h e i r l i v e s .
T h i s seems t o be
p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e c a s e f o r . . . women,
e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e y do n o t work and a r e
without easy access to t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .
( B u c h i g n a n i , 1979:62)
A questionnaire
survey
h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of
of
Sikhs
discrimination
working-class
feel
victims
of
British
norms" and b e c a u s e of
and I n d r a ,
of
the
1981:151).
d e g r e e of
...
that
because of
are
argue
and t h r e a t
that
frequently
their
that
"Sikh
which e x i s t s
between
much o v e r d r a w n , " and a t t r i b u t e
partly
of
constantly
conflict
with others"
focus
this
is
of
generally
identity
activating
(Buchignani and I n d r a ,
conflict
f a m i l y and s o c i a l
in
relation
Sikh
it
identity
1981:151).
to
from
perceptions
is
"heritage
the
(Buchignani
t h e m s e l v e s and o t h e r s
to a
"a
divergence
Canadian ethnocentrism
The a u t h o r s
conflict
they
men r e v e a l e d
Canadian
mores:
B e c a u s e few S i k h s m a i n t a i n c l o s e
r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h n o n - I n d i a n s , they a s s e s s
C a n a d i a n f a m i l y l i f e l a r g e l y i n terms of
those f e a t u r e s that are the s p e c i a l
o b s e s s i o n o f our own mass m e d i a : s e x u a l
e x p l o i t a t i o n , youthful r e b e l l i o n against
p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y , t h e t r a g e d y of o l d a g e ,
and the a l l e g e d i n s t a b i l i t y of the c o n j u g a l
relationship.
F u r t h e r , S i k h s judge Canadian
p a t t e r n s i n terms o f t h e i r own t r a d i t i o n a l
i d e a l s r a t h e r than i n terms of Canadian
in
The
society
1 05
values.
I t i s t h e r e f o r e not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t
t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s are at l e a s t
negatively
tinged.
Where f a m i l y l i f e among E a s t
I n d i a n s i n B . C . has been d i s r u p t e d , e v e n by
s t r e s s e s i n h e r e n t i n the t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y
structure, this d i s r u p t i o n is t y p i c a l l y
e x p l a i n e d by r e f e r e n c e t o ' r e b e l l i o u s '
members who have been ' c o r r u p t e d ' by
Canadian p a t t e r n s .
(Ames & I n g l i s ,
1973:28).
Annama J o y c o n c l u d e d of
"their
settlement
remain ambivalent
There are
isolation
society
i n Canada has
toward the
two
sorts
as
threatening
individuals
the
within
but
learning
English is
survival
skills
but
to
not
to
action
of
implicit
energetically
Okanagan
frustration.
life"
The o t h e r
first-hand
lack
of
taken.
skills
for
In t h i s
"the
is
to
emerge
(1970:95,
take
d i d not
steps
is
involve
the
dense,
implied
105).
to
acquire
action
a very
as
task
with confidence
is
or
not
from i s o l a t i o n ;
this
street
shopping
reality
case,
as
certain
"men p e r c e i v e
a task."
response
to
As f a r
when
In a s e n s e ,
It
necessary
numbers and r e a d i n g
of
that
most
would i n v o l v e
b a s e d on i g n o r a n c e
experience.
as
of
Canadian
response
type
implicit action
and s u s p i c i o n
of
This
and e n v e l o p i n g . "
the
well
They
reality
assimilation.
communication
i n f o r m a t i o n and t o
s t u d e n t s have
this
emergency
as
the
that
(1983:343).
in this
adjustments
resist
concerned,
s u c h as
One i s
a whole
make t h e
necessarily
theme i s
personal
it:
suggests F r e i r e ,
impenetrable,
fear
one
and h o s t i l e .
with co-workers.
uncommon,
by t h e
been
i n the
C a n a d i a n way of
community a s
survive,
chatting
of
informants
and m i s i n f o r m a t i o n a n d t h e s e p e r c e p t i o n s
characterizes
signs,
her S i k h
to
replace
based
t h a t my
radical
on
1 06
behavioral
but
f o r women of
Amarjit)
and
change,
to
could
Other
realized
interact
more
independently
i n the
with t h e i r
in every
year
of
understanding a r i s i n g
s t u d e n t s has
The
the
been
skills
real,
two
between t h e
i n terms
of
the
might
is
with Canadian
found t h a t
if
society.
personal
from f r i e n d s h i p s
between t u t o r s
1984;
result
Millard,
society
of
the
increase
a coping
in
1986).
their
in
own f a m i l i a r ,
conflicts,
the
In
and
surrounding students
Chadney d e s c r i b e s
as
t h a n any
1985,
l i n k e d to
by v i r t u e
latter
unusual,
be b e t t e r
inter-cultural
necessarily
two.
enterprise
life
doorstep,
(excepting
Crusade the
threatening
society
their
b r o k e down many s t e r e o t y p e s .
a f a r more n o t a b l e
ESL Crusade i s
understandable
tutors
(Jackson,
strange,
that
ESL C r u s a d e have
the
to
and l i m i t e d e d u c a t i o n
have
students
language
age
brought
they
friendships
fact,
their
E n g l i s h was
embark on a new e d u c a t i o n a l
shows t h a t
they
since
perceived
link
strategy
to
between
deal
and
the
with
the
former:
How c a n one s i m u l t a n e o u s l y be a C a n a d i a n and
A Sikh?
The s o l u t i o n s l i e i n t h e
r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t one must a d j u s t t o t h e
r e a l i t i e s o f t h e h o s t s o c i e t y a t t h e same
t i m e one m a i n t a i n s a v i a b l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n
w i t h what i s p e r c e i v e d t o be a t r a d i t i o n a l
Punjabi c u l t u r e .
(1977:199).
SOURCES OF STRENGTH
There are
students'
first
of
two main a r e a s
within
traditional culture
these,
'clothing'
and
as
which c o n c e r n s
'leisure,'
is
the
a source
the
topic
general
of
theme of
strength.
areas
of
The
'food,'
c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a c t i v i t i e s
which
1 07
distinguish
the
role
role
of
of
women
concerns
the
strength
and a f f i r m a t i o n .
in Punjabi c u l t u r e .
'religion'
and
'homeland'
The h i s t o r i c a l - c u l t u r a l r e a l i t y
described
i n terms
constitute
have
also
Punjabi
of
videos.
the
work o u t s i d e
defined
shopping,
devolve
women.
personal
they
r e g a r d e d as
of
their
plots.
however,
all
an a r t ) .
earlier,
butter
musical
Several
sphere
all
enjoy
watching
handicrafts
(an
and
includes
household;
than
are
a
did
matter
ability
(this
is
been
raising,
making t h e i r
own
Another popular
These are
i n v o l v i n g stock
t i m e s when I a r r i v e d f o r
help
pillow-cases
As has
and o f t e n
Punjabi videos.
romance-adventures
knit
is
care.
and e m b r o i d e r
which
from d a i r y - b o u g h t m i l k .
is
and
women do
in a
in this
houses.
cooking,
type
activities
and c h i l d
dust-covers
their
of
families,
interest
crochet
I
of
English,
women
my s t u d e n t s
Tablecloths,
but
a l t h o u g h men w i l l
Sewing and n e e d l e w o r k
very pedestrian),
women's a c t i v i t y
always
much more
traditionally
traditional
little
younger
be
not-highly-educated
In t h e i r
g r i n d i n g and m i x i n g s p i c e s ,
clarified
very
and s e w i n g ,
own m a k i n g a d o r n a l l
discussed
drying,
showed
taste;
r e g a r d as
most
of
theme c a n
'consumption'
the
Their
upon t h e
sources
that
house and g a r d e n m a i n t e n a n c e ,
B a l d e v and A m a r j i t
of
the
represent
home.
second
these are c r e a t i v e ,
heading
and a c c e p t e d .
cleaning,
tends to
older
the
as
first
Vancouver P u n j a b i community:
cooking,
Cleaning
the
Most of
My s t u d e n t s
the
activities
a r r i v a l s from I n d i a who speak
very c l e a r l y
with
various
i n c l u d e d under t h i s
who do not
all
the
"women's w o r k . "
woman i n t h e
recent
of
of
The
class,
almost
characters
one
of
these
and
was
108
r u n n i n g and i t
to
get
it
At
frequently
turned
no t i m e
the
with t h e i r
nor d i d t h e
roles,
work d o n e .
seem t o
of
it
None o f
a point
of
abilities,
tastier
or
to
shared great
and g r e a t
confidence
understandable
since
their
exposed
frozen
Dinner
type.)
details
that
embroidery
Part
with
of
very
the
they
that
take
pride
did think
can't
home.
On t h e
kind.
is
(This
both
Punjabi food
sort
Punjabi s u i t s ,
them
contrary,
they
of
and i n
are
have
C h i c k e n McNuggets in the
but
food p r e p a r a t i o n
is
food
all
None o f
P u n j a b i food
for
get
housework,
in their
Canadian
pizza -
can add t o
the
reason
is
their
for
that
Students
of
of
They a l s o
tasks
sisterhood.
aspects
the
pride
any
been
Kraft
complicated
their
work.
these
products
of
she
drudgery.
ingredients
whereas the
is
as
t h a n any o t h e r
f r e s h and home-made,
to
when
keep a c l e a n
sewing
students
and h e a l t h i e r
on my p a r t
students express
them p a r t i c u l a r y l i k e
pride
regard cooking
the
insisting
although Amarjit
h e r h u s b a n d s h o u l d be more p a t i e n t
consider
all
considerable
2
did I detect
dissatisfaction
that
off.
took
students'
they
cook
together,
They c o n s u l t
e m b r o i d e r y a n d on r e c i p e s .
different
strength
'sisterhood'
personalities
and a f f i r m a t i o n
as
expressed
identification
are performed i n the
frequently
labours.
positive
and do not
that
they
context
and s h a r e
w i t h one
another
Although these
get
along a l l
derive
from
i n communal p e r f o r m a n c e
of
the
on
women
the
have
time,
this
of
'women's
T h e p o p u l a r i t y of t h e s e m o v i e s i s s u c h t h a t t h e ESL C r u s a d e
does not o r g a n i z e c l a s s e s f o r Monday and T h u r s d a y e v e n i n g s , when
t h e y come on t h e m u l t i c u l t u r a l p a y - T V c h a n n e l .
