Uploaded by Peter Hayes

Benefits and Proper Fitness

Benefits of Fitness
1) Discuss some of the benefits and differences between fitness and
sedentary behavior
2) Overall benefits of fitness
3) Identify and define the 5 components of health and skilled related
3) Discuss and identify how the FITT principles can be used to improve
fitness components and overall health
Amount of time you are sedentary. Per day and per week.
Do the same evaluation for fitness and activity level.
Share with a neighbor
Fitness Benefits
• Sedentary- being physically inactive
• How does being American make us more
sedentary than other cultures and
• 1996- General Report- 60% don’t
exercise regularly; 25% not at all
• Fitness- Characteristics of the body that
enable it to perform physical activity. Meet
physical demands daily and stress that taxes it
• How does this relate to every day life?
What Does it Look Like?
What does it mean to be physically fit?
Assess your own pg. 236 (Take a moment)
Components of Fitness
Effect ALL Body Systems
• 5 Components of Health
Related Fitness
• Cardiovascular endurance
• Muscular strength
• Muscular endurance
• Flexibility
• Body Composition
Components of Fitness
• Usually used by athletes to
increase athletic performance
in a particular activity or
• 6 Components of Skill Related
• Agility
• Balance
• Coordination
• Reaction Time
• Power
• Speed
Muscular Strength & Endurance:
When lifting to develop muscular strength, lift heavier
weight and perform less repetitions- build muscle mass
When lifting to develop muscular endurance, lighter
weight more repetitions- build lean mass
Muscular Endurance
Muscular Endurance is also the ability to contract the
muscles many times without tiring or to hold one contraction
for a long time.
Why is Strength Training
11. Improves posture
2. Improves appearance/look slimmer
3. Reduces fatigue
4. Helps to avoid back pain
5. Prevents injury and soreness
6. Stronger heart
7. Improves flexibility
8. Improves muscle and bone strength
9. Increases metabolic rate – more calories burned
10. More energy and better health
Muscle vs. Fat
Five pounds of muscle is about ½ the size
as five pounds of fat. Fat cells are larger
and take up more space in the body.
Myths About Weight
• No Pain, No Gain –You should not hurt when lifting.
Lift to fatigue, but not pain.
• Women will become muscle bound – It is more difficult
for females to look bulky or muscle-bound, as females
have less testosterone (a male hormone responsible for
increases in muscle size).
• If I stop lifting, muscle will turn into fat – muscle will
decrease in size and strength, but will not turn into fat.
What are Sets and Reps?
• Sets are a group of repetitions of a specific
exercise. Each set should be followed by a period
of rest before another is performed.
• Reps are repetitions used to describe the number
of consecutive times you perform an exercise.
Cardiovascular Endurance
“Related to the heart and lungs”
Aerobic VS. Anaerobic Fitness
Aerobic- demands oxygen (long and extended
exercises) Name some.
Anaerobic- oxygen not needed (short and intense
exercises) Name some.
**BENEFITS: good sleep, more lean tissue built,
improved self-image, increase efficiency of heart
and lungs to pump blood and oxygen**
What is Heart Rate?
The number of heart beats per minute.
Determining or finding: carotid artery
or blood vessels on wrist
What is resting heart rate?
A person's heart rate when they are at rest, that is lying down but awake, and
not having recently exerted themselves.
The average resting heart rate ranges between 60 to 80 beats per minute.
Well trained athletes may have a resting heart rate of 60 bpm or lower.
– Lance Armstrong – 32
– Miguel Indurian and Alberto Contador – mid 20’s (cyclists)
– Ryan Hall – 29 (marathoner)
What is Maximum Heart Rate?
The highest number of heart beats individuals should achieved during physical
exertion and depends on age.
The most common formula used is
220 – age
**As age increases, MHR decreases**
What is Target Heart Rate Zone?
MHR is used to determine Target Heart Rate Zone
Because individuals could only maintain MHR for 2 minutes before hitting the
wall, a % of MHR is used during training.
– Range between 60% to 80%
– Athletes may train as high as 90-95% of MHR
Should I train at 60 or 80% of MHR?
Dependent upon personal goals
Goal: Weight loss
– 60%
– Fuel source - fats
– 40-60 minutes
Goal: ↑ Cardio fitness
– 80% (athletes train as high as 95% of
– Fuel source - carbohydrates
– 20 minutes
How do I calculate my THRZ?
• 220 – age = MHR
• MHR X .60 =
• MHR X .80 =
• 220 – 43 = 177 MHR
• 177 x .60 = 106 bpm
• 177 x .80 = 142 bpm
• THRZ = .60 to .80
• THRZ = 106 – 142
Muscle elasticity- can easily be stretched
or bent and return to original size and
Stretching to create a maximal range of
motion- mobility of a joint, extent it
Why would this be important? Relate
your answer to age.
