Uploaded by Kevin Zeng

Ch 12

The Second War for Independence and
the Upsurge of Nationalism, 1812–1824
1. A Scary War with Britain (pp. 233–240)
a. What do the authors say at the outset is the “supreme lesson” of the War of 1812? ​The folly of leading a divided
and apathetic people into war
b. For two years, the Americans and British fought to a standstill in Canada. What event in Europe in 1814 allowed
the British to concentrate all their forces in America? ​Napoleon was defeated
c. After American naval successes on Lake Erie under Admiral Oliver H. ​Perry ​and then on Lake Champlain, a
British force invaded the Chesapeake region and burned the new capital of ​Washington DC ​to the ground in August
1814 ​. They then were beaten off in the battle at Fort ​McHenry ​near Baltimore that inspired Francis Scott ​Key ​to
write the Star Spangled Banner. Finally, the victory of Gen. Andrew ​Jackson​, over the British at New ​Orleans ​in
January ​1815 ​gave a boost to national morale, even though, because of slow communications, it was actually fought
after the Treaty of ​Ghent ​had been signed, officially ending the war. Why do the authors say on p.238 that the
Americans, who had wanted to conquer Canada at the outset, were relieved and even happy to settle for a virtual
draw? ​They did not want to lose territory so they were satisfied
d. What were the New England demands, as expressed in the 1814 ​Hartford ​Convention? When taken together
with the end of the war on unexpectedly favorable terms, how did they contribute to the final demise of the
Federalist Party?
(1) The New England demands: ​Financial demands to compensate lost trade caused by embargo, abolish 3/5s
clause, prohibit election of two consecutive presidents from the same state
(2) End of Federalist Party: ​Were dissolved and would never again mount a successful presidential campaign
2. Nationalism and the “American System” (pp. 240–242)
a. Increased security and self-confidence after the war produced a heightened sense of “nationalism” people
associating themselves with the nation first and their respective states second. A national literature developed in the
works of Washington ​Irvine ​and James Fenimore ​Cooper ​and in the construction of a new capitol building in
Washington DC​. A revived Second Bank of the United States was established in ​1816 ​, this time with the ​support
(support or opposition) of the Jeffersonian Republicans. ​(​Note: Modern students can be excused for finding a discussion
about tariff policy a bit boring. This section covers the first of many tariff battles throughout the 1800s. Tariffs today are not a big
deal because there is a worldwide trend to reduce duties on imports and because the government gets most of its revenue through
income taxes. However, there was no income taxation until 1913 and the government therefore depended almost exclusively on
tariff duties for its revenue. So it’s important to have a general understanding.​)
b. Look at the Tariff Chart on page A57 of the Appendix. At their peak in 1828, tariff duties on imported goods
amounted to ​53% ​of their value. In 1996, that tariff rate amounted to only about ​5%​. The authors say
(p. 241) that the Tariff of 1816 was the first in history “instituted primarily for protection, not revenue.” *** What is
a “protective” tariff? What does it protect? ​They are tariffs enacted to protect a domestic industry, they cause
sale of goods to rise; protects domestic economy
c. List the three main elements of Henry Clay’s 1824 proposal for an “American System” of federal support
for internal development. Republicans considered this proposal unconstitutional.
(1) ​Stop banking system
(2) ​protective tariff
(3) ​Transportation routes
3. Monroe, Sectionalism, and the Missouri Compromise (pp. 242–246)
a. The ​panic ​of 1819 was caused largely by over speculation in western lands. ​(N
​ ote that financial panic, or economic
depression, is a recurring theme that you will observe occurring every twenty to thirty years or so. Many consider it the “curse
of capitalism.” Yet another recurring theme introduced here for the first time is the sectional controversy between North and
South over the admission of new states as slave or free— a question which was primarily one of political and economic power,
but which increasingly took on a moral character leading to the Civil War.​) ​With its booming population, the North was
gaining power in the House of ​Representatives ​by 1820, while the South was only able to retain equal power in the
Senate​. New states east of the Mississippi had been admitted alternately slave and free to keep a balance, but
Missouri, the first new state to be carved out of the ​Louisiana ​Purchase, threatened to upset this balance. What were
the three elements of the 1820 Missouri Compromise fashioned by Henry ​Clay​?
(1) ​Missouri became a slave state
(2) ​Maine became a free state
(3) ​36’30, north of the line cannot have slavery
4. Nationalism and the Supreme Court (pp. 247–251) ​Because he was its first major interpreter, the authors call Chief
Justice John ​Marshall ​the principal “Molding Father” of the Constitution. In the case of ​McCulloch ​v.​ M
​ aryland
(1819), Marshall used Hamilton’s “​elastic ​ construction” of the Constitution to declare the Bank of the U.S.
constitutional because Congress had the right to do anything “necessary and proper” to carry out its functions. Also,
the federal government today influences many aspects of our lives (like meat inspection and product labeling, for
example) through a drastic expansion of its constitutional power to control ​inter​state commerce. Marshall first
strengthened this interpretation in the 1824 “steamboat” case of ​Gibbons ​v. ​Ogden​.