2
109
work'
it
far
their
overrides
talents,
creativity
i n d i v i d u a l squabbles
abilties
finds
and r o l e s
an a p p r e c i a t i v e
The s t u d e n t s p e r c e i v e
are
not
highly
constant
Punjabi
is
surprise
suit.
valueless
isolation
For
to
This
I
like
in Canadian
the
students,
spice
watching
village
might
media t h a t
life.
other.
to
cooperative
exposure
greater
of
topic
that
importance
of
implicit
sense
of
of
the
in this
theme
homeland
Punjabi s u i t s ,
and
traditional
conflict
between t h e i r
domestic
skills
on t h e
be a t t e m p t e d
enterprise
one
could
hand,
of
through
such as
a
high
which
them on
the
crafts
3
clothing
common c o n n e c t i o n
students derive
valuable
idealizes)
talents
food,
their
a
r e g a r d as
u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a p p r e c i a t i o n
areas
in
wear
both t h e i r
sewing
their
service.
skills
network.
task
the
their
a collective
through t h e i r
affirmation
address
of
their
reflected
they
and t h e
(and
of
Through
cultural
connectedness w i t h the
low v a l u a t i o n
or a c a t e r i n g
Thus t h e
linked
to
as
increases
obvious
This could possibly
establishment
what
sisterhood
celebrates
A task
greater
lead
that
society,
the
society,
b l e n d i n g and c o o k i n g ,
and C a n a d i a n s '
involve
these domestic
society
p r o v i d e d by t h e
are a f f i r m e d ,
P u n j a b i f o o d and w i l l
perception
m a i n t a i n a sense of
through
the
that
importance.
audience.
in Canadian
from C a n a d i a n
affirmation
is
valued
that
in
to
and l e i s u r e
the
are
p r i d e and
from t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s
that
R e c e n t l y , t h e women have begun t o j o k e a b o u t o p e n i n g up a
r e s t a u r a n t i n the P u n j a b i market, and the v a r i o u s r o l e s they
would a l l p l a y ; d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y see t h i s a s an
i m p o s s i b l e dream, i t i s i n d i c a t i v e of t h e i r growing awareness
t h e p o t e n t i a l f i n a n c i a l v a l u e of t h e i r s k i l l s .
3
of
110
define
of
roles
sisterhood
these
to
their
skills
the
are
as
women,
developed
and t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e i r
and e x p r e s s e d .
i n m a i n t a i n i n g the
related
theme o f
The i m p o r t a n c e
c u l t u r a l heritage
r e l i g i o n as
a tie
relations
to
the
applies
of
also
homeland.
THE T I E THAT BINDS
Chadney
religion
towards
i n the
discusses
opportunity
1980's,
conservative
the
Sikh
with
E n a b l e d by s t r o n g
and from I n d i a ,
for
stronger
India,
temple
a separate
firmly
the
committed
to
the
strongest
to
the
certainly
Sikh
one
the
any s e c t o r
influence
that
lead
Since
strongest
of
to
the
that
state
the
t a l k e d to
the
vast
the
firmly
and
late
travel
to
discontent
1970's
took
place,
even
reports."
fundamentalist-dominated
moderate
K h a l i s t a n or
to
K h a l i s t a n had become
o r more s e c u l a r ,
m a j o r i t y of
the
community.
frequent
i n P u n j a b , by some
of
most
ties
my i n v e s t i g a t i o n
of
Sikh
influence
been
i n V a n c o u v e r by t h e
time
i n Vancouver than
spokespersons,
of
r e v i v a l i s m and p o l i t i c a l
root
By t h e
leaderships
of
ties
religious
D e p e n d i n g on w h e t h e r
the
opposed
t e m p l e s have
family
(Dusenbery:109).
as
and r e p r e s e n t
from P u n j a b had t a k e n
support
importance
toward c u l t u r a l a d a p t a t i o n .
element,
identification
the
P u n j a b i community a s
maintaining t r a d i t i o n ,
economic
early
(1976)
community
community was
against
it
but
either
afraid
to
*One t r a v e l l e r t o I n d i a a t t h i s t i m e r e t u r n e d w i t h t h e r e p o r t
t h a t p e o p l e t h e r e were j o k i n g t h a t maybe K h a l i s t a n s h o u l d be s e t
up i n B . C . i n s t e a d o f i n I n d i a , s i n c e i t has so much more
support here.
111
speak
out.
temple
fired
My s t u d e n t s '
leadership:
into
the
the
G o l d e n Temple a t t a c k ,
unbeknownst
and
was
to
the
h i d i n g out
very-Khalistani
participation
clear.
over
and a l l
in Pakistan.
personal
returned
was
current
calendar
commemorating
of
her
living
been
some o f
the
differences
that
that
opinions
that
killed
killed
in
but,
the
non-
However,
i n o p i n i o n and
official
three
some of
a saint
The f o l l o w i n g
helicopter
in
on t h e
B h i n d r a w a l e as
the
participated
reporting
in Vancouver.
the
showed
had e s c a p e d by
despite
from I n d i a
room.
leader
by
h o l e s had been
a movie
They a l l
normal, discounting
then
April
not
Richmond t e m p l e
opinions
wall
fact
I n d i a n government,
the
their
Baldev
fundamentalist
had i n
shaped
and r e p o r t e d a rumour
Baishakhi parade,
of
However,
described
Sikh babies,
Bhindarwale,
i s s u e were
t o l d me how many b u l l e t
Golden Temple,
Hindus b u t c h e r i n g
Jarnail
they
v i e w s on t h e
the
of
them
attend.
issue
were
less
that
the
at
fighting
was
alarmist
the
same t i m e
a p p e a r e d on
conversation
a
the
illustrates
affiliation:
4
- B a l d e v and G u r m i n d e r : c u r f e w , m i l i t a r y p r e s e n c e a t
A m r i t s a r ; f o u r p e o p l e c a n ' t t a l k t o g e t h e r , 6:00 b u s s e s
c l o s e , s t o r e , t e m p l e , b u t p e o p l e c a n be on t h e s t r e e t s
- R a n j e e t : no p r o b l e m , no c u r f e w
- G u r m i n d e r : p e o p l e my and D a v i d ' s age i n j a i l f o r 30 y e a r s
for being K h a l i s t a n i s
- Baldev in Punjabi
- G u r m i n d e r : B a i s a k h i i n A p r i l , s t a r t o f S i k h p e o p l e 500
y e a r s ago, p a r a d e , amrit ( b a p t i s m a l water) Guru Gobind
S i n g h , P u n j a b i new y e a r , l i k e C h r i s t m a s , p e o p l e go t o
D e l h i , big Khalistan demonstration, p o l i c e
shooting
- Baldev i n P u n j a b i about parade
- G u r m i n d e r : S i k h p e o p l e " h u r t " ; government
people,
military,
200
- B a l d e v s t i l l i n P u n j a b i : two p a r a d e s i n I n d i a , no w o r r y
- G u r m i n d e r t o D a v i d : S i k h p a r t y and C o n g r e s s p a r t y
different
-me t o B a l d e v : i s t h e r e s t i l l
fighting?
1 1 2
- B a l d e v : n o , a l l f i n i s h e d , no p r o b l e m ; saw two p a r a d e s , no
f i g h t i n g , no p r o b l e m s
- ( s i m u l t a n e o u s me t o B a l d e v and G u r m i n d e r t o D a v i d )
- G u r m i n d e r : Richmond t e m p l e s i d e s w i t h government o f
I n d i a , C o n g r e s s p a r t y , not w i t h K h a l i s t a n
- B a l d e v : saw h e r ' g u r u ' i n a p a r a d e i n I n d i a
- G u r m i n d e r : Richmond and Ross S t .
t e m p l e s n o t t h e same
thing
- a r g u m e n t between B a l d e v and G u r m i n d e r i n P u n j a b i , t h e n
d e c i d i n g not to argue about i t
- me a s k i n g a b o u t p a r a d e i n V a n c o u v e r , who w i l l
p a r t i c i p a t e : no R i c h m o n d , no S u r r e y
Although
families
in
s t u d e n t s were c o n c e r n e d
India,
major p e r s o n a l
was
f a r more
temple.
issue.
interest
major i s s u e
As has
the
I n d i a and l i f e
emotional
tie
infrequently
where
strongest
i n Canada.
to
the
source
of
Their
a r e done
enthusiasm
for
following
conversation:
the
their
the
safety
of
their
community was n o t
everyday
o p e r a t i o n of
homeland,
Students'
Jan.
the
but
just
temple
the
continuity
families
by phone o r by l e t t e r ;
things
of
the
been p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d ,
in discussing
F o r my s t u d e n t s ,
represents
a place
this
for
they
the
as
is
are
routine
there
of
the
local.temple
between l i f e
the
most
are contacted
temple
they
a
were
is
in
illustrated
in
obvious
only
always
there
-
India.
in
the
29
- g e t t i n g o u t p i c t u r e s of I n d i a n t e m p l e e x t e r i o r s , h a n d i n g
a r o u n d , i d e n t i f y i n g t h o s e t h e y r e c o g n i z e o r have been t o ,
R a n j e e t r e a d i n g c a p t i o n s ; much i n t e r e s t and e x c i t e m e n t
- R a n j e e t i s from P a t i a l a o r n e a r t h e r e ; d i s c u s s i o n o f
t e m p l e s , some P u n j a b i and some E n g l i s h , m o s t l y me and
Ranjeet
- F a t e g a h r S a h i b where G o b i n d S i n g h ' s s o n s were b r i c k e d
i n t o t h e w a l l ; T a r a n T a r a n 11 km.
from A m r i t s a r ; G u r m i n d e r
has been t h e r e o f t e n ; P a o n t a S a h i b and V a n c o u v e r t e m p l e t h e
same; G u r m i n d e r : G u r u Nanak f o u n d e d P a o n t a S a h i b
- ( c o n s t a n t b a c k g r o u n d r u m b l e o f P u n j a b i from o t h e r
s t u d e n t s and two P u n j a b i , two A n g l o v i s i t o r s )
- G u r m i n d e r a s k i n g B r e t t i f he l i k e d t h e p i c t u r e s of
s a m o s a s , she and B a l d e v e x p l a i n i n g t o him t h a t we made them
11 3
l a s t m o n t h : " h o u s e , k i t c h e n , l a s t m o n t h , s t u d e n t , y o u , my,
p i c t u r e , cook, r o l l i n g "
- G u r m i n d e r t e l l i n g me p e o p l e a t t h e t e m p l e , l a d i e s , happy I
t o o k p i c t u r e s a t t h e t e m p l e , l i k e d me; t o l d h e r I l i k e d t h e
people too
- B a l d e v i n v i t i n g me t o Richmond t e m p l e w i t h h e r f a m i l y
n e x t Sunday t o t a k e p i c t u r e s
- s t a r t e d p u t t i n g I n d i a and Canada p i c t u r e s on d i f f e r e n t
s i d e s of p o c k e t c h a r t , q u e s t i o n s a b o u t c o p i e s of p i c t u r e s
- o u t s i d e p i c t u r e s : s e v e n from I n d i a , one from C a n a d a ;
d i s c u s s i n g o t h e r temples to take p i c t u r e s of i n V a n c o u v e r ,
where t h e y a r e : S u r r e y , Skeena S t . , A b b o t s f o r d ; t o o f a r ,
one h o u r t o d r i v e
- G u r m i n d e r : come w i t h h e r when she g o e s o u t t o p i c k
berries
- me a s k i n g i f t h e y ' v e been t o A b b o t s f o r d t e m p l e ; B a l d e v :
$20.00 w o r t h of gas t o go t o A b b o t s f o r d and b a c k ; h e r
b r o t h e r - i n - l a w l i v e s there
- t a l k i n g a b o u t CFU s e r v i c e a t t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r t e m p l e
l a s t year
- a l l want t o come a l o n g w i t h me t o t a k e p i c t u r e s of S u r r e y
temple
- back t o p i c t u r e s , d i s c u s s i n g w h a t ' s h a p p e n i n g i n s i d e
- d i s c u s s i o n of d i f f e r e n c e of ' l a n g a r ' (communal meal) i n
I n d i a and C a n a d a ; o u t s i d e v e r s u s i n s i d e and d o w n s t a i r s
- B a l d e v w i t h ' l a n g a r ' p i c t u r e from C a n a d a : " l u n c h t i m e "
- a s k i n g me i f I a t e a t t h e t e m p l e , l a u g h t e r
- G u r m i n d e r t e l l i n g B r e t t : "you n e x t week h u n g r y , y o u l u n c h
S i k h s t e m p l e , okay?"
