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OSHA 30-Hour OSHA Construction 360training

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OSHA 30-Hour Construction
Study Guide
www.360training.com
Copyright 2007
No written part of the material may be reproduced in whole or in part without express permission. This information is provided for educational
purposes only. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is provided
with the understanding that the author is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting, or other professional service. If legal advice or other expert
assistance is required, the services of a competent professional person should be sought.
OSHA 30-Hour Construction Study Guide
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or in part without express permission. This information is
provided for educational purposes only. This publication is
designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in
regard to the subject matter covered. It is provided with the
understanding that the author is not engaged in rendering
legal, accounting, or other professional services. If legal
advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of
a competent professional person should be sought.
OSHA 30-Hour Construction Study Guide
1
Introduction to OSHA 30-Hour Construction Study Guide
The Purpose and Design of the Study Guide
The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH Act) of 1970 was passed by
Congress to protect, as far as possible, all workers in the United States. OSHA
or, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, was instituted by the OSH
Act under the Department of Labor and was authorized to regulate health and
safety conditions with few exceptions.
The purpose of this study guide is to provide a thorough review of the 360training
OSHA 30-Hour Construction Outreach Course. Each module corresponds to
those in the series and contains bulleted highlights, followed by a practical case
study, a case study safety recommendations segment, a practice quiz, and a
note taking section.
OSHA 30-Hour Construction Study Guide
2
Table of Contents
Module 1- Introduction to OSHA and the OSH Act
5
Module 2- Recordkeeping
11
Module 3- General Safety and Health
18
Module 4- OSHA 1926 STD 3-1.1
24
Module 5- Occupational Health
31
Module 6- Process Safety Management of
Highly Hazardous Chemicals
37
Module 7- Personal Protective Equipment
43
Module 8- Fire Protection
50
Module 9- Materials Handling
56
Module 10- Hand and Power Tools
62
Module 11- Welding and Cutting
68
Module 12- Electrical Safety
74
Module 13- Scaffolding
80
Module 14- Basic Fall Protection
87
Module 15- Cranes and Rigging
93
OSHA 30-Hour Construction Study Guide
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Module 16- Motor Vehicles
99
Module 17- Excavations
105
Module 18- Concrete and Masonry
112
Module 19- Stairways and Ladders
118
Module 20- Confined Space Entry
124
Module 21- Basic Safety Orientation
130
Module 22- Lead Safety in the Workplace
136
Module 23- Use of Explosives in the Workplace
142
Glossary
148
Module Review Quiz Answer Key
160
OSHA 30-Hour Construction Study Guide
4
Module 1:
INTRODUCTION TO OSHA AND THE OSH ACT
This review covers who is covered by OSHA and who is not, OSHA’s inspection
authority, inspection types, inspection processes, citations and related penalties,
responsibilities and rights of employers and employees, as well as reporting and
recordkeeping.
OSHA Authority
OSHA has the authority to:
•
•
•
Conduct inspections to enforce its standards
Send compliance officers to investigate all work phases at reasonable
times, in a reasonable manner and to privately question anyone
Conduct inspections without any advance notice, but during normal
working hours
Types of Inspections
The five types of inspections are listed in their order of importance:
1. Imminent danger - top priority
2. Catastrophic and fatal accidents - if 3 or more employees are
hospitalized in an incident
3. Employee complaints - confidential
4. Programmed high hazard inspections - done for operations with
conditions that can cause a high death rate, more than average injuries,
or serious illness risks
5. Re-inspections - done to verify that corrective actions as specified in a
citation have been taken
Types of Citations and Penalties
After the OSHA Compliance Officer reports his or her findings, it is the Area
Director that determines what citations to issue and what penalties to propose.
The types of violations and related financial penalties which can be proposed
are:
1. Other-than-serious violation - is not probable to cause death-maximum proposed penalty of $7,000
2. Serious violation - there is a high probability that death or serious harm
will result, and the employer knew, or should have known--maximum
penalty of $7,000
OSHA 30-Hour Construction Study Guide
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3. Willful violation - employer knew hazard was a safety violation and
made no reasonable effort to remove it--penalty ranges from $5,000 to
$70,000.
4. Repeated violation - upon re-inspection by OSHA, another violation of
the same previously cited section is found–penalty up to $70,000.
5. Failure to abate - failure to correct a violation can cause civil penalties
up to $7,000 per day for each day the violation is not corrected past the
abatement date specified in the citation
Employers’ Rights and Responsibilities
•
•
•
•
•
Post citations at/near each site for 3 workdays or until corrected
If employer accepts a citation, it must correct it and pay the related penalty
If it does not agree, it has 15 working days to contest in writing the citation,
penalty, and/or the abatement dates.
Employer must inform workers about all OSHA matters affecting them.
