RESEARCH TYPE AND MEASUREMENT TYPE- SESSION 1 Presented by Dr Monika Soni Phone No- 8003282449 firstname.lastname@example.org RESEARCH PROCESS Source-: Google Source-: Google CORONAVIRUS – The lived experience of people in Lockdown EXPLORATORY RESEARCH It is an unstructured type of research. No pre-research is conducted to support exploratory research and even there is little to NO prior information available on the problem from the past research. It enables a researcher to answer all questions like why, how, and what. Therefore, it helps a researcher to know about the purpose of the research. All the available material should be studied in detail. There is no standard format to carry out exploratory research. It is flexible, scattered, and broad in nature. Most of the time you will get Qualitative data as an outcome of this research. The study of stress among individuals in Covid-19 The theory of stress as a stimulus was introduced in the 1960s, and viewed stress as a significant life event or change that demands response, adjustment, or adaptation. Two Ways 1. I ask people at a particular point of time like in March, I distribute the questionnaire and ask 50 respondents to fill it and than analyze the data 2. I ask people about stress in March, April, May and June from that 50 respondents and analyze the data Descriptive Research Descriptive research is defined as a research method that describes the characteristics of the population or phenomenon that is being studied. This methodology focuses more on the “what” of the research subject rather than the “why” of the research subject. Entirely based on Survey. It can be done by observations, interview, questionnaire, No experiments are conducted. Cross Sectional- Collecting data at one point of time Longitudinal- Collecting the data over a period of time Commonly used in management, commerce, social sciences. The study of impact of physical exercise on stress among individuals in Covid-19 EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH Experimental research is research conducted with a scientific approach using two sets of variables. The first set acts as a constant, which you use to measure the differences of the second set. You can conduct experimental research in the following situations: Time is a vital factor in establishing a relationship between cause and effect. You wish to understand the importance of the cause and effect. Eg-: MedicinesEngineering- How to make new building Agriculture- This pesticide is effective- show it Hawthorne Experiment- Elton Mayo (6 years) Most of the research which we do in academics in field of Management, social science, psychology etc are related to either descriptive/ Experimental research Historical Research Historical research studies the meaning of past events in an attempt to interpret the facts and explain the cause of events, and their effect in the present events. Archeology talk about scientific evidence like this way happens like you see Ramayana and Mahabahrata. When you study something dated back like in old history. Life of people in Mohenjo daro Example-: 1. Management control insights from the Mahabharata January 2011 International Journal of Indian Culture and Business Management 4(4):377 - 389 2. Khandelwal, N.M. (2001) Management Concepts from the Mahabharata. New Delhi: New Century Publication. Four levels of measurement described by S. S. Stevens in 1946 Measurement It is not about the questions, but it is all about what people reply and how we draw references out of it. Nominal Data- You can draw just one inference that which category you belong to. Like Gender, Religion, Caste, Marital Status, Non metric 2. Polytomous/ Multinomial 1. Dichotomous Ordinal- Ordinal data is a categorical, statistical data type where the variables have natural, ordered categories and the distances between the categories is not known. Example there are 5 people in your class whose academic score are given -: Ram 90 1 Shyam 87 2 Mohan 70 3 Rita 61 4 Meena 55 5 There is an order but ranking does not mean, First rank is twice as good as 2nd. The interval gap between points is uneven Source-: Google Interval Scale Third level of measurement Defined as a quantitative measurement in which the difference between the two variable is meaningful Presence of zero is arbitrary True Zero v/s Arbitrary Zero Getting Zero marks in exam- True Zero Temperature-0 degree ARBITRARY ZERO Source-: Google Summated Rating Scale Statement Strongly agree(1) Agree (2) Neutral (3) Disagree (4) I like Maths I like numbers I like equations I like formulas Calculate the total score RANGE Min-4 Max- 20 4-8 8-12 12-16 16-20 We can make HISTOGRAM of this table and apply T test Strongly Disagree (5) RATIO SCALE Ratio scale refers to the level of measurement in which the attributes composing variables are measured on specific numerical scores or values. Ratio scale is the 4th level of measurement and possesses a zero point or character of origin. Source-: Google Source-: Google Source-: Google CHOICE OF TEST PURPOSE-: a. Test of difference Level of Measurement a. Nominal Number of Set of Samples a. One b. Test of Association b. Ordinal c. Test of Relation (Prediction) c. Interval b. Two d. Ratio C. Several Nature of variable a. Dependent Parametric Test V/S Non-Parametric Test b. Independent c. Moderator/Mediator Notes All images used in the PPT are taken from the google https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XQ16IfDxT-c was very helpful in understanding the concepts.