Uploaded by Ma Kris Elaine Catabay-Jerusalem


Managing and Caring for the Self
LESSON 1 – Learning to Be a Better Learner
Lesson Objectives:
At the end of this lesson, the students will be able to:
1. Explain how learning occurs;
2. Enumerate various metacognition and studying techniques;
3. Identify the techniques that they find most appropriate for themselves
Knowing the “self” is not enough. Since “who you are” is partly made up of your
choices, you must also have the ability to choose especially to be better “you”.
This lesson will present several techniques that you can adapt depending on your
situation and preferences in order to make you a better learner. Learning should not
just mean studying for your quizzes and exams in school. Learning could also occur
outside the confines of a book or of a classroom like when you want to acquire a new
move in your favourite sport, the skills for a certain hobby, among others.
We are Homo sapiens or the “wise man.” We think in a more complex level than
our ancestors and most, if not all, of the other beings.
This idea falls under the concept of metacognition. Metacognition is commonly
defined as “thinking about thinking.” It is the awareness of the scope and limitations of
your current knowledge and skills.
Metacognition is also not limited to the thinking process of the individual. It also
includes keeping one’s emotions and motivations while learning in check. The emotional
state and the motivation of a person then should also be in the preferred ideal state for
that person in order to facilitate further his/her learning.
Metacognition has two aspects: 1) self-appraisal and 2) self-management of
cognition. Self-appraisal is your personal reflection on your knowledge and capabilities
while self-management is the mental processes you employ using what you have in
planning and adapting to successfully learn or accomplish a certain task. Similar
concepts, usually called elements of metacognition, are metacognitive knowledge or
what you know about how you think and metacognition regulation or how you adjust
your thinking processes to help you learn better.
Under metacognitive knowledge are several variables that affect how you know
or assess yourself as a thinker. First is the personal variable that is your evaluation of
your strengths and weaknesses in learning. Second is the task variable is what you
know or what you think about the nature of the task as well as what strategies the task
requires. Lastly, strategy variable refers to what strategies or skills you already have in
dealing with certain tasks.
Here are other skills that might help you with exercising metacognition:
1. Knowing your limits: also looks at the scope and limitations of your resources
that you can work with what you have at the moment and look for ways to cope
with other necessities.
2. Modifying your approach: it begins with the recognition that your strategy is not
appropriate with the task and/or that you do not comprehend the learning
experience successfully.
3. Skimming: this is basically browsing over a material and keeping an eye on
keywords, phrases, or sentences. It also knows where to search for such key
4. Rehearsing: this is not just repeatedly talking, writing, and/or doing what you’ve
learned but also trying to make a personal interpretation or summary of the
learning experience.
5. Self-test: as the name implies, this is trying to test your comprehension of your
learning experience or the skills you have acquired during learning.
“Welcoming errors” does not mean seeking them or consciously making them as much
as possible. The phrase means that when you commit a mistake, you do not dismiss it
as insignificant or you do not try to avoid responsibility of the results. You must process
them to learn every lesson that you can take about yourself, about the topic, and other
people or things. By having a more positive attitude toward mistakes, you will also have
the courage to venture into new and unknown learning experiences that may one day
interest you.
Four types of metacognitive learners:
1. The “tacit” learners – are unaware of their metacognitive processes although
they know the extent of their knowledge.
2. The “aware” learners – are aware of some of their metacognitive strategies but
using techniques are not always planned.
3. The “strategic learners – as the name implies, strategize, and plan their course
of action toward a learning experience.
4. The “reflective” learner – reflect on their thinking while they are using the
strategies and will adapt their metacognitive skills depending on the situation.
Other tips that you can use in studying are the following:
1. Making an outline of the things you want to learn, the things you are reading or
doing, and/or the things you remember;
2. Breaking down the task in smaller and more manageable details;
3. Integrating variation in your schedule and learning experience.
4. You may also try to incubate your ideas.
5. Revising, summarizing, and taking down notes then rereading them might help
you minimize cramming in the last minute especially when you have weakness in
memorizing facts and data.