- a s k i n g me i f I l i k e t h e f o o d , t e l l i n g them how much I
a t e ; f o u r r o t i s , most p e o p l e o n l y have two
The d i f f e r e n t
students'
-
points
religious
to
situation.
their
levels
the
the
Their
of
reality
-
beliefs
and a c t i v i t i e s
strongest
tie
my s t u d e n t s p e r s o n a l l y as
maintain
and s t r e n g t h e n
to
derive
i n the
theme
the
as
bonds.
of
the
for
of
everyday
their
affecting
upsetting
from t h e
the
familiar
temple.
of
r e l i g i o n as
i n I n d i a and l i f e
well
two a s p e c t s
dramatic events
they
in this
life
perception
come c l o s e
centered
implicit
between
the
that
these
p o l i t i c a l versus
their
concern over
and s a t i s f a c t i o n
The a c t i o n
the
n a t u r e of
faith-community cannot
assurance
importance of
i n Canada
the
is,
community l e a d e r s ,
The f a c t
that
this
for
to
bond
11 4
increases
their
immaterial,
Canada
is
between
psychological
since
not.
the
This
bond t o
reveals
s t u d e n t s and t h e
sector
of
to
relvant
situation
abusers
intra-community
cooperation
of
temples,
unlikely
way.
ever
to
rather
than to
as
to
rather
appeal
in
of
power
of
strong
the
for,
drawn from
with
the
the
union
union
the
(non-existent)
little
community's
of
and
received
passive
sanction
my s t u d e n t s w i l l
regard is
belief
fighting
s e n s e of
Canadian working c l a s s .
the
exploitative
sought
in this
of
young
unfortunate
i n more t h a n a
peoples'
Sikh heritage
an
with
Without even the
5
with
the
They r e g a r d
a n d have
farmworkers l i k e
for
the
1981:110).
structures,
identify
task
India,'
is
conflict
of
is
r e v i v a l i s m as
and s u p p o r t e r s
from t h e m .
their
Sikh
'village
than c h a l l e n g e
their
members o f
source
and o b j e c t i v e s
implications
however,
The i m p l i c i t
accept,
and i n t i m a c y
The CFU l e a d e r s h i p
(Dusenbery,
social
little
the
life
or p o s i t i v e
i n Canada"
t e m p l e s as
desired
is
society
b o t h C a n a d i a n - b o r n P u n j a b i s and e d u c a t e d ,
a s p e c t s of
to,
India
leadership
i m m i g r a n t s who r e g a r d " r e c e n t
return
from C a n a d i a n
an i m p o r t a n t
Canadian Farmworkers U n i o n .
that
distance
token
to
structure;
for
identity
As F r e i r e
Even i f t h e p e o p l e ' s t h i n k i n g i s
s u p e r s t i t i o u s o r n a i e v e , i t i s o n l y as
be
to
justice,
and p r i d e
says:
they
I n t h e s p r i n g o f 1986, t h e CFU l e a d e r s h i p d i d a p p r o a c h t h e
t e m p l e s f o r h e l p on a ' s a f e ' i s s u e : t o p r o t e s t t h e i n c r e a s e o f
unemployment i n s u r a n c e e l i g i b i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s from t e n t o
s i x t e e n weeks f o r most f a r m w o r k e r s .
S i x hundred people t u r n e d
o u t t o a d e m o n s t r a t i o n a d v e r t i s e d i n and s a n c t i o n e d by t h e
temples.
T h r o u g h o u t t h e summer, u n i o n o r g a n i z e r s c o l l e c t e d
s e v e r a l t h o u s a n d s i g n a t u r e s f o r a p e t i t i o n on t h e same i s s u e a t
various temples.
T h i s a c t i v i t y g r e a t l y enhanced the u n i o n ' s
v i s i b i l i t y i n t h e community and has had p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s on i t s
organizing efforts.
5
11 5
rethink t h e i r assumptions in a c t i o n that
they can change.
P r o d u c i n g and a c t i n g upon
t h e i r own i d e a s - not c o n s u m i n g t h o s e of
o t h e r s [ e i t h e r temple or union l e a d e r s ] must c o n s t i t u t e t h a t p r o c e s s .
(1970:100)
SOURCES OF TENSION
The
tension
third
i m p o r t a n t theme a r e a c o n s i s t s
between t h e s e
are areas
of
sources
students'
lives
of
fear
of
the
points
traditional culture.
of
significant
My s t u d e n t s '
learning
task
discouragement
difficulty
quently
the
process
with their
These
the
demands and
there
rewards
were
t h e s e two w o r l d s :
slow
nature
of
earlier.
rate
of
the
two
their
language
Despite
progress
some
and w i t h
remembering c e r t a i n words and p h r a s e s ,
of
English
class
as
"fun,"
the
they
and seemed t o
freenjoy
learning.
perception
somewhat
i n the
been d i s c u s s e d
r e f e r r e d to
Their
was
of
of
families.
interest
has
demands of
w i t h the
between
points
strength.
F o r my s t u d e n t s ,
contact
ESL l e a r n i n g , and t h e i r
and of
i n which the
C a n a d i a n e n v i r o n m e n t meet and c l a s h
of
vague.
of
the
value
of
learning English,
As was m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y ,
f o r my
students attending
ESL c l a s s e s
breaching
gulf
between t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g
Lack
of
the
environment.
gulf.
"Because
Gurminder,
tutor.
English
we d o n ' t
was
however,
is
in part a step
s e e n as
know E n g l i s h ,
the
This
illustrates
a tendency
reason
our l i v e s
through A m a r j i t ' s . t r a n s l a t i o n ,
on t h e
towards
once
for
this
are bad,"
told a
p a r t of
visiting
many
11 6
f a r m w o r k e r s who j o i n t h e
of
'magic
to
the
inital
learning
bus,
key'
to
ESL C r u s a d e
greater
going
shopping,
In t r y i n g
many t u t o r s
to
getting
teach
to
these
E n g l i s h would improve t h e i r
difference
their
happier
life
classes;
their
faced with
intital
narrow
it,
their
leads
and t h e
scope
English
relevance
revealed
of
that,
of
Canadian
the
years,
of
to
contact
give
accept
always
be
family r e l a t i o n s ,
f o r my s t u d e n t s
at
of
with
the
up o r ,
on
English
task,
given
i n the
to
a
once
some
and
to
concrete
context
of
widely perceived
but my
least,
how much
a ticket
s m a l l advances
not
This
i n ESL Crusade
located
learning is
the
restrictions
E n g l i s h as
d i f f i c u l t y of
to
take
how l e a r n i n g
reality
enrol
however,
English.
c o n c e n t r a t i o n to a c h i e v a b l e ,
language
to
the
the
the
as
investigation
this
c a n be
its
primary
importance.
Students'
families
society,
English-speaking
of
success,
of
them t o
many e i t h e r
These can almost
family.
most
leads
p e r c e p t i o n of
measure of
goals.
having
i n Canada
taking
would never
perceptions
perceptions
Respondents
s u c h as
would a c t u a l l y make g i v e n c u l t u r a l
Farmworkers'
sort
language-
d i d speak
p e r s o n a l m o b i l i t y and i n d e p e n d e n t
speakers.
area
it
they
lives,
a
job.
students
if
students'
their
needs o v e r
have d i s c o v e r e d t h a t
a gap between
in Canada.
tasks
a better
even
r e g a r d E n g l i s h as
identified
i n terms of
bus o r go s h o p p i n g a l o n e
reveals
satisfaction
needs a s s e s s m e n t
needs p r i m a r i l y
to
the
tasks
are both a buffer
and t h e i r
principal
between
point
of
them and
contact
f a m i l y members c a n be r e l i e d upon t o
requiring
c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h and
with
it.
perform
knowledge
11 7
about
Canadian
society;
driving,
house r e p a i r s ,
filling
called
upon as
translators;
on h e r
frequent
prior
to
her
accompany h e r
to
communication of
times,
to
often
in o f f i c i a l
India;
doctors'
certain
had t o
wait
forms.
B a l d e v took
confrontational
t r i p to
paying b i l l s ,
she
visits
takes
of
until
the
for
They a l s o c a n
her d a u g h t e r s
to
the
Indian
them out
appointments.
types
arranging
of
In o u r
be
with
her
consul
school
to
classes,
information, mostly
c h i l d r e n got
home
dates
from
and
school
translate.
On t h e
culture
into
want
eat
to
watch
other
the
hand,
home.
frozen
family
seen a s
is
and husbands
teenagers
1983:251).
of
emerges
combat.
In t h e
a refuge
(this
is
the
The r e l e v a n c e
in situations
conflict,
against
listen
the
to
which
of
onslaught
the
E n g l i s h to
involve
and w h i c h i l l u s t r a t e
large,
of
for
and
and M o t h e r ' s
"the
of
Sikh
new
values"
however,
temple)
this
as
it
a
is
front
context
both personal
a need
games and
rock music
my s t u d e n t s ,
role
Canadian
watch h o c k e y
community a t
F o r women s u c h a s
so much a r e f u g e
line
f a m i l y members who b r i n g
" D a l l a s , " and g r a n d c h i l d r e n make V a l e n t i n e ' s
in school.
not
is
Sons
pizzas,
Day c a r d s
(Joy,
it
and c u l t u r a l
specific
language
skills.
