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Chapter 05- Infection

1. Which is not a characteristic of resident flora?
A) They live on nonsterile areas of the body
B) They do not cause harm to the body
C) They provide a type of natural immunity
D) They do not compete with disease-producing microorganisms
2. Which best describes why yeast infections are common in women on antibiotics?
A) Yeast grows well when exposed to the sugar, which is found as a carrier substance
in most antibiotics
B) Destroying one type of resident flora (bacteria) can allow overproliferation of
another competing type (yeast)
C) Yeast prefers a warm, moist, and dark environment, such as that present in the
female perineum
D) Antibiotics allow yeast to access sterile environments in the body
3. All of the following describe communicable disease except:
A) All infectious diseases are communicable
B) Communicable diseases are spread from person to person
C) Blood is a common carrier for communicable diseases
D) Communicable diseases are caused by infections that live and reproduce in a
human host
4. Which characteristic explains why some pathogens do not cause disease in humans?
A) receptor binding
B) pathogenicity
C) invasiveness
D) potency
5. Which is not a mechanism by which a pathogen causes disease in humans?
A) direct destruction of the host cell
B) interference with the host cell's metabolic function
C) attack of the pathogen by the host cells immune cells
D) exposure of the host cell to toxins
6. Disruption of the cell wall of a bacterium by antibacterial drugs will interrupt:
A) protein and DNA synthesis
B) phagocytosis
C) motility
D) adherence
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7. A specific type of gram-negative bacteria contains endotoxin in the bacterial cell
envelope. What is the likely clinical manifestation if these bacteria become pathogenic?
A) constipation
B) leukopenia
C) fever
D) vomiting
8. Which best explains why some viruses are capable of eliciting a chronic infection in the
A) release of virions
B) immunocompetence
C) period of latency
D) receptor binding
9. Which of the following is suspected in the person with a fungal infection of deep
A) immunocompromise
B) concurrent tinea infection
C) maceration
D) presence of resident microbes
10. This is a standard of health care that recognizes all blood and body fluids as potentially
A) transmission-based precautions
B) infectious precautions
C) hand washing precautions
D) universal precautions
11. Which is a complication of infection where pathogens gain access to the blood?
A) septicemia
B) bacteremia
C) septic shock
D) chronic infection
12. You are diagnosed with streptococcal pharyngitis and are prescribed an antibiotic. You
are instructed to take the antibiotic three times a day for 10 days. After the 4th day, you
are feeling pretty good and decide that you do not need to finish the medication. What is
the likely complication to result from this practice?
A) septicemia
B) bacteremia
C) septic shock
D) chronic infection
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13. Your mother has a clinic appointment for a possible infection and is told that she has a
high neutrophil count. This implies:
A) She has a streptococcal infection
B) She has an acute infection
C) She has a chronic infection
D) She does not have an infection
14. You believe that you have ìathlete's footî because you have burning and itching along
with redness between your toes. You look in your bathroom drawer where all of your
medications are kept. You pull out the antibiotic ointment and apply this to the reddened
areas. After 3 days of application, you have noticed no improvement. Why is this
medicine not working?
A) Topical medications usually take at least 7 days to be effective
B) Antibacterial medications are not effective against fungi
C) This type of infection requires oral antibiotics
D) You are probably immunocompromised
15. Your roommate has influenza. All of the following are appropriate measures to avoid
this infection except:
A) immunization
B) sterilization
C) frequent hand washing
D) avoiding close contact with roommate
16. This is a process by which influenza viruses are well adapted to escape host defenses
and gradually change genetic composition during replication in the human host cell:
A) reassortment
B) receptor binding
C) vaccination
D) trivalence
17. Who is at greatest risk of significant morbidity and mortality with influenza infection?
A) pregnant women
B) the elderly
C) school-age children
D) college-age individuals
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18. Which of the following sets of clinical manifestations is most characteristic of
A) diarrhea, stomach cramping, vomiting
B) nasal congestion, sneezing, watery eyes
C) headache, sinus pressure, fever
D) body aches, cough, sore throat
19. Which of the following types of viral hepatitis is not associated with transmission
through contact with infected blood?
