Uploaded by Faidh Al-hasan


See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/280554159
Book · January 2014
1 author:
Grace Offorma
All content following this page was uploaded by Grace Offorma on 29 July 2015.
The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file.
C';mld Challenges
. ria.
'. Education.
Professor Grace Chibiko Offorma
riculum, In
8!Ce (eds.),
"or Africa.
: Research
oprneni ­
iJshing co.
:ilder and
Department of Arts Education
University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
HIS chapter focuses on approaches to curriculum
development. The key concepts namely: curriculum and
curriculum development are first of all explained. Different
approaches to curriculum development are presented and
discussed. They include the four-step approach, the five-step
approach, the seven-step approach and others, some of which are
institutionally determined. The similarities and differences
between the various approaches are also treated.
What is curriculum?
The term curriculum has been differently defined by different
people. These definitions are dependent on their different
conceptions of education and the functions of school and the
types of products they expect from educational institutions. The
origin of the word curriculum was from the Latin word 'currus',
which means to run a race. This means that once a child starts to
learn, he/she begins to run the race. This race is comprehensive
in nature because, in the course of the race, the child or the
learner encounters a lot of experiences, which may be
intellectual, social, moral, spiritual or physical. These experiences
are provided to produce the total man. The experiences may be
formal and planned or informal and accidental or unplanned. In
the course of the race, the child may also encounter some
obstacles which he/she must surmount either through his/her
efforts or by the assistance of someone else to enable him/her to
attain the expectations of the society. The child is the main focus
of the curriculum.
Education in Nigeria: Development and Challenges
Curriculum can be defined as the document, plan or blue print
for instructional guide, which is used for teaching and learning to
bring about positive and desirable learner behaviour change. This
definition refers to the formal curriculum, which is planned
ahead of time, bearing in mind the characteristics of the
curriculum recipients, the philosophy and goals of education, the
environment, the resources, methods of teaching, and evaluation
procedures. It is the road map to attainment of the goals of
education. The curriculum document can be regarded as the
syllabus, the scheme of work or the course outline. It refers to the
planned curriculum.
The definition of curriculum as a structured series of learning
experiences intended for the education of the learners is related
to the above definition. It is a course of studies offered in the
school for the education of the learners, and which students
pursue in order to get a degree, a certificate, a diploma or any
other forms of academic awards. Learning experiences are
embedded in courses taught to the learners in schools. The
learning experiences are learner oriented, goal oriented; and they
can be physical or mental activities, observable or unobservable
(Offorma, 2002). Learning experiences are equated to curriculum
content by some authors (Tyler, 1971; Ivowi, 2009). Wheeler
(1978) distinguishes learning experiences from the content. He
sees the former as the activities engaged by the learners and the
latter as the knowledge they are exposed to. The learning
experiences are the means while the content is the end.
Curriculum content is made up of the subject matter to be
taught, body of knowledge, topics, ideas, concepts, symbols, facts
and cognitions, presented to the learners (Offorma, 2002).
Curriculum is a programme. This includes programme of studies,
programme of activities and programme of guidance. One can not
talk about curriculum without referring to the programme .of
studies which is seen in form of subjects, contents, subject
matters and bodies of knowledge. The programme of activities is
made up of all the learning experiences presented to the learners.
Learners learn through activities and so the programme of
activities facilitates the learning of the programme of studies.
Programme of guidance is the assistance given to the young and
inexperienced members of the society by more experienced
:111,;·!)lI"r::HI::II(I;;~ :;I"i~:' \~~Ip;,;
, 1\ 111\\: <
;;I\IIUI~\~: ~mlllr
!~II; IIlI!!i Jill 1\I\llellllllllilldlllC
!~lIIwillllWllf!!l$ :8Illl:
,\Wlll11lm!lhl~ 'Dml
ltil.niiwt, •
, . . . , P'mlil{j!
• .....wm
WJmer 1llmImI
InmJ. ldile'v;~
~ tJbese I
:md wbe!'e
Iue.:aroing,. ..
r blue print
learning to
aangs, This
~5 planned
~:ics of the
~2ation, the
:e goals of
i:::d as the
E::ers to the
I: learning
red in the
1 students
:::3. or any
E'nces are
0110 Is . The
and they
:::,ent. He
~ and the
;:r.~ end.