Static Stretching
Effective and
possibility of
exceeding normal
Less energy
Less muscle
Recommended for
May overly
dominate routine
due to time needed
Allows body to
cool during warm
Increase chance of
injury by reducing
amount of stretch
Dynamic Stretching
(mobility drills)
Focused on sport
Development of
Muscle is
NSCA - Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning 2008
Inadequate tissue
adaptation (ROM)
Soreness after first
Not efficient for
general population
Dynamic Stretching
(mobility drills)
Preferred method of stretching during warm up
Actively moving joint through ROM required for sport
Observe sport specific movement patterns, and select
exercises that mimic those patterns
Build progressively through each exercise
– Speed and ROM
Perform under control
NSCA - Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning 2008
What does all this mean and
how does it apply to fitness?
Training Principles: FITT
Frequency, Intensity, Time, Type
How often should you lift or
You should be active a
minimum of 3-5 times a
week. Add cardio on off days
Be sure to allow 48 hours of rest for each muscle group
between lifting schedules and even cardio or alternate
When starting an exercise program, you should
focus on building muscular endurance .
This means lifting 11-25 repetitions using light
to moderate weights (60% of your max or less)
and resting 60 seconds between sets.
For building muscular strength , you should
lift 2-10 repetitions using heavier weights (70%
of your max or more) and taking frequent rest
breaks that can last as long as 2 minutes.
Cardio- increasing- speed or level of activity
How many reps and sets you
How you lift and how complete:
long you lift
will depend on your individual
A Strength program may consist of 3
sets of 6-8 repetitions.
A Endurance program may consist of
3 sets of 12-20 repetitions.
There are numerous types and ways to lift weights and
increase activity, here are a few examples:
Circuit Training is designed so that individuals can work on both
muscular strength and cardiovascular fitness.
The workout is set up so that one performs a strength training activity for
30 to 60 seconds, an aerobic activity for 30 to 60 seconds, and then rests
for 10-15 seconds.
The individual rotates through several stations until a full body workout
is obtained.
The benefit of this type of training is that it maximizes workout
time. One can spend 30-40 minutes on a circuit training program and
obtain muscular strength and cardiovascular benefits.
Sport Specific Training - is a program designed so that
the exercises you perform are similar to the movements
required in your sport. For example, you can design
dumbbell or pulley movements that mimic a golf swing
or a baseball throw. As pictured below: a triceps
extension can mimic a basketball shot.
Pyramid Training requires that you warm-up with a light
set, then start the workout with a set using light weight and
high repetitions.
As the workout progresses through 3 to 5 sets, more weight
is added and the number of repetitions completed is lessened.
Then, the process is reversed such that weight is removed
and more repetitions are completed.
A Split Training Routine
This technique enables you to
work body parts harder than
An example of a split training
routine is to perform upper body
lifts (biceps, chest, triceps,
shoulders) on Mondays and
Thursdays and lower body lifts
(quadriceps, hamstrings, calves)
on Tuesdays and
Fridays. Wednesday is a rest
Principle of Progression:
Never try to lift or exercise more
than you are capable of without a
Always progress slowly and
gradually. As you develop
strength and activity increase,
you can begin to add weight and
increase overall intensity.
Principle of Specificity:
Each lift will strengthen only those muscles involved.
Design a program that is specific to you and your fitness goals.
Balance your body. Be sure to lift both upper and lower, and
front to back.
Safety Considerations:
a) Always warm up and cool down. It is especially important to warm
up properly before attempting heavy lifting.
b) Always start with endurance lifting until you build up strength.
c) ALWAYS use a spotter when lifting free weights.
d) Check your surroundings and your equipment prior to starting a lift.
e) Always take the weights off a bar or rack when you are finished .
f) Don't joke around in the weight room as your failure to spot
properly could result in serious injury.
g) Perform all lifts slowly to minimize injury risk.
h) Always use proper form and technique….no bouncing or jerking
i) Don't hold your breath while lifting.
j) Go through complete range of motion and progressively increase the
workload as you gain strength.
Weight Training Myths:
Along with the facts provided above,
there are several myths related to weight
training. Everyone seems to be
searching for the ultimate "pill" or
"powder" that will make their muscles
grow and their fat disappear.
Unfortunately, there are no "quick fixes"
for building muscular strength and
endurance. The best way to do this is to
follow a sound training program under
the guidance of a knowledgeable teacher,
coach, or trainer.
Workout Dangers:
One way that high school
students and athletes
attempt to build muscle is
by using anabolic
Steroids are drugs that
mimic the naturally
occurring male hormone,
These drugs are illegal,
and they are potentially
dangerous to your long-
Steroid Dangers:
Side effects include: severe acne, baldness, stunted growth,
high blood pressure, increased risk of cancer, and irritability,
mood swings, and violence.
In men, steroids can cause a reduced sperm count, shrunken
testicles, enlarged breasts, and impotence.
In women, steroids can cause a deepened voice, dark facial
hair, reduced breasts, and an irregular menstrual cycle.
Build Muscle and Strength
and Add Activity Naturally!!!
Muscular and cardio fitness can enhance many aspects of
your life and sports performance. Do it safely and
naturally as the results are endless, and can benefit you for
a lifetime. (Including proper nutrition)