ST 1 FORM INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION • Session 1 • Things to talk about • Students welcome by teacher for the new school year • Students expectations for the course • Expectations from the students • Activity • Session 1 • Things to do • Course content / Outline • Guidelines on and off the online platform • Introduction and a quick tour about the Edmodo platform • The course grading scheme for assessments • Session 3 History of the computer The different computers used from the beginning to now The different individuals that involve in the invention of computers. The different use of computers. HISTORY OF COMPUTER • In today’s world computer play a huge in our daily lives. • The term computer is derived from the word “Compute” which means basically to calculate. • Computers are known as the most versatile calculating machine that can handle different task at the same time. • Abacus is the first tool that is used to do complex calculation when computer wasn’t around. – The abacus the primarily known as the first counting device that was created in china. – The first mechanical device for calculation which could also perform arithmetical calculation. – Counting on the abacus can be done by sliding the beads across the rods. The rods are divided into two parts • The upper part was known as the heaven beats and the lower part was known as the earth beat • The Pascaline is the first mechanical calculator in the world • The Pascaline was invented by a French mathematician called louis Pascal in 1642 • The Pascaline is made up of wheels and gears. It could handle decimal values by rotating a wheel from one to nine steps. It is used for adding numbers quickly. • Charles Babbage is know as the father of the computer • Was a British mathematician who designed the analytical engine in 1833. • He is the person who introduces the idea of storing and reading the information being processed. • The analytical engine is an engine powered by a huge steam engine. It can handle a large amount of data and process them at highs peed. • Herman Hollerith an American statistician invented a machine called the tabulating machine in 1890. • The tabulating machine is capable of reading data, processing it and giving the desired output. It is based on IPO cycle. This machine is capable reading both numbers and letters. • ENIC and UNIVAC • This machine was designed in 1946 by two American scientists called john w Mauchly and john Presper Eckert • ENIAC was the first speed electronic digital computer or EDC. The ENIAC used decimal digits instead of binary digits. • In 1952 the Mauchly and Eckert developed the Univac universal automatic computer • The Univac was the first commercial electronic computer. It could work with both numerical and textual data. • The first generation computer were developed during the period 1941 to 1956 are called the first generation computers. • One of the earliest computer and largest is the colossus. It was used by the British code breakers during the second world war to decode enemy message. • The first generation computer are very large and expensive as they used vacuum tubes and magnetic drums • The first generation computer also consumed large amount of electricity. • Machine language was used during the first generation of computers. • Second generation computer are the computer that were developed during the period 1956 to 1963. • The second generation computer used transistors instead of vacuum tubes. • Cost less, less electricity , smaller, and faster in programming. • These computer was mainly used in the atomic energy industry. • IBM 7000, IBM 650, ATLAS • Use both machine language and assembly language • The third generation period was from 1964 to 1971. • Integrated circuits (ICs) and smaller transistors were developed and they placed on silicon chips called semiconductors. This feature helped to increase the speed of the computer. • Third generation computer can run different programs at the same time. • IBM 1130 • UNIVAC • Used highs level programming language • Fourth generation computer • The computers that are being developed from 1971 till the present time are called the fourth generation computers. • The fourth generation used microchips. 0 and 1 were coded to do arithmetical operations. • They are called binary numbers. Are fast and efficient • IBM 4341, DEC 10 , STAR 1000 • Can be interlinked together in a network which led to the internet. • Used high level programming language • Fifth generation • They are called super computer • They are very fast with high capacity, speed and efficiency • Have many CPU connected together and can carry out large number of scientific operations in a very short interval of time. • Also now they are moving into a more advance technology which the robot using Artificial Intelligence (AI) which is going to be the most advance invention. Session 2 Explain what is a computer Explain how the computer works Explain the parts of a computer Explain the components of a computer Explain the types of computer (General purpose and special purpose) WHAT IS A COMPUTER • an electronic device for storing and processing data, typically in binary form, according to instructions given to it in a variable program. • A computer receives data through an input unit based on the instructions it is given and after it processes the data, it sends it back through an output device. • Parts of a computer 1. Computer Hardware is any physical device used in or with your machine, In other words, hardware is something you can hold in your hand. 1. Computer Software is a collection of programming code installed on your computer's hard drive in other words software cannot be held in your hand. COMPONENTS OF A COMPUTER • A motherboard • A Central Processing Unit (CPU) • A Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), also known as a video card • Random Access Memory (RAM), also known as volatile memory • Storage: Solid State Drive (SSD) or Hard Disk Drive (HDD) TYPES OF COMPUTER • General Purpose Computer • Special Purpose Computer Session 2 What is general purpose computer The use of general-purpose computers Examples of general-purpose computers Who uses these type of computers (General Purpose Computer) GENERAL COMPUTER • General purpose computer: is one that, given the appropriate application and required time, should be able to perform most common computing tasks and multiple task the same time. USES OF GENERAL PURPOSE COMPUTER • Including writing and editing (word processing), manipulating facts in a data base, tracking manufacturing inventory, making scientific calculations, or even controlling organization’s security system, electricity consumption, and building temperature. EXAMPLE • All mainframes, servers, laptop and desktop computers, as well as smartphones and tablets are general-purpose devices. WHO USES GENERAL PURPOSE COMPUTER • In today’s world mostly everybody uses a general computer such industries, school, company, you for example your reading this either on a phone, tablet or personal computer. Session 3 What is special purpose computer The use of special purpose computers Examples of special-purpose computers • Who uses these type of computer (special purpose) SPECIAL PURPOSE COMPUTER • Special-Purpose Computer are designed to be task specific and most of the times their job is to solve one particular problem. They are also known as dedicated computers, because they are dedicated to perfom a single task over and over again. USES OF SPECIAL COMPUTER • Special computer can be used for home appliance controllers, weapon controllers, boiler temperature controllers, fuel injection system in automobile engines and more. EXAMPLE • Microwave ovens, robots in a manufacturing unit, latest automotive engines, Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), mobile phones, palm-top computers, pocket-PCs WHO USES SPECIAL COMPUTER • In today’s world we still do use special computer because of the specific task that is needed to carried out for example the delivery company uses a PDAs(Personal Digital Assistant) to have the customer sign upon delivery, and an other would be you for example using the microwave to warm food or drinks at home or at office. These are some example but we still do have more.