:'::" to be
: .s. facts
. lS
.an not
z.rne of
',-:::ies is
~=e of
r.: and
/Jllff"sons to help them solve their educational, career or vocational,
, ;B!IId socio-personal problems.
'Curriculum can be taken to mean the instrument by means of
Which schools seek to translate the hopes of the society in which
ttIlih€y function into concrete realities. It is planned and sequenced.
k is a vehicle through which education is attained. The essence of
education is the ability to transfer the knowledge, facts, skills,
mues and attitudes learnt from one situation to solving
,roblems in another situation, and this is done through
Curriculum Development
Curriculum development deals with the arrangement of
[curriculum materials to facilitate implementation. Ivowi (1994:6)
sees curriculum development as curriculum planning, when he
distinguishes the three angles of curriculum: 'planning or
development, curriculum implementation and curriculum
evaluation'. Curriculum development precedes curriculum
~lanning. It involves all stakeholders in the education of the
Learners and takes into account everything that will make the
curr iculum recipients functional members of their society. That
•.....as why Prof Babs Fafunwa championed the policy introducing
.ndigenous language in the school curriculum. He tried to show
.t s workability through his developmental research on the
:eaching of primary school children in Yoruba (the He Six Year
Project). He found out that children taught in Yoruba performed
oetter than those taught in English. Today, the three major
~igerian languages are taught in the schools either as first
.anguage (L l ) or second language (Lz). The essence was to make
:he Nigerian children functional through the languages.
In developing a curriculum a number of factors are considered,
and these factors are the elements that can promote or mar
curriculum implementation if not taken cognizance of in the
beginning. The elements include the learners, who are the
curriculum recipients; the teachers who are the curriculum
.mplemerrters; the society (culture) from where the learners come
and where they will function after schooling; the philosophy of
education, on which the goals of education hinge; psychology of
learning, which is the embodiment of the principles for effective
Education in Nigeria: Development and Challenges
teaching and learning (methods); the economy of the society,
which determines how robust the curriculum is and its effective
implementation; resources, which are the paraphernalia of
effective curriculum implementation and without which
curriculum development becomes worthless; and values of the
society, which is the essence of education.
'11IWm.Illn1lllltt, '".!
1IIIill8J~~' it,,;::
Approaches to Curriculum Development
Curriculum practitioners and implementers may use one or more
approaches in planning, implementing and evaluating a
curriculum. In discussing the approaches to curriculum
development, one focuses on the manner curriculum is arranged
to facilitate effective delivery by the implementer. Approaches to
curriculum development are the strategies employed in
organizing curriculum content and learning activities that are
presented to the learners. They are the ways of attaining a
functional curriculum development. Mbakwem (2009), writes
that curriculum approach and design can be used
interchangeably. Approaches to curriculum development can also
be regarded as models of curriculum development.
The Four-Step Approach
There are different approaches to curriculum development, which
are presented according to ones focus on the elements of
curriculum development and the level of operation of the
curriculum. No matter the approach or design or model, they all
cover the same scope needed to develop a functional curriculum.
Giles, McCutchen and Zechiel (1942) developed a four-step model
of curriculum development. The four steps are: selection of
objectives, selection of learning experiences, organization of
learning experiences and evaluation. Their understanding of
curriculum development approach is that the developer must first
of all select the objectives which they believe propels the other
steps, since every other step has focus on attainment of the
Tyler's (1975) approach to curriculum development also has four
steps, just like Giles et al. The only difference between the two
approaches is that Tyler's approach is liner, showing that one
step leads to another; while Giles et al show the interrelatedness
and interdependence of the steps. They believe that the objectives
iliilijml'8 'II!lJIIlJl~
'~'• • •'m !:u
mmIiiiIH1iiitlillil\!, I(~]
IItIIIltimItUIt RIIIlIllIIkmm:n 1
Ai:proaches to Curriculum Development
'determine what happens at the other steps. Tyler posed four
basic questions to explain the approaches to curriculum
development, namely:
What educational purposes should the school seek to
What educational experiences can be provided that are
likely to attain these purposes?
How can these educational experiences be effectively
How can we determine whether these purposes are being
attained? p.l.
, of
es to
A curriculum developer in answering the questions would develop
a good curriculum because he would have selected the objectives,
r:.g a
.earning experiences, organized the learning experiences and
embarked on evaluation. The questions are specific and help the
curriculum developer to be on track, always focusing on the
Kerr's (1968) approach has also four steps dealing with selection
)f objectives, selection of content, selection of learning
experiences and evaluation. Though the steps are interrelated
and dependent on each other, he did not say anything about
organization of learning experiences. This is a limitation to this
model, because curriculum implementation cannot be attained
without effective organization of the learning experiences.