The
of
first
being able
make emergency
students
feel
of
to
t h e s e has
use
calls
of
the
out.
being
total
phone
This
to
been
answer
need
in a s i t u a t i o n
depend on f a m i l y members
awareness that
already
for
discussed.
incoming c a l l s
illustrates
where
h e l p and a l s o
dependence
is
It
they
that
and
the
fear
are
unable
reveals
undesirable
is
and
to
that
to
their
potentially
1 18
dangerous.
telephone
an
English ability
calls
important
Other
which,
factor
reflect
the
several
they
respondents
children
as
Baldev's
children
acceding
to
secrets
are
of
do not
indicated
insult
behavior,
from t h e i r
for
this
in handling
students'
within
the
children
want
their
parents
CFU needs
ability
to
in English,
elders
has
ability
elders
with
of
often
to
understand
her
face
of
assessment,
I
her
be
family.
l e a r n i n g need.
to
lack
home,
In the
the
could
the
some demand i n P u n j a b i .
respect
factor
income.
i m p a c t of
saying.
an i m p o r t a n t
deferential
expected
the
language
t o E n g l i s h when t h e y
u n d e r s t a n d what
family
E n g l i s h on r e l a t i o n s
Although Punjabi is
switch
also a crucial
f a m i l y members work on c a l l ,
affecting
situations
u n d e r s t a n d i n g of
if
is
frequently
their
watched
after
To women f o r whom
always
been
assumed
c h i l d r e n to
impunity is
and
mock and
a source
of
keep
great
concern.
Situations
cultural
part
of
causes
the
of
family c o n f l i c t
, however,
children,
high blood pressure,
a r e aware of
their
the
community,
people
but
lack
of
drinking,
phenomenon
but
they
of
are
rather
rarely attributed
to
strictness
or
just
bad c h a r a c t e r
on t h e
quick tempers.
family c o n f l i c t
ascribe
it
p a r t of
inherent
as
to
on
the
parents,
Students
a problem
flaws
in
in Punjabi
and c u l t u r e :
Jan.
12
- r e q u e s t i n g p e r m i s s i o n to tape c l a s s e s l e d to d i s c u s s i o n
of what w o u l d happen n e x t y e a r ; would I s t i l l be t h e i r
teacher
- much e x p l a n a t i o n r e q u i r e d , c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r o b l e m s t r y i n g
t o g e t a c r o s s ' I hope s o ' ; r e s o r t e d t o ' m a y b e ' , e x p l a i n i n g
t h a t y e s , i f I g e t a j o b i n V a n c o u v e r , but I c a n ' t be s u r e
119
of t h a t
- l e d t o d i s c u s s i o n o f my f u t u r e : j o b , m a r r i a g e , c h i l d r e n ?
Would I l i k e t h a t ?
- me: y e s , but no c u r r e n t p r o s p e c t s
- l e d t o d i s c u s s i o n o f a r r a n g e d m a r r i a g e s - would my
p a r e n t s f i n d me someone?; answer an e m p h a t i c no
- d i s c u s s i o n : In I n d i a p a r e n t s w o u l d , p r o s and c o n s o f
a r r a n g e d m a r r i a g e s , mostly cons; Gurminder v e r b o s e , Ranjeet
s i l e n t (she has a happy m a r r i a g e )
- A m a r j i t : h e r a u n t - i n - l a w has a l o v e - m a t c h ; l u c k y
- h e r f o u r b r o t h e r s a l l l i v e t o g e t h e r i n harmony; v e r y
unusual
- G u r m i n d e r : 5% ( l i t e r a l l y " h u n d r e d , f i v e " ) o f a r r a n g e d
m a r r i a g e s happy
-
Baldev:
Whether
they
causes,
their
to
assert
Punjabi people
attribute
lack
authority
A similar
grandparental
children
of
as
if
the
" a l l the
conflicts
less
is
translators.
hostile
related
cooperative
when c a l l e d
doubted the
a c c u r a c y of
their
five-minute
communications)
However,
limits
to
exercise
adults
their
availability
their
are very
personal
to a d u l t s '
upon
potential
of
the
their
children.
parental
dependence
(although
the
I
were n o t
f o r abuse
children
sometimes
younger
of
aware o f
of
and
on
translations
f r u s t r a t e d by t h e i r
levels
personal
ability
of
this
or
power.
dependence,
m o b i l i t y and c o m m u n i c a t i v e
and s k i l l
no happy"
their
families
thirty-second
and e i t h e r
of
erosion
In my s t u d e n t s '
were a l w a y s
chose not
diminishes
a n d demand o b e d i e n c e
overtly
authority
fighting,
to c u l t u r a l or
English clearly
over
time,
which
ability
members o f
to
the
their
families.
Also
inability
cultural
enough
the
to
flow.
related
of
to
parents
items that
judge
what
They a r e
loss
of
authority
and g r a n d p a r e n t s
their
is
families
harmless
unable
to
within
to
bring
and what
the
home
is
u n d e r s t a n d the
into
is
u n d e r s t a n d the
the
not,
home
the
Canadian
well
and t o
check
English-language
1 20
T.V.
shows from w h i c h t h e i r
American c u l t u r a l
values.
possible
what
at
to
know,
c h i l d r e n are absorbing
They do not
is
being
taught
know,
(and
North
or c o n s i d e r
informally
it
learned)
school.
It is g e n e r a l l y agreed that p a r e n t a l
authority is gradually eroding . . .
The l a c k
of f l u e n c y i n E n g l i s h on t h e p a r t of t h e
p a r e n t s and t h e l a c k of f l u e n c y i n t h e i r
m o t h e r - t o n g u e on t h e p a r t of t h e C a n a d a - b o r n
c o n t r i b u t e s not o n l y a c o m m u n i c a t i o n g a p ,
but even l e a d s t o l a c k of r e s p e c t f o r t h e
p a r e n t s ' views (which a r e not always
u n d e r s t o o d ) and a l a c k o f r e s p e c t f o r t h e
p a r e n t s and ' a g e . ' The d i v e r s e
influences
. . . to which the Canada-born are s u b j e c t e d
l e a d them t o r e j e c t some o f t h e E a s t I n d i a n
v a l u e s and the a s s u m p t i o n s b e h i n d them.
For
e x a m p l e , t h e c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between age
and wisdom t h a t forms t h e b a s i s f o r r e s p e c t
and o b e d i e n c e i s g e n e r a l l y r e j e c t e d . . .
the
C a n a d a - b o r n c o n s i d e r t h e i r p a r e n t s t o be t o o
a u t h o r i t a r i a n and l a c k i n g i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g .
The p a r e n t s c o m p l a i n of r e b e l l i o n among t h e
youth.
( S r i v a s t a v a , 1974:388-389)
For
grandparents,
authority
this
is
reflected
by young g r a n d c h i l d r e n as
Both Ranjeet
not
by a d e c r e a s e
and G u r m i n d e r have managed t o
a r o u n d by h a v i n g t h e i r
eldest
English,
maintained a very
STRANGERS
The
that
and have
above
analysis
significant
their
thus
turn
grandaughters
in
this
teach
of
intimacy.
problem
them some
important bond.
IN A STRANGE LAND
between t o p i c
of
so much i n r e j e c t i o n
aspects
areas
of
students'
of
themes emerge
are considered,
relationship
to
one
generative
another
themes
reveals
o n l y when t h e
and t h e y
and t o
are
the
seen
whole
in
links
terms
picture.
STRANGE
STRANGERS
LAND
id
c
CD
Sources
Sources
of S trenrjth
of
Fear
1
LANGUAGEJLEARNING —
Work
Emergenc1es
I
Food
Author 1ty
I
C1othIng
Home 1a n d
Malntalnence
PJ
I
FAMILY
Work
T Ime
Phone
Med 1ca1
Strange La nd
nel1gI on
Binds
in
I
Cultural
The T i e that
S y s tern
Dependence
Leisure
2.
CO
Ne1ghborhodd
trange rs
1. W o m e n ' B
1 22
Figure
the
1 shows how t h e
relationships
sources
of
The
between
strength,
"strange
be
topic
areas
the
'home,'
is
never
that
must be c o p e d w i t h and not
cultural
represented
by t h e
areas.
to
inappropriate.
represented
Binds,'
consisting
'clothing,'
and
Bridging
bringing
not
of
titles:
the
students'
English
functions.
c a u s e d by t h e
language
dependence
of
adults
linguistic
limitations
and
the
fear,
of
is
strength
topic
fear
topic
familiar
food,
bizarre
and
but
the
A l l that
of
that
dress
and
are
'The T i e
areas
of
that
'food,'
' r e l i g i o n ' and ' h o m e l a n d . '
familiar
their
and the
into
affects
strange,
conflict,
situations
their
to
function,
i n which
call
on s t u d e n t s '
ability
to
and g a t e k e e p e r s .
the
and
perform
in
structures
and c h i l d r e n ,
translation,
normal
for help
traditional authority
upon c h i l d r e n f o r
the
are
performance of
ability
gap between p a r e n t s
are
These
similar linking
concrete
i n c l u d e the
custodians
of
'medical'
l e a r n i n g " and " f a m i l y . "
d i s r u p t i o n to
through
respects,
sources
exotic,
and t h e r e f o r e
competence
the
cultural
of
a n d of
through the
an e m e r g e n c y ,
as
'system,'
students.
gap between t h e
These
the
'Women's Work'
o n l y by v i r t u e o f
directly,
i n most
r e l i g i o n , homeland,
respectively
"language
sources
new e n v i r o n m e n t
contains
two main s o u r c e s
'leisure,'
but a l s o
roles
It
the
-
allowed to d i s r u p t
r e g a r d e d h e r e as
them i n t o c o n t a c t
areas
related
family
fabric.
Their
by t h e
that
'neighborhood,'
is
one a n o t h e r
tension.
frightening
them i n t h e i r
and e n t e r t a i n m e n t
theme
is
The " s t r a n g e r s " a r e
and a f f i r m i n g
of
Canada,
will
traditional
that
to
key theme a r e a s
and s o u r c e s
land"
relate
their
The t o p i c
areas
1 23
of
'work,'
'time,'
primarily
i n the
reporting
about
Each of
context
specific
ESL p r o g r a m ,
between t h e
logical
situations
p a r t of
language
that
"strangers"
s t a r t i n g point
General
a p p r o a c h and c o n t e n t
students'
following
as
of
i n the
to
one
another
concrete
work r o u t i n e s
situation
on t h e
i n the
everyday l i v e s
students.
skills
of
(mainly l i s t e n i n g
w i t h i n the
represents
and t h e
an o c c a s i o n
"strange
land,"
for p r o b l e m - p o s i n g about
recommendations
for
the
of
Each
of
any
s u c h as
the
contact
and i s
the
thus
a
conflicts
objectives,
a c u r r i c u l u m b a s e d on t h i s
universe'
family
and
context
i n a h o m e - b a s e d one
of
phone.
involving English
'minimum t h e m a t i c
chapter.
related
c o u l d be t a u g h t
Each a l s o
between t h e m .
the
the
and p a r t i c u l a r l y
ESL C r u s a d e .
are
f a m i l y members'
these
understanding)
'phone'
family context,
o c c u r s as
involves
and
analysis
are presented
in
of
the
124
VI .
