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Human Geography Midterm Review

Chapter 1-5 Review
Chapter 1
Latitude: horizontal parallel circles
Longitude: circles passing through two poles (Prime Meridian)
Time-space compression
Friction of distance
Distance decay
Spatial association: two or more phenomena may be related
Environmental determinism
Chapter 2
Reference Maps: designed for people to refer to general information about places
Political maps
Physical maps
Road maps
Plat maps
Locator maps
Thematic maps: show spatial aspects of information or phenomena
Choropleth maps
Dot distribution maps
Graduated symbol maps
Isoline maps
Topographic maps
Cartograms: a map on which statistical information is shown in diagrammatic form.
Mercator projection
Peters projection
Conic projection
Robinson projection
Chapter 3 Population Distribution
Arithmetic population density: dividing population by total area
Physiological population density: dividing population by the amount of arable land
Agricultural population density: number of farmers divided by the area of arable land
Population pyramid
Cohort (group)
Birth deficit
Baby boom
Baby bust
Dependency ratio: ratio of working to unworking population
Chapter 4 Population Growth and Decline
Crude birth rate (CBR): number of live births per year for 1000 people
Total fertility rate (TFR): the average number of children who would be born per women in
age 15 to 49
Crude death rate (CDR)
Rate of natural increase (RNI): (CBR-CDR)/10
Anti-natalist policy: programs to decrease the number of births
Pro-natalist policy: programs to increase the number of births
Life expectancy increased, reasons:
Better food production
Advances in public sanitation
Health care
Demographic transition model
Epidemiological transition model
Malthusian theory
Neo-Malthusian theory
They argue that global over population is a serious problem and an even greater threat
for the future. They point out continued population growth will lead to the depletion of
nonrenewable resources such as petroleum and metals, pollution fair and water, and
shortages of food, all of which could bring social, political, economic, and
environmental catastrophe.
Chapter 5 Causes and Consequences of Migration
Push and Pull factors
Political: asylum
Demographic: gender imbalance, overpopulated (people in stage 2/3 move to stage
4/5 countries)
Ravenstein’s law of migration
Short distance (distance decay)
Urban areas (gravity model of migration)
Multiple steps (step migration)
Rural to urban
Counter migration
Gender pattern: international migrants are male, internal migrants are female