;- all
The Five-Step Approach
The five-step approach presents a departure from the four-step
approach as discussed above. Nicholls and Nicholls (1978)
recommended this type of approach. The additional step is due to
their emphasis on situational analysis. They see this as a very
crucial component of curriculum development process.
Situational analysis is the diagnosis of all the factors and issues
involved in curriculum planning and development. These factors
are identified and analysed to ensure that the development of the
curriculum will be hitch free and that a worthwhile and
functional curriculum is developed. They believe that embarking
on situational analysis would facilitate selection of the objectives
that reflect the needs of the society.
Education in Nigeria: Development and Challenges
'11111 11
So Nicholls and Nicholls approach include: situational analysis,
selection of objectives, selection of content, methods, and
evaluation. The four-step approach proponents did not use
content but learning experiences, to qualify the knowledge, skills,
attitudes and values presented in the curriculum for the learners
to imbibe. Nicholls and Nicholls call it content. They also refer to
organization of learning experiences as methods. Methods deal
with the arrangement of the curriculum materials to be
presented to the learners, which is the same as organization. It
deals with observing the principles of effective organization,
which include sequencing, integration, continuity and scope.
Their approach is cyclic in nature which depicts a flexible process
whereby the curriculum worker can start from any point to
develop the curriculum. This presents curriculum development as
a continuous and on-going process.
~1t!!!l~~.',II~!!!'m, ''''';,~lIj;:
: 11111111111:
iillll11~IUlIiRiitlmJ_1 '.illl
1IIII!IIlUIIl1'11Dll1lflJl1", ~lILle:1
,lIIl1lC1l1lmlllllDlDJB!wllllt.1lliIm :::J
IllIlJnJmIII'liimttttDidltitili.&lllt::lllL 1'
IttDllnuiii· ~
~ IIIIiBr!I;iIIll
In the same vein, Wheeler's (1980) approach supports that of
Nicholls and Nicholls. His model is a five-step, cyclic approach,
made up of: Selection of objectives, selection of content, selection
of learning experiences, organization of content and learning
experiences, and evaluation. Wheeler differed from the others by
accommodating both learning experiences and content, which he
shows as two different components. The content is the body of
knowledge, the subject matter, the facts, ideas etc. presented to
the learners, while the learning experiences are the activities
embarked upon by the learners to help them learn the content.
They can be physical or mental; overt or covert. They are learner­
oriented and goal-oriented. So the learning experiences are the
means, while the content is the end. Wheeler also sees the
organization of the two as the methods applied in the
implementation of the curriculum.
1«BdlII" IIIDDIIJ1IfJf!!I!IIId Ii 'm:g
..m 1!"\1I
lIIIIDDIIIl'«:JMiIti!l/llld :m,!
"lIniis ;iil 1
'; diiilllhemUII.UnfillilC3l'Mmn,
• •'WIIDie" 2IIIIIIIIIi i rn
,aId::Il!I~mi5 .
,"",raJl:m~l1Em I~#
Wheeler neglects situational analysis which deals with needs
analysis. His approach is also cyclic and flexible in that one can
begin curriculum development task from any point. It also shows
that curriculum is an on-going activity because the society is
dynamic, and so, curriculum, a vehicle used to produce functional
members of the society should also be dynamic.
' 'I1IImJis is mJnr.e
11lll1lI1IIn"iia- •
:Bciety A
RJrilety and . '
_I be
IIIlI!IIIne basis fOr El
ID _
, J$1611,d
aDDa1 analysis,
Bbods, and
,diiid not use
..ledge, skills,
r the learners
v also refer to
lliitethods deal
Eriiah to be
g:;amization. It
; and scope.
~le process
il1mIly point to
wropment as
t hat of
tIJIC approach,
=1Jl]j'!t,. selection
i1'JJld learning
be others by
ut, which he
me body of
p,:resented to
lThe activities
L,ne content.