The
object
conclusions,
issues
but
Toronto),
to c o n t r i b u t e to
and t h e
adaptation
teaching
of
time
presents
is
a greater
been
not
This
is
the
theory
still
in
to
its
chapter,
the
as
into account.
would a d d r e s s
the
Freirian
the
generative
of
of
students'
What
feasibility
issues are
are
that
outline
themes
consistent
is
is
of
Canadian ESL
needed
at
of
right
the
questions
and
difficulties
s u m m a r i z e d , and
would take
the
type
some of
of
then p r e s e n t e d ,
teaching
and
questions.
r a i s e d c o n c e r n i n g the
a p p r o a c h w i t h the
wisdom of
the
identifies
investigation
A general
a
demands of
recommendations and f u r t h e r
on t h e
the
identification
therefore,
my o b s e r v a t i o n s
several
on
can share
infancy.
r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a r e made f o r a s t u d y
of
u n d e r s t a n d i n g of
( m a i n l y out
development
so much a n s w e r s
ESL c l a s s r o o m t h e m a t i c
finally
definitive
r e s e a r c h and m a t e r i a l s
educators
However,
comments,
First,
has
'Freirian'
Freirian
context
questions.
that
yield
P a r t i c i p a t o r y Research Group p r o v i d e s a
experience.
these
to
f o r F r e i r e - s t y l e ESL e d u c a t i o n
n e t w o r k whereby
of
s t u d y was not
In Canada t h e r e
development
this
this
i n v o l v e d i n b a s i n g ESL p r o g r a m c o n t e n t
themes.
their
of
CONCLUSIONS
curriculum
and
compatibility
of E S L .
1 25
SUMMARY OF STUDY AND FINDINGS
THE
INVESTIGATION
The
p r o c e d u r a l focus
discrepancy
theme
investigation
Is
w i t h an a n a l y s i s
investigation?
and the
it
of
chapter
teacher,
was a b l e
to
students
to
I t r i e d the
of
them l e d
students'
both.
everyday
I
enough
activities
thematic
information
student
input
element
of
(rather
challenge
s h a r i n g need,
students.
Acting
me t o
notably
watching
participating
their
found t h a t
the
than the
as
their
useful
students'
in everyday
homes,
best
perception
most
they
and a t t e n d i n g
way t o
elicit
an
up
individual
their
'thematic
recommended by
and f o u n d
of
that
be
reality,
or
successful
in
as
is
well
and
an
a learning
clear
as
to
the
most
interaction,
as
cooking)
with
their
cultural
festivals.
thematic
or
teacher
strategies,
behavior
direct
contain
either
purpose
that
about
agenda),
observational
(such
come
i n s p i r e d by
answer
educational
in-class
to
from and a b o u t
likely
are
teacher's
events
by ESL
information
participant-observer
identify
as
of
and o t h e r s ,
will
if
I,
analysis
or c o n t r o v e r s y ,
and i f
enabled
visiting
their
generative
and n o .
that
of
the
classroom
and a c t i v i t i e s
revelation
reality,
it
on a
information
a tentative
techniques
the
yes,
evidence
found that
revealing
a
to
address
an E S L t e a c h e r
is
Nina W a l l e r s t e i n , Deborah B a r n d t ,
most
to
made t o
themes b a s e d
is
obtain
propose
for
my answer
previous
was
adaptations
students'
To t h i s
study
recommended l a r g e - s c a l e
possible
The
universe.'
this
between F r e i r e ' s
practitioners.
the
of
information,
them,
I
however,
1 26
is
to
let
students
'just
talk.'
Through c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s ,
students,
it
was p o s s i b l e
information
relevant
encountered
both
impeded t h e
process
Logistical
of
time
and e n e r g y
until
all
the
of
the
the
friend;
less
is
teach
stress
generative
by t h e
possible
researcher,
of
that
it
themes
teaching
of
investigation
c o u l d not
by t h e
the
be
assessed
difference
students'
conflict
investigating
students'
to
between
and
and
l e a r n i n g or
process.
is
possible
for a teacher
to
i n an E S L c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g ,
to
the
logistical
amount
the
union representative
situation.
for a teacher
both the
the
the
and
i n c l u d e d the
balancing
learning
a c c o r d i n g them w h i l e
because
caused
t h o r o u g h l y d e p e n d i n g on t h e
afforded
it
I believe
I
analysis.
barrier,
themes and t h e
sacrificing either
the
of
However,
the
investigation,
interconnections
difficulty
c o n t r o l over
investigate
or
teacher,
without
In sum,
language
codes d u r i n g
investigate
the
to
amount
themes.
a c c u r a c y of
P h i l o s o p h i c a l problems
and t h e
teaching
their
of
i n c l u d e d the
consumed by t h e
learn English;
roles
a considerable
generative
and l i m i t e d t h e
to
and l i s t e n i n g
and p h i l o s o p h i c a l p r o b l e m s w h i c h
developing
between my agenda
just
students'
thematic
end.
to c o l l e c t
logistical
limitations
impossibility
because
to
watching,
demands and
I doubt,
adequately
opportunities
however,
identify
investigation
is
and p h i l o s o p h i c a l
more
in
whether
themes and
progress,
difficulties
involved.
Freire
the
describes
"education
problem-posing concept
of
and t h e m a t i c
education,"
as
investigation,
"different
in
moments
1 27
of
the
same p r o c e s s "
generative
program
theme
is
1970:101,
investigation
itself.
findings
(Freire,
they
m a t e r i a l s . . ESL p r a c t i t i o n e r s
the
simultaneously
both
the
resources
investigation.
that
the
that
it
and t h e
too
found i t
largely
because
must
of
this
precede
b i g a job for
study
the
to
themes
few p r o g r a m s have
program,
one p e r s o n .
thematic
Taking
into
and
account
investigation,
and
the
I w o u l d recommend
the
procedure.
A STRATEGY FOR INVESTIGATING
GENERATIVE THEMES FOR ESL
W i t h i n a given. ESL program f o r
two
to
(or
terms)
his
teaching
educational
ESL s i t u a t i o n ,
four teachers
s h o u l d be
the
familiar
into
however,
constraints
many o f
the
suggest,
for
following
of
t o mount s u c h an
both F r e i r e ' s requirements
imposed by t h e
The
educational
necessary
investigate
commitment
The f i n d i n g s
investigation
is
have
the
analysis
are developed
p r o c e d u r e and t o
with teaching
mine).
p r e l i m i n a r y to
A thorough p r o f e s s i o n a l
conducted before
individualize
is
emphasis
students'
willing
formed.
to
commit t h e m s e l v e s
Between
languages
as
with F r e i r e ' s c r i t e r i a for
investigative
Wallerstein,
team s h o u l d
according
identified
to
et
al.
investigate
the
activities
in this
study
as
During
them t h e y
possible.
the
the
themes o f
two
first
as
be
themes and w i t h
year
of
or term,
respective
and o b s e r v a t i o n a l
years
s h o u l d speak
recommendations
their
successful.
for
a team o f
They s h o u l d
generative
p r o c e d u r e , and w i t h
Barndt,
the
immigrant a d u l t s ,
the
classes
strategies
They s h o u l d s h a r e
the
1 28
l o a d of
out-of-class
observation
of
s h o u l d meet r e g u l a r l y t o d e b r i e f ,
teaching materials
clear
to
the
determine
invited
relevant
of
thematic
and i s s u e s
the
start
that
team members have enough t i m e
and
share
s h o u l d be made
and t h e y
to
s h o u l d be
i n f o r m a n t s and c o -
discussion.
it
They
an i n v e s t i g a t i o n
taking place,
will
but
It
r e c o r d s s h o u l d be k e p t
of
classes
analysis,
is
codes.
cultural
Systematic
topics
recordings
for
content
t o p a r t i c i p a t e as
investigators.
popular
from t h e
communities.
compare o b s e r v a t i o n s
and p r e l i m i n a r y
students
students'
of
the
Transcribing
p r o v i d e t h e most
of
their
of
tape
reliable
s h o u l d o n l y be a t t e m p t e d
outside
most
data
if
the
teaching
responsibilities.
At
to
the
end o f
pool their
results,
different
topic
students'
themes.
hired
year
the
term or y e a r ,
analyze
to
the
A materials
of
this
well
term.
approach,
members of
During
the
team,
them s h o u l d be r e c o r d e d .
from t h i s
with t h e i r codes,
c u r r i c u l u m of
suggestion
input
the
in
and
teacher
Any
revisions
the
end
been c o n f i r m e d
the
basis
program.
and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s f a m i l i a r
with F r e i r e ' s pedagogy.
following
s h o u l d be made a t
has
the
teachers
should constitute
that
of
s h o u l d be
assumes a p r o g r a m w i t h f l e x i b l e
and t e a c h e r s
sympathetic
themes.
time
the
analysis
or a r t i s t
T h o s e themes whose r e l e v a n c e
thematic
This
developer
of
s h o u l d be t e s t e d by o t h e r
by t h e
to
resulting
two y e a r s ,
the
as
team s h o u l d have
relationships
c o d e s b a s e d on t h e
reactions
codes
the
the
and draw up a t e n t a t i v e
or term these codes
and s t u d e n t
for
areas,
to c r e a t e
program as
over
the
It
content
and
and
assumes t h a t
the
program
1 29
is
ongoing,
and t h a t
materials developer
'analysis'
of
p a r t of
and keep t h e
their
f u n d i n g , however,
practicable
funding w i l l
i n the
be a v a i l a b l e
teachers
investigation.
the
to
hire a
on s t a f f
Given
during
the
the
availability
p r o c e d u r e d e s c r i b e d above
w o u l d be
Farmworkers ESL C r u s a d e .
THE THEMES
The s e c o n d q u e s t i o n
my s t u d e n t s '
generative
ESL l e a r n i n g ?
in a strange
'language
the
This
land"
'strangers*
'strange
areas
what
-
tapes of
their
'family'
new,
thematic
students'
foreign,
What
are
relevance
the
to
"strangers
areas
f u n c t i o n as
of
a link
between
familiar,
fear-inspiring
through a content
the
analysis
lessons constitute
T h r o u g h e x a m i n i n g how t h e s e a r e
are expressed
r e v e a l about
and what
input
tasks
in real
students'
they
imply,
into a curriculum
'minimum t h e m a t i c
perceptions
basis
to
in
of
as
it
of
one
students'
their
organize
which I b e l i e v e
universe'
the
l i n k e d to
situations
I was a b l e
basis
the
of
relates
reflects
to
learning.