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
20. Cirrhosis, a complication of chronic hepatitis, leads to liver failure by all of the
following mechanisms except:
A) obstruction of portal circulation
B) diffuse hepatocyte damage
C) interference of blood flow to the liver
D) massive destruction of Kupffer cells
21. A patient arrives to the clinic for evaluation. The clinician reports that the patient is
experiencing acute hepatitis. The patient is visibly jaundiced and reports dark urine and
clay-colored stools. The liver is enlarged and tender. Which phase of acute hepatitis
does this represent?
A) prodrome
B) icterus
C) recovery
D) incubation
22. Which lab test would confirm the presence of acute hepatitis B in the previous question?
A) positive anti-HBc
B) positive anti-Hbe
C) positive anti-Hbs
D) elevated serum bilirubin levels
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23. Which of the following explains why a low fat diet is recommended for those with
A) Fat emulsification and absorption and bile production may be impaired during liver
B) Weight gain will exacerbate hepatocyte destruction
C) Those with hepatitis are more vulnerable to the development of atherosclerosis
D) Ascites, a complication of liver disease, can be alleviated with moderate weight
24. Urinary tract infection and pelvic inflammatory disease share which characteristic?
A) exclusive to females
B) ascending infections
C) most commonly caused by E. coli
D) pyuria is present in both
25. Which of the following is characteristic of tinea versicolor?
A) presents as hypopigmented patches
B) leads to hair loss and breakage at the site of infection
C) spreads circumferentially like a reddened bull's-eye
D) leads to thickened, discolored, and dystrophic changes to the nails
26. Describe the difference between droplet and airborne transmission.
27. Outline the mode of transmission for bacterial meningitis.
28. List the clinical manifestations for bacterial meningitis.
29. Identify factors that contribute to infectious disease challenges throughout the world.
30. Identify basic steps that can assist in addressing the issues identified in the previous
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Answer Key
With droplet transmission, larger respiratory particles, produced by sneezing, coughing,
or talking, can pass through the air from the reservoir to the host. In order for droplet
transmission to occur, the host must be within three feet of the reservoir. The heavy
droplet particles drop to the ground beyond this distance. Most respiratory illnesses are
spread through droplet transmission. With airborne transmission, smaller respiratory
particles can remain suspended in the air and are subject to airborne transmission. The
particles can remain in the area of the reservoir for an extended period of time. Infection
can be transmitted to a person entering this area and breathing the air.
27. The mode of transmission for meningitis is respiratory droplets passed from an infected
person to the host. The microorganism enters the respiratory tract and attaches to
epithelial cells. Inflammatory and immune responses are waged. Immunoglobulins in
the respiratory mucosa can provide protective immunity against the microorganisms.
However, in some cases, the bacteria move through the mucosa and get into the central
nervous system and/or the blood. The mechanism for entry into the blood and central
nervous system is often unknown.
28. Acute bacterial meningitis is noted for a rapid and severe onset of symptoms (often
within less than 24 hours). Irritation of the meninges results in the characteristic clinical
manifestations: severe headache, light sensitivity (photophobia), and a hyperextended
stiff neck (nuchal rigidity). The increase in intracranial pressure (ICP) from brain edema
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and resultant hypoxia (low oxygen) in the brain lead to decreased alertness, including
loss of consciousness, changes in mental status, vomiting, and seizures. Systemic
manifestations include fever, leukocytosis, and anorexia.
29. Overuse of antimicrobials and subsequent multiple drug-resistant microbes,
globalization and rapid spread of harmful pathogens, economic disadvantage and
crowded living conditions, and importation and mass distribution of perishable food
30. Basic hand washing, universal precautions, appropriate use of antimicrobials, and food
preparation standards.
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