3lf'e learner­
!lces are the
iI\QISE-e~ the
\1~ltd :n the
;,,3:.1 :me can
3...i.S'~ shows
society is
Approaches to Curriculum Development
The Seven-Step Approach
Taba (1962) proposes her model or approach to curriculum
development to have seven components. She strongly believes
that the phases should be specified to avoid confusing the
curriculum developer. She has the same point with Nicholls and
);icholls; that curriculum development should begin with
situational analysis. She went further to identify the factors to be
studied at the situational analysis phase, which include: the
learner, the teacher, the learning process, the nature of available
accumulated body of knowledge, the nature of the educational
system and facilities, the nature of the society, and
environmental influences on the learner. The data collected from
this analysis will equip the curriculum developer with the
necessary details to select the curriculum objectives. The process
or approach has the following steps: Situational analysis,
selection of objectives, selection of learning experiences, selection
of content, organization of learning experiences, organization of
content, and evaluation. Unlike Wheeler, the learning experiences
and content are organized separately.
John Hopkins University Approach
An approach to curriculum development which was developed by
physician educators at John Hopkins University for clinical
educators was presented by Kern, Thomas, Howa and Bass
'1998). This approach has six steps, which include: problem
identification, needs assessment of targeted learners, goals and
objectives, educational strategies, implementation, evaluation
and feedback. They see the approach as logical, systematic,
dynamic, and interactive. These six steps are discussed briefly in
Problem Identification
This is the first step. The main reason for developing a
curriculum is to train learners to be useful members of their
society. A functional curriculum focuses on the problems of the
society and so in developing a curriculum these problems form
the basis for selecting the knowledge, skills, values and attitudes
to be inculcated in the learners to equip them to solve their
problems. In identifying the problems, the learner characteristics,
their current status and what they should be are analysed to
Education in Nigeria: Development and Challenge:
identify the problems. The society is also studied to sift the
problems, which will be dealt with in developing the curriculum.
Needs Assessment of Targeted Learners
At this step, a needs assessment of the targeted learners is
embarked upon. It involves a process by which the curriculum
developer finds out the differences between what is and what
should be; the actual characteristics of the targeted group of
learners, and what obtains in their environment. The first step in
any curriculum development process involves research that
reviews recent issues and trends of the discipline, both within the
society and across the nation. This research allows a curriculum
committee to identify key issues and trends that will support the
needs assessment that should be conducted and the philosophy
that should be developed. Tyler (1971) describes needs as the gap
between where the learner is and where he/she wants to be or
should be. To be able to close this gap, the required knowledge,
skills, attitudes and values must be included in the curriculum.
As a result of this process, committee members are likely to
identify many of the following issues and trends that will need to
be addressed as the curriculum development process moves
forward: meeting the needs of all students; learning theory and
other cognitive psychology findings on how students learn; what
appropriateness; the current expectations of the field; the
knowledge of and readiness for change on the part of teachers;
the. availability of resources; the role and availability of
information and technology resources; scheduling issues;
methods and purposes of assessments; and
professional development.
Goals and Objectives
This is the third step. Goals are broad statements of intended
learning outcomes. They are stated using broad terms that are
not measurable until they are broken down into action verbs.
Objectives are specific statements of intensions of what is
expected of the learners at the end of teaching session. They are
stated in action verbs, which are measurable. Once the problems
are identified the needs of the targeted group analysed, the broad
goals are formulated and broken down to specific objectives.
II\I\11!~ ,:Jill '.',;II:,,\11 ' ',I!'''
I :,
,lllllmll!!flmJltJil\\Vl11P.' lUi.::
!Il!lt!lll~I' I[::::~:
,ldUlIIlIIJllIm "I\III!!!)m'I~1
ill'llDll11111111llBIJ1I1l11tlt:;, :$\lU
'-: ...allenges
; sift the
arners IS
and what
STouP of
-st step in
L'ch that
rithin the
pport the
t ilosophy
is the gap
to be or
.rkely to
L need to
is moves
eory and
:r:.: what
;ei.d: the
:l:ity of
:.::at are
':::. verbs.
_':-. .::!y are
.:- broad
- -------­
/ipproaches to Curriculum Development
Subsequent steps hinge on the specific objectives because they
are put in place to facilitate attainment of the objectives.
In selecting the objectives, the three behaviours: cognitive,
affective and psychomotor are borne in mind. This is to ensure
that the curriculum is comprehensive and will produce the total
man. The objectives drive every other activity in curriculum
development. This is why it is important to use specific and clear
action verbs to avoid misunderstanding. Goals and objectives are
important because they help direct the choice of curricular
content; suggest what learning methods will be most effective;
enable evaluation of learners and the curriculum; suggest what
evaluation methods are appropriate; clearly communicate to
others what the curriculum addresses and hopes to achieve.