Many of
area
of
they
students'
language
i n which the
identified
how t h e y
situation,
the
image,
area representing
analysis.
classroom
is
I have d e s c r i b e d i n t e r m s of
c u l t u r e and t h e
transcriptions
lives,
s t u d y was:
land.'
Topic
another,
themes a n d what
l e a r n i n g ' and t h e
traditional
this
a d d r e s s e d by t h i s
the
themes -
seem t o have
little
those
represented
i n the
'strangers'
o r n o t h i n g t o do w i t h E S L .
Students
1 30
do n o t
or
to
need t o
go t o
know t h e
the
temple.
teaching
because
motivate
students
least
need f o r
On t h e
English
it
I
found t h i s
seemed
that
the
t h e most
were
those
the
need
f o r ESL a p p e a r s most
This
is
a r e a of
obvious
interest
w h i c h seemed
for which they
and by most
However I
of
to
had t h e
independent
be
the
"strange
l i k e l y to
join
with Canadian
increase
land."
'survival'
in r e a l i t y students
contact
students'
ESL C o r e G r o u p ' s
f a r m w o r k e r s when t h e y
found t h a t
would t h e i r c o n t a c t
that
assumed by most
curricula,
direct
spices,
f r u s t r a t i n g i n my
area for which
is
by W a l l e r s t e i n ' s a n d t h e
little
favorite
topic areas
thematic
curricula,
Crusade.
very
their
English.
other hand,
the
words f o r
even
thematic
the ESL
have
very
society,
if
nor
their
English
improved.
Thus s t u d e n t s '
areas
most
for which they
which t h i s
need
is
from t h e
negative
with
lack
the
of
positive
have
necessity
life:
the
family.
situations
is
also
land'
the
most
interest
and e f f o r t s .
of
this
is
the
demanding s p e c i f i c
themes come
the
learn
English
into contact,
is
This
language
'strangers'
and o f t e n
both
a r e combined i n
students
primary context
which the
survive,
d i l e m m a , by showing t h a t
need t o
important to
in
combined
their
This
p o i n t at
This,
sustain
m o t i v a t i o n and the
is
and i g n o r a n c e .
in
springs
to
i d e n t i f i e d a way o u t
area that
fear
learn
in order
study
the
the m o t i v a t i o n to
areas
learn
insufficient
positive
to
of
E S L , and i n the
to
often
the
no n e e d o f
acknowledged,
sources
potential motivation exists
in everyday
i n which
skills
and t h e
arise.
'strange
into c o n f l i c t .
Thus
It
131
teaching
and
the
issues
ESL f o r
family
of
is
'family'
the
most
is
both relevant
logical
cultural conflict.
to c o n s t r u c t i n g
learning
the
a thematic
context
Following is
ESL c u r r i c u l u m
and m o t i v a t i n g ,
for
problem posing
on
a suggested approach
focussed
on
'family'
needs.
A THEMATIC ESL CURRICULUM
The
overall
a p p r o a c h of
students
s u c h as
t h o s e of
to a f f i r m
tension
their
i n the
society.
culture
the
students'
represented,
the
lessons
as
the
then
and p r i o r i t i e s
strange,
as
address
them.
r e d u c t i o n of
and
be a c c o m p a n i e d by g r o w t h
begin
this
their
and e c o n o m i c
to
identify
fear
causes
options
for
The
ESL c u r r i c u l u m must
communication needs.
focus
initially
be
truly
cultural
roles,
is.
of
'conscientization.'
should
to
environment
conflicts
of
that
that
students'
on t h e
will
with
a l s o answer
the
so
linguistic,
of
students
strength
that
In
to
they
can
essence,
immediate,
P r a c t i c a l empowerment
family context,
lead
cultural,
them.
very
society
should
should both
problems,
dealing
It
enable
sources
i n awareness of
their
it
and t e a c h
and a l i e n a t i o n
is
concrete
are
be
from C a n a d i a n
Canadian
Affirmation
for
decrease
n o r m a l , and p r e s e n t
the
and
to
alienation
s h o u l d assume t h e i r
and c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g s k i l l s
to address
social
their
perceptions
bewildering
realistically
cultural
providing s k i l l s
f a m i l y and l e s s e n
the
curriculum designed
Farmworkers ESL C r u s a d e s h o u l d
while
If
interests
a thematic
then
t h r o u g h ESL
on a
1 32
realistic
level
of
independence
'system.'
Codes s h o u l d be u s e d b o t h f o r p r o b l e m - p o s i n g and f o r
the
teaching
of
the
thematic
curriculum
activities,,
level
not
in order to
be u s e d
c o n s t r u c t e d codes
others,
be
flexible
and t h u s
enough t o
content
of
on e a c h p r e v i o u s
s h o u l d be a c o l l e c t i o n
i n whatever
Each
s h o u l d c o n t a i n a v a r i e t y of
The l a n g u a g e
sequentially
curriculum
n e i g h b o r h o o d and
immediately a p p l i c a b l e language.
classes.
build
w i t h i n the
o r d e r the
of
the
use
issues a r i s e
sequencing
in
linguistic
multi-
curriculum
should
rather,
the
or modules
that
in c l a s s .
Well
s h o u l d e a c h have c o n n e c t i o n s
many l o g i c a l
lesson
with
lesson;
units
the
with
can
several
possibilties
would
exist.
ISSUES IN FREIRIAN
DIALOGUE
One
IN ONE-WORD
PHRASES
of
serious
t h e most
r e s e a r c h was
the
theme-eliciting
former
order
i n the
delivering
and t e a c h i n g .
class,
lessons,
consititutes
'dialogue'
information.
of
and t h e
c o n c e n t r a t i o n on
satisfaction
a deeper
on e v e r y o n e
conflict
constraints
of
the
and l e a r n i n g ,
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as
but
to
a
on
led to v i r t u a l l y
T h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n between
investigation
i n my
r e q u i r e m e n t s of
i n which I c o n c e n t r a t e d
was e a s i e r
good t h e m a t i c
symptomatic
My i n i t i a l
student
stage,
I encountered
b a l a n c i n g the
a n d t o my own s e n s e of
The l a t t e r
no new t h e m a t i c
problems that
d i f f i c u l t y of
was d e t r i m e n t a l t o
teacher.
is
E S L TEACHING AND RESEARCH
what
and good E S L t e a c h i n g
between F r e i r e ' s a p p r o a c h o f
the
second
language
teaching
133
situation.
impart
i n f o r m a t i o n to
falling
...
The E S L t e a c h e r
into
the
instead
of
s t u d e n t s and a t
communicating,
which the
and r e p e a t "
epistemological
c l a i m that
world,
into
second
is
not
inquiry
language
of
to
(Ibid.).
result
w h i c h "the
to
united
process
problem posing w i l l
input
that
tutors
this
language
i n the
progress.
6
just
and a c h i e v e d v e r y
or at
least
indicates
of
little
that
insufficient,
with
as
that
assuming
part
of
or
language.
object
of
the
that
the
comprehensible
Over
the
techniques
language
dialogue
as
of
the
research
better
target
happen.
t r i e d various
the
impatient,
and a c t i o n
1970:77),
on
through
own d i s c o v e r y
p r o v i d e enough
learning will
Our e x p e r i e n c e
inappropriate,
(Freire,
E S L C r u s a d e have
assumption,
the
i n the
reflection
rests
world,
r e g a r d language
are addressed"
communiques
A good d e a l
that
avoid
i n which
Dialogue
i n the
to
to
receive,
restless,
from t h e i r
time
. . .
emerges o n l y
and s t r u c t u r e s
however,
same
issues
58).
t h r o u g h the
dialoguers
of
1970:
l e a r n i n g suggests
patterns
enough,
teacher
"knowledge
other"
learning will
acquisition
the
the
education,
i n q u i r y men p u r s u e
and w i t h e a c h
students'
It
hopeful
of
responsibility
students p a t i e n t l y
(Freire,
i n v e n t i o n and r e i n v e n t i o n ,
continuing,
a conflicting
"banking concept
and makes d e p o s i t s
memorize,
the
has
years,
based
on
learning
is
an E S L t e a c h i n g
approach.
O f c o u r s e , the ESL C r u s a d e i s h a r d l y a f a i r t e s t of t h i s
a p p r o a c h , i n v o l v i n g as i t d o e s m i n i m a l l y - t r a i n e d v o l u n t e e r
t u t o r s w i t h v e r y few r e s o u r c e s p r o v i d e d f o r t h e m , a n d s t u d e n t s
who a r e i l l i t e r a t e , u n a c c u s t o m e d t o f o r m a l l e a r n i n g , and
frequently unmotivated.
I e x p e r i e n c e d t h e same p r o b l e m s as a l l
t h e o t h e r t u t o r s , h o w e v e r , as a t r a i n e d t e a c h e r w i t h an
abundance of r e s o u r c e s and r e l a t i v e l y e n t h u s i a s t i c
students.
6
1 34
This
was
one
addressed
the
ESL Crusade t u t o r s .
language
of
teaching
the
issues
r a i s e d by F r e i r e
H i s answer
and p r o b l e m - p o s i n g ,
himself
was
and c o n d u c t
to
when he
separate
a bilingual
program.
"As f a r a s I u n d e r s t a n d y o u , y o u a r e t r y i n g
t o t e a c h E n g l i s h a l s o , no?
Of c o u r s e , i n my
p o i n t o f v i e w , w e l l , n o t my p o i n t of v i e w we c a n s a y r i g o u r o u s l y - y o u w o u l d have t o
emphasize t h e i r language f i r s t ; the o r a l i t y
in t h e i r language.
L o o k , t h e s e p e o p l e need
to get s e c u r i t y through t h e i r
feelings,
w h i c h maybe t h e y c a n n o t e x p r e s s i n E n g l i s h .
Why not i n t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e
m e e t i n g s , p r o p o s e a k i n d o f game - t h e game
o f s p e a k i n g t h e i r l a n g u a g e , even t h o u g h y o u
don't understand anything?