6. You should also engage what you have learned. Do something about it.
LESSON 2 – Do Not Just Dream, Make it Happen
Lesson Objectives:
At the end of the lesson, the students will be able to:
1. Use Bandura’s self-efficacy theory for self-assessment;
2. Differentiate growth and fixed mindset by Dweck; and
3. Design personal goals adapting Locke’s goal setting theory.
Jack Canfield is an epitome of success. He is Guinness Book World Record holder
for having seven books simultaneously on the New York Times Bestseller List, beating
Stephen King. One of Canfield’s feature quotes about success is “By taking the time to
stop and appreciate who you are and what you’ve achieved – and perhaps learned
through a few mistakes, stumbles and losses – you actually can enhance everything
about you. Self-acknowledgment and appreciation are what give you the insights and
awareness to move forward toward higher goals and accomplishments.”
We will learn more about Canfield’s quote through Albert Bandura’s self-efficacy
theory, Dweck’s mindset theory, and Locke’s goal setting theory.
Albert E. Bandura’s Self-Efficacy
Albert E. Bandura introduced his concept of self-efficacy in an article entitled
“Self-efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change” that was published in
Psychological Review in 1977.
Who is Albert E. Bandura? He was born in Mundare, Alberta in December 4,
1925. He was the youngest of six children. Though times were often hard growing up,
Dr. Bandura’s parents placed great emphasis on celebrating life and more importantly
family. They were also very keen on their children doing well in school. Dr. Bandura
learned a lot about value and importance of self-direction from this time in his life.
Dr. Bandura is perhaps famous for his Bobo doll experiment in 1950’s. At the
time, there was a popular belief that learning was a result of reinforcement. In the
Bobo doll experiment, Dr. Bandura presented children with social models of novel (new)
violent behaviour or non-violent behaviour toward the inflatable redounding Bobo doll.
The children who viewed the violent behaviour were in turn violent toward the doll; the
control group was rarely violent toward the doll. Dr. Bandura and his colleagues Dorrie
and Sheila Ross showed that social modelling is a very effective way of learning. Dr.
Bandura went on to incorporate social modelling into his views on social learning
theory, which had a huge impact on psychology in the 1980s. Social learning theory
focuses on what people learn from observing and interacting with other people.
Dr. Bandura is highly recognized for his work in social learning theory and social
cognitive theory (a theory that states people are active participants in their environment
and are not simply shaped by that environment). He is continuing his research into the
effects of modelling on human behaviour, emotion, and thought. He is also researching
self-efficacy, and stress reactions at what level of internal control can people separate
themselves from harmful acts they are committing.
Summary of Self-Efficacy Theory
Weibell (2011) summarized Albert Bandura’s Self-Efficacy Theory:
The theory distinguishes between expectations of efficacy and response-outcome
expectancies. An outcome expectancy is “a person’s estimate that a given behaviour
will lead to certain outcomes.” An efficacy expectation is “the conviction that one can
successfully execute the behaviour required to produce the outcomes”.
Self-efficacy typically comes into play when there is an actual or perceived threat
to one’s personal safety, or one’s ability to deal with potentially aversive events.
Bandura defined self-efficacy as “people’s beliefs about their capabilities to
produce designated levels of performance that exercise influence over events that
affect their lives.” People with “high assurance in their capabilities.”
1. Approach difficult tasks as challenges to be mastered;
2. Set challenging goals and maintain strong commitment to them;
3. Heighten or sustain their efforts in the face of failures or setbacks;
4. Attribute failure to insufficient effort or deficient knowledge and skills which are
acquirable; and
5. Approach threatening situations with assurance that they can exercise control
over them.