Educational Strategies
Educational strategies are the detailed means of facilitating
learning. It involves the manipulations of the learning
environment to motivate learners to learn. A method may
accommodate a number of strategies, which means that
strategies are sub-sets of method. In this step, the educational
strategies are developed. The strategies must promote the
attainment of the objectives. The strategies involve both the
activities and the contents. The activities are the means while the
contents are the ends. This is why active participation of the
learners in curriculum endeavours is encouraged. Today,
interactive strategies such as collaboration, cooperation, learner
autonomy, use of songs, small group activities and drama are
Implementation is putting into action, the planned curriculum. It
.s the combined efforts of the learner, the teacher and other
stakeholders in ensuring effective execution of the curriculum
.iocument. It calls for teacher-learner, learner-learner and
learner-classroom environment interactions. Careful attention
must be paid to issues of implementation. The curriculum
ieveloper must ensure that sufficient resources, political and
.inancial support, and administrative strategies have been
:leveloped to successfully implement the curriculum. It has been
.ibserved in Nigeria, that lofty policies which are formulated are
Education in Nigeria: Development and Challenges
not adequately implemented, especially when the political will is
Evaluation and Feedback
Most curriculum development models put evaluation as the last
step. Evaluation and feedback closes the loop in the curriculum
development cycle. Evaluation deals with the extent of
attainment of the stated objectives. It is the process of identifying
the strengths and weaknesses of the curriculum. It exposes what
the learners have learnt and the gaps to be closed. It is through
evaluation that the feedback which is knowledge of result (KR) is
obtained. The feedback informs the curriculum developer about
the next action to embark on. This is why Wheeler sees
curriculum development as a cyclic activity which has no end as
the feedback is ploughed back to the entire process for
1111111111' ili\Ullllllllllll
'1IIIII\1III!' ',',:
Connecticut State Department of Education Approach
The Bureau of Curriculum Development and Instruction (2006),
propounded four major approaches to curriculum development,
namely: Planning, articulating and developing, Implementation
and Evaluation. They called them components of curriculum
development process. Each step has a number of activities that
must be carried out by the curriculum developer during the
process as shown below.
This section entails: convening a Curriculum Development
Committee meeting to identify key issues and trends in the
specific content area, and assess needs and issues. Curriculum
development should be viewed as a process by which meeting
student needs leads to improvement of student learning.
Regardless of the theory or model followed, curriculum
developers should gather as much information as possible. This
information should include the desired outcomes or expectations
of a high quality curriculum, the role of assessment, the current
status of student achievement and actual programme content.
The information should also consider the concerns and attitudes
of teachers, administrators, parents and students.
oltitieal will is
as the last
liE' curriculum
extent of
of identifying
exposes what
h is through
'emIt (RR) is
lelloper about
~neeler sees
as no end as
process for
;:njon ,2006),
trvit ies that
Juring the
r:'ids in the
. "::':-?°lculum
:;;";. 21eeting
,. -::-:-;culum
.: :-:-, This
~-=,,~:: ations
":.':: .urrent
: : nt ent.
: .:-.=:;tudes
Approaches to Curriculum Development
Articulating and Developing
This component deals with articulating the philosophy of the
programme; defining the goals and deriving the objectives from
the goals; identifying the required resources for implementation
of the curriculum; and identifyingLho appropriate assessment
procedures and instruments to measure the students' learning
The third component is implementation and this means putting
the New Programme into practice. This is the operational stage
of the curriculum whereby the learners are exposed to the
curriculum and then engage in the learning activities as
contained in the curriculum.
Evaluation deals with determining the success of the curriculum.