5. Expansion and the Monroe Doctrine (pp. 251–255)
a. The expansionist President Monroe (1817-1825) and his Secretary of State John Quincy ​Adams ​concluded a
treaty with ​Britain ​in 1818 which allowed for the joint occupation of the ​Oregon ​Territory. With Spanish
troops occupied by revolutionary wars to the south, General Andrew ​Jackson ​swept across ​Florida ​leading to
its ultimate “purchase” by the U.S. in ​1819​.
b. Worried that other European powers would take the place of Spain in the Western Hemisphere, the
now-famous “Monroe Doctrine” was issued in ​1823​. Its two principles were:
(1) Noncolonization: ​No longer can a European nation colonize a new world territory
(2) Nonintervention: ​No longer can European powers interfere with New World affairs
*** What do you think of the Monroe Doctrine? By what authority, if any, was it issued? ​I believe the Monroe
doctrine was essential in protecting the American land and enabling vast expansion. It was issued by the
authority of Congress.
The Second War for Independence and the Upsurge of Nationalism
Invasion of Canada (1813)
a. Americans sought to take over Canadian lands in the war of 1812
USS Constitution ​(“Old Ironsides”)
a. Oldest actively commissioned ship in the navy
Adm. Oliver Perry
a. American admiral who is known for heroic acts of defeating British fleet in Battle of Lake Erie
Battle of the Thames (1813)
a. William Henry Harrison defeated the redcoats at Detroit in Fort Malden
Thomas Macdonough/Plattsburgh (1814)
a. Important American victory that protected New York from invasion via the Hudson
Burning of Washington (1814)
a. British burned down the US capitol and the white house in the war of 1812
Fort McHenry/Francis Scott Key
a. Fort where American attorney witnessed the Flag stand strong amongst British bombardment
Gen. Andrew Jackson
a. American hero and president who defeated British in the New Orleans and took over Florida
Battle of New Orleans (1815)
a. Most Important American victory in the war, thwarted British attempts to take control of a crucial
American port
Treaty of Ghent (1814)
a. Delegation of representatives from America and Britain in Belgium, worked towards ending slavery
and relinquished British claims in the North West
John Quincy Adams
a. 6th president of the unites states, secretary of state under Monroe
“Blue-Light” Federalists
a. Flashed lanterns so that the blockading British fleet would be alerted of American escapees
Hartford Convention (1814)
a. New England refused to partake in war, resulted in Declaration calling the Federal gov to protect
a. Strong feeling of pride for one’s nation
Washington Irving
a. American writer and author of ​Rip Van Winkle
James Fenimore Cooper
a. American author whose stories depicted the frontier life and life with Natives
North American Review
a. Intellectual magazine that reflected the post 1815 spirit of nationalism in the states
Second Bank of the U.S. (1816)
a. Democratic ran bank; revised version of Hamilton’s
Stephen Decatur
a. American naval commander known for his heroic deeds in the Tripolitan war, war of 1812, and
Barbary war
Tariff of 1816
a. First tariff passed by congress with intents to protect domestic manufacturing and trade
Henry Clay
a. Distinguished senator from kentucky who developed American system and devised Missouri
“American System”
a. Plan to revive American economic policy and grow to its present day strength
Erie Canal (1825)
a. A canal that ran through the Hudson into the Great lakes; great feat of engineering
James Monroe (1817–1825)
a. President who published the Monroe Doctrine
“Era of Good Feelings”
a. Era of political purpose that unified Americans who strived for national purpose
26. Panic of 1819
a. First widespread economic crisis in American history
27. “Wildcat” banks
a. Unstable western banks
28. Cumberland Road (1811)
a. National road that stretched from Maryland to illinois
29. Tallmadge amendment (1819)
a. Amendment to the bill that granted Missouri statehood, proposed prohibition of save
30. Missouri Compromise (Clay, 1820)
a. Provided balance in the Senate as Missouri became a state and helped create a means of ending
31. John Marshall
a. Federalist chief justice of the Supreme court who established a precedent for the Supreme court
32. “Loose construction”
a. Broad interpretation of a document such as the constitution
33. McCulloch v. Maryland (​ 1819)
a. Case that decided that congress did have the necessary power and means to create national bank
34. Cohens v. Virginia ​(1821)
a. Landmark case that established the court’s assertion to review supreme courts rulings if defendant
feels their constitutional rights are violated
35. Gibbons v. Ogden ​(1824)
a. Landmark case which sustained congress’s ability to regulate interstate trade
36. Fletcher v. Peck (​ 1810)
a. Landmark case in which the Supreme court first ruled a law as unconstitutional
37. Dartmouth College v. Woodward ​(1819)
a. Landmark case that led to destabilization of church in new hampshire, legislature could not
interfere with private matters
38. Daniel Webster
a. Rival of John Marshall
39. Oregon Territory
a. Joint occupation by both Britain and America
40. Treaty of 1818 (Britain)
a. Treaty between Britain and US that established 49th parallel latitude as boundary between
Britain’s lands and America’s
41. Jackson’s Florida campaign (1818)
a. Quest by Jackson to overtake Spanish control of the peninsula
42. Florida Purchase Treaty (1819)
a. Secretary of state JQA had spain give up their claims to Florida
43. Canning proposal (1823)
a. British proposal to the US to lengthen the joint occupation against Latin powers
44. Monroe Doctrine (1823)
a. US policy which stated that Europe cannot interfere with the New World any longer