In contrast, people “who doubt their capabilities”:
1. Shy away from tasks they view as personal threats;
2. Have low aspirations and weak commitment to goals they choose to pursue;
3. Dwell on personal deficiencies, obstacles they will encounter, and all kinds of
adverse outcomes, rather than concentrating on how to perform successfully;
4. Slacken their efforts and give up quickly in the face of difficulties;
5. Are slow to recover their sense of efficacy following failure or setbacks; and
6. Fall easy victim to stress and depression.
Bandura described four main sources of influence by which a person’s self-efficacy is
developed and maintained:
1. Performance accomplishments or mastery experiences;
2. Vicarious experiences;
3. Verbal or social persuasion;
4. Physiological, or somatic and emotional, states.
Mastery experiences, or personal performance accomplishments, are the most
effective way to create a strong sense of efficacy. Vicarious experiences through
observance of social models also influence one’s perception of self-efficacy. The most
important factor that determines the strength of influence of an observed success or
failure on one’s own self-efficacy is the degree of similarity between the observer and
the model.
Verbal or social persuasion also affects one’s perception of self-efficacy. It is “a
way of strengthening people’s beliefs that they have what it takes to succeed”. Verbal
or social persuasion can provide a temporary boost in perceived ability.
People also rely on their somatic or emotional states when judging their
capabilities. Stress and tension are interpreted as “signs of vulnerability to poor
performance.” Fatigue, aches and pains, and mood also affect perception of ability.
Dr. Albert Bandura’s quotes about self-efficacy:
 “Self-efficacy is the belief in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the
sources of action required to manage prospective situations.”
 “If efficacy beliefs always reflected only what people can do routinely they would
rarely fail but they would not set inspirations beyond their immediate reach nor
mount the extra effort needed to surpass their ordinary performances.”
 “Self-belief does not necessarily ensure success, but self-disbelief assuredly
spawns failure.”
 “By sticking it out through tough times, people emerge from adversity with a
stronger sense of self-efficacy.”
 “People’s beliefs about their abilities have a profound effect on those abilities.
Ability is not a fixed property; there is a huge variability in how you perform.
People who have a sense of self-efficacy bounce back from failure; they
approach things in terms of how to handle them than worrying about what can
go wrong.”
Carol S. Dweck’s Fixed and Growth Mindset Theory
Carol S. Dweck is the author Mindset The New Psychology of Success. She is one
of the leading researchers in the field of motivation. Her research has focused on why
people succeed and how to foster success.
Fixed and Growth Mindset
Dweck describes people with two types of Mindset:
1. Fixed Mindset – people who believe that their success is based on innate ability;
these are said to have a “fixed” theory of intelligence; dread failure.
2. Growth Mindset – people who believe their success is based on hard work,
learning and perseverance; said to have growth theory of intelligence; do not
mind failure as much.
Individuals with growth mindset are more likely to continue working hard despite
setbacks while individuals with fixed mindset can be affected by subtle environmental
Edwin A. Locke’s Goal Setting Theory
Edwin A. Locke is internationally known for his research on goal setting.
LESSON 3 – Less Stress, More Care
Lesson Objectives:
At the end of the lesson, the students will be able to:
1. Explain the effects of stress to one’s health;
2. Examine cultural dimension of stress and coping; and
3. Design a self-care plan.
The American Psychological Association (2017) has these statements about
stress: “Stress is often described as a feeling of being overwhelmed, worried or rundown. Stress can affect people of all ages, genders, and circumstances and can lead to
both physical and psychological health issues.
Since stress is inevitable to life, we have to learn how to handle and cope with it.
More so, we have to be familiar with other approach to healthy lifestyle, which is selfcare.
Stress and Human Response
Hans Selye defined stress as the body’s nonspecific response to any demand,
whether it is caused by or results in pleasant or unpleasant stimuli.
Distress unpleasant or harmful variety of stress which often connotes disease
and eustress which often connotes euphoria. Eustress is stress in daily life that has
positive connotations such as marriage, promotion, baby, winning money, new friends,
and graduation. While distress is stress in daily life that has negative connotations such
as divorce, punishment, injury, negative feelings, financial problems, and work
Selye hypothesized a General Adaptation or Stress Syndrome; this General Stress
Syndrome affects the whole body. Stress always manifests itself by a syndrome, a sum
of changes, not by simply one change.
There are three components to the General Stress Syndrome:
1. The alarm stage – represents a mobilization of the body’s defensive forces.
The body is preparing for the “fight or flight” syndrome. This involves a number
of hormones and chemical excreted at high levels, as well as an increase in heart
rate, blood pressure, perspiration, respiration rate, etc.