Through the attainments of the learners, the strengths and
weaknesses of the curriculum are identified and the feedback is
used to update the curriculum. Appropriate instruments are
developed and used to evaluate the attained curriculum. The
feedback is used to restructure, modify, review or jettison the
Other Approaches
Mbakwem (2009) discussed a number of curriculum designs
which are extension of the designs presented by Mkpa (1987) and
Offorma (1994).These designs are the subject, the core, the broad
fields and the activity or experience curriculum designs. Mkpa
calls the broad fields the integrated curriculum design, because it
is an amalgam of related contents from different knowledge
areas. These designs depict means or ways of developing a
The subject curriculum is the oldest design which organizes the
curriculum according to discrete subjects as we see in the senior
secondary school curriculum. The core curriculum design deals
with organizing the curriculum that every member of a group
must offer. In the schools, they are regarded as the compulsory
courses or subjects that each member of the group must offer; for
example in the secondary school, English Language and
Education in Nigeria: Development and Challenges
Mathematics are compulsory subjects. The broad fields
curriculum is the organization of the curriculum contents and
learning experiences selected from different but related
disciplines, which are put together and presented to the learner
as a subject or an area of knowledge. A good example of this kind
of curriculum is the Cultural and Creative Arts and the Basic
Science and Technology in the junior secondary school
curriculum. This kind of design does not make for specialization
as is the case with the subject curriculum, but exposes the learner
to broad areas of knowledge. It can be said that it gives the
background information required to understand the subjects that
formed the bases of correlation. The activity curriculum is mainly
used at the pre-primary and primary schools. This design is not
pre-planned and the focus is the activities dictated by the
learners according to their interest. It is also called experience
curriculum, because it is based on the experiences of the learners.
In addition to the above designs, Mbakwem (2009) included more
designs such as Task/Job Analysis Approach, Occupational Area
Approach, Functional Analysis Approach, Competency Approach,
Modular Approach and On-line Curriculum design. The task/job
analysis approach focuses on the required competencies in a job
or task. The design maps out the relevant knowledge, skills,
attitudes and activities the learner must possess to be able to
perform a particular task or job. The curriculum contents
therefore emphasize the tasks. It is useful in designing a
curriculum for technical or trade school. The major limitation to
this design is that the tasks do not take cognizance of future
labour market demands. Again it does not promote transfer of
learning, which is the essence of education.
Task/job analysis approach resembles the occupational area
approach and the competency approach. These three designs
focus on the required competencies, skills, attitudes, values and
knowledge for effective delivery in the occupation or job area. The
design enables the learner to perform the required up-to-date
tasks and duties in their disciplines.
The functional analysis approach is a design that focuses on the
demands of the society in organizing curriculum content. It can
be seen as problem-solving design, whereby the imminent
.4i-:::roaches to Curriculum Development
ote:Hs and
::.:t related
:r.be learner
}f this kind
rhe Basic
problems are the focus in the design. It takes into consideration
the problems of the society and incorporates the needed
knowledge, skills, values and attitudes to solve the problems.
This design is put in place as the need arises. We can use the
retraining programmes of the secondary school teachers
embarked upon by the Universal Basic Education Commission to
make the teachers functional as a good example of functional
ice3ign. First of all, needs analysis is carried out to identify the
problems or setbacks, before embarking on the selection of the
content, activities, strategies, resources and evaluation
procedures to be employed in the training.
g:,"es the
;;-;Jioffts that
~ is mainly
,~11 is not
ltd by the
., l-earners.
The modular approach is the design that arranges the curriculum
content into modules. The modules are presented as topics, and
the objectives explained, method of work, needed resources,
strategies and evaluation modes are explained. It is so specified
and simplified that the learner may use the modules without
recourse to the teacher. In modular design individualized
i.istruction can be used as each learner goes according to his/her
pace. This design relies heavily on electronic media but at times,
the print media is used. The student is at liberty to spend as
much time as he or she needs to learn a particular skill. The
modules are pre-planned and pre-packaged.
lied more
cnal Area
:: ta.3k/job
~ 1.:: a job
III::. skills ,
'" ?.ble to
~( ntents
i.;:-:mg a
::",:o.:ion to
.: :::1 ture
L-:::-f'er of
_-=-3 and
;-''::1:2., The
,- :,.:.·-date
::: the
.: can
The on-line curriculum design enables the curriculum developer
and the teacher to organize instructions, tasks, discussions and
even examinations for the learners. This is presented to them
through a system that allows students' input through a
networked device. Computer and computer software are required
for its implementation. A topic is introduced and the students are
asked to contribute their ideas. There is active participation of
the students and their contributions get back to the teacher or
instructor through the networked electronic device. The students
can be evaluated based on their contributions to the topic
discussed. These can be done through the social communications
prevalent today, such as face book and twitter.
This is an innovation and it promotes communication among the
learners. It makes learning active and lively. Cooperation is
enhanced as all the members are carried along, in reasoning,
analysing, and evaluation of the activities. It promotes problem­
Education in Nigeria: Development and Challenges
solving and tolerance of the learners. The design is expensive and
requires Information and Communication Technology literacy.
