Nova – 2001 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/genome/program.html 1. What % of genes do we share with a banana? 2. What kind of genes do we have common with a banana? 3. What shape is DNA found in? 4. Human beings have _______x the number of genes of a fruit fly. 5. What molecule pairs with cytosine in a DNA molecule? 6. What molecule pairs with Thymine? 7. How many base pairs are there in an average human being? 8. Every human baby is ________% identical, genetically. 9. The ____________ ____________ Project is an attempt to read all the base pairs of human DNA. 10. How long did they think it would take to complete? 11. Only about ______% of base pairs are actually genes. The rest of the DNA does not code for anything. 12. DNA is basically a ______________ _______________ for a human. It doesn’t tell you, however, how the genes actually function. 13. A one letter change in a gene can make a big difference. For example in Tay–Sachss disease a baby’s _____________ degenerates. In the DNA, one letter is coded wrong. This changes the shape of a certain ________________ that is supposed to dissolve _______________ in the brain. \this builds up, and destroys brain cells. 14. What kind of heredity does Tay-Sachs show? 15. Why do you think that certain populations are more commonly affected by Tay-Sachs? 16. ___________________ work sped up the Human Genome Project. 17. Venter’s company is called Celera Genomics. Celera is from the _______________ for ___________________. 18. Venter’s experience in a triage unit in _________________ affected him greatly. 19. Celera genomics announced that they would sequence the genome in _______ years. 20. Francis Collins is the head of the public, __________ ______________ project. His goal was to shave ____________ years of the original 15. 21. Basically, we have a race between a ______________ foundation paid for by taxes, headed by Francis Collins, and a _____________ funded company, run by Venter 22. The information from the public lab is available immediately on the ______________. 23. Who’s DNA did the public group sequence? 24. Who is Celera Mapping? 25. 2 different humans are more closely related than 2 different _______________. The is because we are such a _______________ species, descendant from about ________________________ people in Africa. 26. Explain why we have so many genes in common with every other living thing. 27. in November, 1999, _________ of the total genome was sequenced. That’s _________________ base pairs. 28. Why is there such a drive to go quickly from the public group? 29. In order to receive a patent, something must be both _____________ and _________________. 30. People received patents for genes by saying that a gene could be used as a _______________ to find itself later. 31. This is a problem, because people who want to use the gene for __________________ have to pay for the right to use it. 32. How can Celera make a profit off of sequencing our DNA? 33. The main criticism of Celera’s methods is that traditionally, science was about free ________________________ between people. 34. The real profit that will arise from the Human Genome Project will be when we can make _____________________ for diseases. 35. Cystic Fibrosis attacks many of the body’s organs, especially the _________________. ½ of CF patients die before the age of ___________. The genetic mutation for CF was discovered in _____________. What benefit has the discovery of this gene mutation had for CF patients? 36. We are physically composed of ____________________ and the result of ___________________ _______________. 37. Proteins start out as a chain of ___________________ ______________, but they don’t work unless they are 3-d. In the protein world, _________________ is destiny. 38. A faulty _________________ causes a faulty __________________ to be produced. 39. In CF, the faulty protein stops the flow of _____________ in lung cells. This makes the cell surface _____________________ and covered in ______________. 40. The ___________________ is the collection of all of your genes. The _____________________ is the collection of all of your proteins. 41. Recent research has shown that we actually have only ___________________, compared with the ___________________ previously thought. 42. Every time a gene is modified, its ____________________ changes. 43. Briefly describe the process that could be used to find a gene for a specific trait. 44. Why is Iceland such a useful genetics research site? 45. Why are people concerned about having a centralized bank of medical records and DNA? 46. ___________________________ are a technology that allow us to test for huge numbers of genetic traits at a time. 47. ______________________ and ___________________ are genes linked with breast cancer. A mutation, a loss of 2 base pairs in either gene, increases the risk of breast cancer to ____________%. These mutations are rate, and only account for about _______% of breast cancers. 48. a. Is Alyssa homozygous or heterozygous for the BRCA mutation? b. How do you know? c. Is the mutation dominant or recessive? d. How do you know? 49. Can we genetically modify humans right now? 50. What happened in June, 2001 that was important in the Biology world? 51. What does it mean that the Human Genome is “lumpy”? 52. ____________% of our DNA is other “stuff” that doesn’t code for anything. 53. ____________% of our DNA is composed of “selfish” genes that have been “hitchhiking” in our genome throughout the generations.