I am s u r e t h a t
t h e y n e e d t o have a c e r t a i n s p a c e f o r t h e
language . . .
they are t h e i r l a n g u a g e . "
This
raises
organizations
to
address
c l a i m to
be
for
and s t a n d
tutors,
tutors
forced to
From t h e
speak
point
is
this
not
possible
time,
Freire
itself
in a d d i t i o n to
in their
for
the
however,
and t h a t
of
for
teaching ESL,
p r o g r a m s have an
obligation
own l a n g u a g e ,
interests
that
it
is
we r e c e i v e
w i t h no knowledge
p r o g r a m w o u l d i n d e e d be
it
themes
We e x p l a i n e d ,
Punjabi-speaking
that
educational
peoples'
represent
students
point
offering
the
community.
will
the
of
of
if
their
difficult
requests
Punjabi,
they
so
to
find
from many
that
they
English.
view
of
ideal.
the
problem-posing, a b i l i n g u a l
Given,
C.F.U.
to
however,
offer
o u t l i n e d how l a n g u a g e
the
reality
such a program at
teaching
c a n be
empowering:
"I t h i n k t h a t e v e r y t h i n g y o u c o u l d d o , y o u
c o u l d i n v e n t . . . i f t h e y c o u l d g e t , l e t us
s u p p o s e , two o r t h r e e o r f o u r n u c l e u s of t h e
in
that
1 35
s t u c t u r e of E n g l i s h . . .
i f i t is possible
t o do t h a t ; and I know i t i s , I am n o t
c a p a b l e b u t I know t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e . . .
b e c a u s e f o r me, even d i s c u s s i n g s o m e t h i n g
about t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n , p o l i t i c a l
s i t u a t i o n , c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n s h o u l d come
a f t e r w a r d s , and not n o w . . . .
f o r me, t h e
f i r s t moment f o r them i s how t o b r e a k down
this incommunicability . . .
I t h i n k t h a t one
o f t h e t h i n g s you have t o do - q u i c k l y s h o u l d be t o make p o s s i b l e f o r them t o b e g i n
t o say s o m e t h i n g i n E n g l i s h - i n o r d e r t o
open t h e d o o r . "
C o m b i n i n g p r o b l e m - p o s i n g and ESL t e a c h i n g
for
students at
beginners,
unless
Wallerstein
the
and the
introductions
r e m a i n s of
an i n t e r m e d i a t e
to
as
within
overall
the
because
the
domesticate
survival
please
knowledge."
has
to
ought
strategy
how t o
objective
for
is
to
"wasting
Given
Nina
the
The p r o b l e m t h e n
ESL c o n t e x t ,
information
because
it
a d i a l o g i c a l program,
empower p e o p l e
time
that
on t h i s
is
and
r a t h e r than
craziness
langauge
problem-posing d i s c u s s i o n s ,
students
they
most
to
think,
English,
of
to
'Can I
"a v e r y b a d t h e o r y
a c e r t a i n amount o f
' f i g u r i n g out'
say what
in
Both
dialogically.
can I p l e a s e h a v e ' " as
encourage
language.
for
He c r i t i c i z e d l e a r n i n g by m e m o r i z a t i o n of
occur before
to
i n the
possible
but not
r e g a r d a c e r t a i n amount o f
framework of
them.
their
curricula.
beginners
acceptable
phrases,
have,
thematic
teach
seemed t o
depositing
speaks
or h i g h e r ,
ESL C o r e G r o u p a d m i t t h i s
their
how t o
Freire
teacher
level
m i g h t be
to
teaching
teaching
p r o v i d e them w i t h a
and i t
need and want
this
of
to
must a l s o
say.
teach
them
1 36
ROLE CONFLICTS
The
IN THEMATIC
conflict
d i a l o g u e and of
of
the
context
of
problems has
four
roles
friend
of
of
to
do w i t h t h e
The c o n f l i c t s
teacher,
p l a y the
conflict
is
of
in Chapter
in this
even
of
r o l e of
listen
p o s i n g as
to
the
the
the
investigation
chapter d i f f u s e s ,
if
the
teacher
but does
investigators
the
are
students,
the
participant
of
the
must
The
u s u a l l y e x p e r i e n c e d by
because
not
not
they
and r e s e a r c h e r .
simultaneous
observe
at
challenge
observe
the
students
There are
(teacher)
n a t u r e of
persons,
is
t o change a t
problem-
If
it
is
almost
the
is
challenge
same t i m e as
"not
them,
s i t u a t i o n and
difficult
impossible
to
to
to
t e a c h and
actively
trying
to
are.
two p o s s i b l e
w i t h the
observational
it
...[to]
Freire,
codified existential
(1970:110).
they
separate
a c c o r d i n g to
i n d i v i d u a l s but
same t i m e ,
them a s
to
teacher,
problems both the
own a n s w e r s "
is
The
set
teaching.
The
One
IV.
f r i e n d s of
than t h a t
(investigator),
their
of
and
and
only
research aspects
Another
union r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ,
r e s e a r c h e r as
posing
themes.
outside
researcher,
ethnographic
observer
generative
w i t h i n and
the
roles
greater
teaching,
r e q u i r e m e n t s of
I e x p e r i e n c e d between
a union or
dual
the
that
these c o n f l i c t s :
representatives
between
of
investigating
outlined earlier
eliminate,
above
an i s s u e
h a v e been d i s c u s s e d
strategy
still
discussed
ESL i s
investigation.
INVESTIGATION
the
roles
avenues
of
to address
teacher
Nettle
problem.
and r e s e a r c h e r
r e s e a r c h e r a d o p t i n g a more
strategy.
this
into
two
passive
a n d Unda t r i e d
this,
however,
1 37
and f o u n d i t
far
from
ideal:
The t e a c h e r was f a r more d i s c o n c e r t e d by t h e
r e s e a r c h e r ' s presence i n her c l a s s r o o m than
the r e s e a r c h e r r e a l i z e d . . . .
T h e r e was some
t e n s i o n on b o t h our p a r t s a b o u t how t h e
r e s e a r c h e r would f u l f i l l h e r o b l i g a t i o n t o
the funding source to produce a product
w.ithout i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h t h e
teacher's
primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to teach E n g l i s h to
her s t u d e n t s .
When t h e r e s e a r c h e r p r o p o s e d
t o a c t as r e c o r d e r o f t h e c o u r s e p r o c e s s ,
t h e t e a c h e r e x p r e s s e d r e s e n t m e n t of t h e
r e s e a r c h e r ' s o p p o r t u n i t y as an a c a d e m i c t o
w r i t e a b o u t t h e t e a c h e r ' s work i n t h e f i e l d .
She f e l t t h a t she was so b u s y d o i n g t h e work
t h a t she n e v e r had t i m e t o w r i t e a b o u t i t .
(1982:49-50)
Another
involve
is
the
It
is
the
solution
the
teacher/researcher
s t u d e n t s more a c t i v e l y
in
the
conflict
the
approach taken
a collective,
social
by D e b o r a h B a r n d t t o
and p r o m o t e d by t h e
sciences
upon w h i c h F r e i r e
This
in Chapter
classroom
to
I.
thematic
P a r t i c i p a t o r y R e s e a r c h Group
popular a l t e r n a t i v e
research.
is
investigation.
p a r t i c i p a t o r y research approach described
investigation,
as
to
to
individual,
Most i m p o r t a n t l y ,
it
is
academic
the
approach
insists.
The m e t h o d o l o g y p r o p o s e d r e q u i r e s t h a t the
i n v e s t i g a t o r s and t h e p e o p l e (who w o u l d
n o r m a l l y be c o n s i d e r e d o b j e c t s of t h a t
investigation)
s h o u l d a c t as c o investigators
...
P r e c i s e l y because i t i s
n o t p o s s i b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s e themes
a p a r t from men . . . i t i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t the
men c o n c e r n e d u n d e r s t a n d them a s w e l l .
(1970:97,98) .
However,
virtues
get
of
issues
of
those
(including Freire)
p a r t i c i p a t o r y research
interested
research
none
it.
i n an i s s u e ,
Even
if
i n a community,
there
explain
define
is
and t h e
how p e o p l e
the
involved
a p r o b l e m , and d e c i d e
a collective
will
who l a u d
to
consciousness
address
them,
to
of
people
do
1 38
not
generally
They
seek
Thus
the
seek out
an ESL c l a s s
out an ESL c l a s s
as
main p r o b l e m w i t h
investigation
of
not
have
what
they
their
teacher/researcher
differs
agenda o f
from t h e
c r e a t e d l e d me t o
the
primary
responsibility is
to
interests
I do not
investigating
of
case
and not
the
know how t o
their
closely
problems that
means
respect
any c o s t
get
the
in
this
is
the
students.
The p r o b l e m s
the
sacrifice
the
that
teacher's
agenda a n d
ESL s t u d e n t s
themes,
oppressed people
with already.
that
i n my i n v e s t i g a t i o n .
generative
that
coping
at
the
conclusion that
English.
is
agenda o f
this.
expectations
their
learning
they
interested
n o r do I
find
believe,
theme
in
it
s h o u l d be u n w i l l i n g t o
are having a d i f f i c u l t
I do not
ESL g e n e r a t i v e
enough
nevertheless,
investigation
look
that
s h o u l d not
time
this
be
attempted.
"You have t o have an a g e n d a .
The q u e s t i o n
n e v e r t h e l e s s i s how much y o u a r e c o n s i s t e n t
i n not t r y i n g t o impose y o u r agenda b u t t o
d i s c u s s y o u r agenda w i t h t h e o t h e r s .
This
i s the q u e s t i o n .
You have t h e d u t y t o
d i s c u s s t h e agenda w i t h t h e o t h e r s and not
t o h i d e i t on t h e b e h a l f o f some p u r i t y .
To
t h e e x t e n t t h a t we do t h a t , we c o n t i n u e t o
h e l p the o p p r e s s o r s . "
(Paulo F r e i r e ,
1984)
The c o n f l i c t s
approach,
practical
between
and between
researcher,
are
to
research.
surprising
at
thematics
the
it
the
learning
s i g n e d up t o d o ;
that
students,
for
own g e n e r a t i v e
was c e r t a i n l y t h e
the
a forum
a forum f o r d o i n g
i n v o l v i n g ESL s t u d e n t s
This
of
as
the
ESL t e a c h i n g and t h e d i a l o g i c a l
investigator's
important issues
a d a p t a t i o n of
Freire's
i n the
r o l e as
teacher
development
pedagogy
to
the
of
and
a
Canadian ESL
1 39
context.
the
in
In f a c t ,
primary
further
reason
that
very reason
that
research:
approaches
important
the
it
it
is
is
that
r e g a r d s the
factor
in their
LANGUAGE LEARNING
for
their
existence
important that
this
social
also
t h e y be worked out
one of
context
language
IN A SOCIAL
is
is
of
the
few ESL
l e a r n e r s as
an
learning.
CONTEXT
»
One c a n n o t e x p e c t p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s from an
e d u c a t i o n a l or p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n program
w h i c h f a i l s t o r e s p e c t t h e p a r t i c i u l a r view
of t h e w o r l d h e l d by t h e p e o p l e .