Availability of power supply is a determining factor· in its
"l\lI\\~' ':,:1'. ::,..
allll~lI!~ 1t!lJ1nnnlr.i1J1::,,~
The development of an effective curriculum guide is a multi-step,
on-going and cyclical process. There are many approaches to
curriculum development as presented in this chapter. No matter
the choice of approach, the curriculum developer must be guided
by the following principles. The curriculum developer must
establish a clear philosophy and set overarching goals that guide
the entire curriculum and the decisions that affect each aspect of
the curriculum. He should establish sequences both within and
between levels and assure a coherent and articulated progression
from one level to another. A basic framework must be outlined
for what to do, how to do it, when to do it and how to know if it
has been achieved. He must allow for flexibility and encourage
experimentation and innovation within an overall structure. The
curriculum must promote interdisciplinary approaches and the
integration when appropriate. Methods of assessing the
achievement of the curriculum goals and objectives must be
suggested and a means for revision and improvement provided.
The direction for procurement of human, material and fiscal
resources to implement the curriculum should also be provided.
There is no perfect approach. However, to be effective, an
approach must attract acceptance of the teachers and other
stakeholders in the education of the learners. This acceptance
will be far easier to attain when the curriculum approach reflects
child growth and development, the philosophy of the society,
principles of teaching and learning, needs and varying abilities of
the learners, ease of implementation; and cooperatively developed
by a broad-based committee of teachers and relevant experts.
The approaches presented here resemble each other. The
difference, one can rightly claim is in the semantics
(terminology), because they emphasize the same process.
Curriculum development in Nigeria has followed these
approaches. Prof Aliyu Fafunwa was the Minister of Education
for years and made useful contributions to the development of
nsive and
Jr in its
to Curriculum Development
Ilthe 6-3-3-4- system of education, which Nigeria is still operating
today, He was passionate about the indigenous languages, which
are emphasized today in the schools.
Bureau of Curriculum
aches to
: matter
€" guided
er must
,3.: guide
ispect of
. ::.in and
:::)w if it
.re, The
:"'''!d the
:~ the
l-..:.st be
: fiscal
t ied.
',,'-=-. an
::~5 of
and Instruction (2006).Guide to
curriculum development: purposes,
procedures. Hartford: Connecticut State Department of
Chinyere, N zewi, U.M. & Offorma, G.C. (eds), Curriculum
Organization of Nigeria (CON).
Giles, H.H.; McCutchen, S.P. &Zechiel, A.N. (1942).Exploring the
curriculum. New York: Harper & Row Publishers Inc.
Ivowi, U.M.O. (1994), Concept of curriculum implementation. In
Offorma (ed), Curriculum Implementation and Instruction.
Onitsha: Uni World Educational Publishers.
Ivowi, U.M.O. (2009). Definition or meaning of curriculum (an
operational) definition suited for Nigeria. In Ivowi, U.M.O.,
Nwufo, Kate, Nwagbara.
Kern, D., Thomas, D., Howa D., & Bass, E. (1998).Curriculum
development for medical education: a six-step approach.
Baltimore & London: The John Hopkins University Press.
London: George Allen and Unwin.
Mbakwem, J.U.(2009). Diversification through the use of
multiple curriculum designs and approaches. In Ivowi,
U.M.O. Nwufo Kate, Nwagbara C, Nzewi, U.M. & Offorma,
G.C. (eds) Curriculum Diversification in Nigeria. Nigeria:
Curriculum Organization of Nigeria (CON).
.: of
implementation. Owerri: Totan Publishers Ltd.
Nicholls, A. & Nicholls H. (1978). Developing a curriculum: a
practical guide.
Education in Nigeria: Development and Challenges
Offorma, G.C. (1994) Curriculum design. In Offorma (ed),
Curriculum Implementation and Instruction. Onitsha: Uni
world EducationalPublishers.
Offorma, G.C. (2002). Curriculum Theory and Planning. (ed)
Enugu: Donze Press.
Taba, H. (1962). Curriculum development: theory and practice.
New York: Harcourt Brace, Jovanovich.
Tyler, RW. (1971). Basic principle of curriculum and instruction.
Chicago: TheUniversity of Chicago Press.
: . tI
Wheeler, D.K. (1978). Curriculum process. London: Hodder
View publication stats