2. The stage of resistance – the body becomes adaptive to the challenge and
even begins to resist it.
3. The exhaustion stage – the body dies because it has used up its resources of
adaptation energy.
Stress diseases are maladies caused principally by errors in the body’s general
adaptation process. They will not occur when all the body’s regulatory processes are
properly checked and balanced.
Chronic Stress is unpleasant, even when it is transient. A stressful incident can make
the heart pound and breathing quicken. Muscles tense and beads of sweat appear.
“fight- or –flight” response – the combination of reactions to stress; it evolved as a
survival mechanism, enabling people and other mammals to react quickly to lifethreatening situations.
Unfortunately, the body can also overreact to stressors that are not lifethreatening, such as traffic jams, work pressure, and family difficulties.
More preliminary research suggests that chronic stress may also contribute to
obesity, both through direct mechanisms (causing people to eat more) indirectly
(decreasing sleep and exercise).
The stress response begins in the brain. Amygdala, an area of the brain that
contributes to emotional processing; it interprets the images and sounds. When it
perceives danger, it instantly sends a distress signal to the hypothalamus.
The hypothalamus is a bit like a command center. This area of the brain
communicates with the rest of the body through the autonomic nervous system, which
controls such involuntary body functions as breathing, blood pressure, heartbeat, and
the dilation or constriction of key blood vessels and small airways in the lungs called
Two components of autonomic nervous system:
1. Sympathetic nervous system – functions like a gas pedal in a car; it triggers the
fight- or –flight response, providing the body with a burst of energy so that it can
respond to perceived dangers.
2. Parasympathetic nervous system – acts like a brake; it promotes the “rest and
digest” response that calms the body down after the danger has passed.
Adrenal glands – these glands respond by pumping the hormone epinephrine (also
known as adrenaline) into the bloodstream.
As epinephrine circulates through the body, it brings on a number of
physiological changes. The heart beats faster than normal, pushing blood to the
muscles, heart and other vital organs.
As the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the
second component of the stress response system – known as the HPA axis. This
network consists of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and the adrenal glands.
The hypothalamus releases corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which travels
to the pituitary gland, triggering the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
This hormone travels to the adrenal glands, prompting them to release cortisol. The
body thus stay revved up and on high alert.
Chronic low-level stress keeps the HPA axis activated, much like a motor that is
idling too high for too long. After a while, this has an effect on the body that
contributes to the health problems associated with chronic stress.
Techniques to Counter Chronic Stress
Relaxation Response. Dr. Herbert Benson, director emeritus of the BensonHenry Institute for Mind Body Medicine, has devoted much of his career to learning how
people can counter the stress response by using a combination of approaches that elicit
the relaxation response. These include deep abdominal breathing, focus on a soothing
word (such as peace or calm), and visualization of tranquil scenes, repetitive prayer,
yoga and tai chi.
Physical Activity. People can use exercise to stifle the build-up of stress in
several ways. Exercise, such as taking a brisk walk shortly after feeling stressed, not
only deepens breathing but also helps relieve muscle tension.
Social Support. Confidants, friends, acquaintances, co-workers, relatives,
spouses, and companions all provide a life-enhancing social net – and may increase
Self-care Therapy
A positive way to counter stress in self-care therapy. Nancy Apperson of
Northern Illinois University has provided steps for self-care:
1. Stop, breathe, and tell yourself: “This is hard and I will get through this
1 step at a time.”
2. Acknowledge to yourself, what you are feeling. All feelings are normal
so accept whatever you are feeling.
3. Find someone who listens and is accepting. You do not need advice.
You need to be heard.
4. Maintain your normal routine as much as possible.
5. Allow plenty of time for a task.
6. Take good care of yourself. Remember to:
Get enough rest and sleep. Sleep at least 6 hours and not more
than 9 hours.
Eat regularly and make healthy choices.
Know your limits and when you need to let go.
Identify or create a nurturing place in your home.
Practice relaxation or meditation.