Such a
p r o g r a m c o n s t i t u t e s c u l t u r a l i n v a s i o n , good
i n t e n t i o n s not w i t h s t a n d i n g ( F r e i r e ,
1970:84).
Freire's
that
pedagogy c a n be s i t u a t e d
emphasize
learning,
social
in contrast
individual
according
the
the
cognitive
to
of
native
from,
students'
that
accurately
depicts
treat
it
w i t h the
themes.
latter
7
as
language
as
primarily
as,
research
if
different
investigation
Freire's
model r e f l e c t s
specific
of ESL
the
from a c u r r i c u l u m
social
with
psycholinguistic
There are
great
an
curriculum
w i t h the
d e r i v e more b e n e f i t
their
approaches
The o r g a n i z a t i o n of
interaction.
those a s s o c i a t e d
will
that
of
themes c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y c o n t r a s t s
speaker
generative
students
those
second
c u r r i c u l u m a c c o r d i n g to
problems a s s o c i a t e d
nature
d i m e n s i o n s of
exercise.
generative
o r g a n i z a t i o n of
analysis
to
i n the context
context
view
that
t h a n from
one
T h e c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a i s r e v i e w e d by E v e l y n H a t c h
(1983).
G a i l W e i n s t e i n (1984) d i s c u s s e s t h e need f o r
e t h n o g r a p h i c methods i n s e c o n d l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n r e s e a r c h .
7
in
1 40
that
accurately depicts
situations,
culture
change
is
is
is
If
-
about
i n the
students
from s e e i n g ,
conflict
and e c o n o m i c
society
economy
-
not
acknowledging
that
social
t h e s e power
curriculum
dialogue
and
amendments
and
other
survival)
that
must
challenging
-
of
hand,
criteria
may c o n t a i n
role
of
can d i s c o u r a g e ESL
issues
of
cultural
language
learning
8
social
The r o l e
of
instead
- p a r t i c u l a r l y the
the
context.
woman
linguistic
addressing,
injustice.
of
process
On t h e
incorrect
Chan"
encourages
teach
Acknowledgment of
stop short
the
"Mrs.
the
their
bus w i t h
a c c o r d i n g to
much l e s s
of
on w h i c h a t h e m a t i c
input.
those c l a i m i n g to
labour
becomes
and even
on s t u d e n t
assumptions
on t h e
incomplete,
for
r e q u i r e d by c e r t a i n
"Bob," or t h a t
analysis
organized primarily
(particularly
immigrant
of
blouse
or
allows
improvements based
implicit
the
imperfect
problem posing
curricula
instead
tasks
o n l y acknowledgment
man g e t t i n g
wrong s i z e
Brown."
based
the
"Rodrigo"
the
linguistic
i n which the
may be t h a t
returning
"Mrs.
but
the
of
relations
context
the
of
power
language
is
the
relations
learning
focus
of
within
in
Freire's
approach.
D i a l o g u e i s t h e e n c o u n t e r between men,
m e d i a t e d by t h e w o r l d , i n o r d e r t o name t h e
world.
Hence, d i a l o g u e cannot occur
. . . between t h o s e who deny o t h e r men t h e
r i g h t t o speak t h e i r word and t h o s e whose
T h i s i s s u e i s a d d r e s s e d by E l s a A u e r b a c h and D e n i s e B u r g e s s .
They examine s e v e r a l s u r v i v a l ESL t e x t s r e p r e s e n t i n g "the
' c o m m u n i c a t i v e ' t r e n d i n l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g , " and c o n c l u d e t h a t
" f r e q u e n t l y , n e i t h e r the s i t u a t i o n a l c o n t e n t nor the
c o m m u n i c a t i v e s t r u c t u r e of m a t e r i a l s r e f l e c t s
authentic
interaction.
F u r t h e r m o r e , the t e x t s o f t e n p r e p a r e s u t d e n t s f o r
subservient s o c i a l r o l e s (1985:475).
8
141
r i g h t t o speak has been d e n i e d t h e m . . . .
To
e x i s t , h u m a n l y , i s t o name t h e w o r l d , t o
change i t ( 1 9 7 0 : 7 6 ) .
Acquiring
literacy
skills,
critically
about
the
through language,
world,
it.
the
t h r o u g h an a p p r o a c h of
world,
gives adults
is
the
this
first
ability.
language
the
teaching
learning,
Brazilian
of
peasants,
is
to apply F r e i r e ' s
E S L must a c k n o w l e d g e
f o r most
immigrants, l i k e
an i s s u e
of
Naming
step to t r a n s f o r m i n g
Any p r o g r a m o r c u r r i c u l u m w h i c h a t t e m p t s
approach to
thinking
that
second
literacy
for
power.
LANGUAGE LEARNING AND POWER
The
r e l a t i o n of
situations
themes.
lack
basic
of
became a p p a r e n t
Four
specific
language
English
emergency
at
makes o l d e r
thereby
is
home,
screen
out
to
power
also
from t h e
family c o n f l i c t
helpless
the
erosion
in t h e i r
i n e a c h of
increase
family.
of
their
i n t r u s i o n of
I n c r e a s e d competence
might
of
their
life
generative
illustrate
r e l a t e d to p o w e r l e s s n e s s .
students
because
the
influences
students'
of
in real
i n the
of
that
Lack
case of
of
an
parental authority,
on y o u n g e r
ones
and h i n d e r s women from p e r f o r m i n g t h e i r
custodians
cultural
areas
leads
power
i n my i n v e s t i g a t i o n
directly
renders
l e a r n i n g to
f a m i l y members d e p e n d e n t
translation,
cultural
language
i n a b i l i t y to
undesireable
for
function
as
u n d e r s t a n d and
Canadian
homes.
i n E n g l i s h would d i r e c t l y
these
situations.
independence
Better
in spheres
They w o u l d have g r e a t e r
increase
English
more removed
personal mobility,
and
1 42
thus
independence,
street
their
within
neighborhood
employability
l a c k of
problems,
discovered,
often
that
they
not
only
reason
As t u t o r s
do n o t
never
that
alone
do b e c a u s e
agricultural
economy
to
the
the
further
more t h e
power d e c r e a s e s ,
students'
English is
not
be m i s l e d
process
language
students'
their
have
problems
ESL C r u s a d e
good enough
their
anyway.
Lack
have
to
get
a
culture
of
English
farmwork.
is
It
i n the
interests
of
cheap
labour to
do work
of
of
Language
whole
from t h e
lanugage
our
to
nature
of
eliminate
that
it
family
l e a r n i n g and
extra-linguistic
believing
of
all
the
level.
towards
life
sources
however,
This
their
or p o o r l y - e d u c a t e d
their
between
on t h e
enough
learning can,
attitude
illiterate
take
moves out
factors
that
of
this,
is;
and
students
rather,
the
language
adults,
they
are
process
oppression.
be empowering
became
in
oppression.
l e a r n i n g s h o u l d be a c c o m p a n i e d by a
on a p e r s o n a l
students'
analysis
more t h e
into
c r i t i c a l analysis
assumed
to
fluent
because
is
a pool
relationship
and t h e
s h o u l d not
itself,
the
powerlessness
Learning
of
have
it
improve
shunned by n a t i v e - b o r n C a n a d i a n s .
Thus,
sphere,
for
ESL C r u s a d e s t u d e n t s do
them t o
read
farmwork.
lead
i n the
bother,
go out
of
could
could
reason
inevitably
for
is
sole
young women whose E n g l i s h i s
license
there
it
the
they
they
outside
whose E n g l i s h i s
children.
decrees
the
not
learning
Even p a r e n t s
with r e b e l l i o u s
driver's
in occupations
English is
nor w i l l
solution.
that
if
s i g n s a n d bus n u m b e r s ; p o t e n t i a l l y ,
However,
is
the
evident
i n and of
to
learning.
who have
stupid,
been
me i n my
For
told
success
or
in a
1 43
learning
able
to
task
-
their
intelligence,
whether
for
depicts
and i n
assessment
that
necessary
and t h a t
doing
it
is
developed
p a r t of
the
and t h a t
issues
is
that
accurately
organized
some o f
the
is
the
the
of
this.
It
that
is
is
equally
attempt
is
not
needs assessment
development.
a methodology
for
It
oppression,
also
is
least
This
stage.
Freire
t h a t ESL
and c r i t i c a l
attempt.
expressed
thesis
real
and
necessary
a shortage
as
has
Among
of
critical
in
addressed
The T o r o n t o work
Nina W a l l e r s t e i n
problem-posing.
if
is
students'
s h o u l d be h o n e s t
i n Canada t h e r e
The
area
come up i n t h e
at
common.
necessary.
their
needs
C a n a d i a n ESL c o n t e x t
in this
absolutely
and e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h .
on m a t e r i a l s
challenges,
themes.
mean t h a t
on o u r own p r a c t i c e ,
initial
their
a program t h a t
to power,
research
sources
doing
ESL e d u c a t o r s
publications
focussed
for
in
It
F r e i r e ' s approach
so much b r o a d e r t h a n
a p p l y i n g F r e i r e ' s model
reflection
learn,
ESL p r o g r a m s s h o u l d a c k n o w l e d g e
a model
in addressing
the
context,
does not
Indeed,
that
educators
only
on new
language
being
bound t o come up i n an e d u c a t i o n a l
c o n t e x t s and t h e
Freirian
to
a d a p t i n g F r e i r e ' s approach to
worthwhile.
provides
to
take
like
encouraging.
ability
d e s c r i b e d and d i s c u s s e d
are
more d i f f i c u l t ,
social
enormously
o c c u r as
important
with a scope
difficult,
not
most
is
i m p o r t a n t one
l e a r n i n g or n o t .
of
social
has
that
ability
to
relation
their
study
difficulties
their
languge
real
-
in their
learning
the
to
This
to
this
their
according
is
confidence
related
acknowledges
fact
a relevant,
u n d e r s t a n d a phone c a l l
bolsters
allows
especially
has
Areas such
as
has
1 44
teacher
training,
dialogue,
the
evaluation
virtually
how t o
do
of
ESL t e c h n i q u e s
problematic
aspects
best
suited
implementation,
of
the
to
the
and
ESL C r u s a d e )
remain
untouched.
is
great
need
i n ESL programs
ill-advised
critical
type
p r a c t i c a l p r o b l e m s of
(all
There
approach
the
and l i k e l y
examination
it
better.
of
for
expansion
in Canada,
unsuccessful
but
if
of
the
use
of
Freire's
such expansion
u n a c c o m p a n i e d by
why w e ' r e d o i n g what
would
be
constant
we're d o i n g ,
and
1 45
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