Each company department must post materials prominently, including:
o Poster OSHA 2203 that lists employee rights and responsibilities
o Summaries of petitions for variances from standards or procedures
o Copies of OSHA citations for violations of standards
Workers’ Responsibilities
•
•
•
•
•
Read and follow OSHA poster rules and wear all required PPE
Follow safe work practices as directed by your employer
Report hazardous conditions to a supervisor or safety committee
immediately
Report hazardous conditions to OSHA if employers do not isolate, fix, or
replace them
Cooperate with OSHA inspectors
Workers’ Rights
•
•
•
To work together to identify and correct workplace problems
To report to OSHA workplace conditions that threaten personal health or
safety
The right to seek safe, healthful work settings without reprimand or
penalties
Anti-Discrimination Provisions
OSHA prohibits retaliation against employees who file complaints, initiate
proceedings, contest abatement dates, request OSHA information or testify at
proceedings. In some cases, employees can refuse to work in seriously
hazardous settings.
OSHA 30-Hour Construction Study Guide
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Who is Covered by OSHA?
OSHA covers all employees and employers under Federal government authority.
Coverage is either provided directly by Federal OSHA or an OSHA-approved
state program. Covered sectors include:
•
•
•
•
General Industry
Construction
Maritime
Some agricultural activities
Who is Not Covered by OSHA?
OSHA does not cover unemployed or self-employed workers, unless the selfemployed workers are “incorporated.” OSHA does not cover immediate members
of farm families that do not employ outside workers. Sectors not covered include:
•
Employees whose conditions are regulated by other federal agencies such
as mine workers, some types of truckers, railroad workers, and atomic
energy workers
•
Public employees in state and local governments (except for states with
approved plans)—such as fire fighters, police, and other public servants
— are also not covered by OSHA.
State Plans
State plans are OSHA-approved programs operated by individual states instead
of by federal OSHA. State plans must have standards and enforcement
programs, and voluntary compliance activities, that are “at least as effective as”
federal OSHA. States plans cover most state private sector employees and, state
and local government workers. There are 26 states and territories that operate
state plans.
The General Duty Clause
If the Standard is not practical, the General Duty Clause rules, stating employer:
must "Furnish . . . a place of employment which is free from recognized hazards
that are causing, or are likely to cause, death or serious physical harm to
employees."
Recordkeeping and Reporting
Employers of 11 or more workers must keep records of occupational exposures,
injuries and illnesses. Employers must report to OSHA within eight hours of an
accident that causes three or more workers to die or be hospitalized. Some lowOSHA 30-Hour Construction Study Guide
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hazard employers (for example, retail trade, real estate) do not have to keep
records.
Case Study
An experienced employee was electrocuted while working on a billboard. The
billboard was four feet off the ground with its top extending 16 feet from the
ground. After removing what he could of an old poster, he retrieved a longer, 24foot ladder from his truck. While positioning the 24-foot ladder, it hit a power line
eight feet above the sign causing electrocution. A 32-foot, adjustable extension
ladder was available in the truck and using it would have been safer. A passerby
saw the incident, called 911, and gave CPR, but the worker was DOA at the
hospital.
Recommendations
•
Employers must identify all site hazards and inform their workers about
them. Here, the employer should have called attention to the power line
and required the worker to actively avoid it and use correct equipment.
•
Employers must provide the proper equipment to do all job tasks safely.
Here, scaffolding or long-handled brushes should have been provided.
Also, a non-conductive ladder should have been available and required.
•
Written safety procedures would have ensured proper practices.
OSHA 30-Hour Construction Study Guide
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Module 1: Review Quiz
1. Which of the following is the most serious condition, requiring an immediate
OSHA inspection?
Imminent danger
Catastrophic and fatal accidents
Employee complaints
Programmed high hazard inspections
2. In cases where actual standards cannot be applied, employers are regulated
by the OSH Act’s:
Area Director
General Duty Clause
OSHA compliant officer
Rules and regulations
3. What is a willful violation?
The employer knows of the hazard and contests a violation
The employer does not
Any violation carrying a penalty over $10,000
The employer knew the hazard was a safety violation and made no
reasonable effort to eliminate it
4. OSHA regulations are implemented directly by Federal OSHA or through:
The regional OSHA agency
An OSHA-approved state program
Covered sectors
Compliance officers
5. Which low-hazard employers are not required to keep records for occupational
injuries and illnesses?
Retail trade, finance, insurance or real estate
Only retail trade involving no equipment and offices
Publishing, banks, real estate and Internet
Retail trade, banking, international and news
OSHA 30-Hour Construction Study Guide
9
NOTES:
OSHA 30-Hour Construction Study Guide
10
Module 2:
RECORDKEEPING
This review covers OSHA 29 CFR 1904. It outlines the steps employers must
take to: identify, record, maintain, and report cases of injury or disease to OSHA.
Purpose
Recording a work-related injury, illness, or fatality does not mean anyone was at
fault, a rule was violated, or the employee will get benefits. Partially exempt
employers must continue to comply with the following:
Report fatalities and hospitalization incidents of three or more employees.
Annual OSHA injury and illness survey (if requested to do so by OSHA)
BLS annual survey (if specifically requested to do so by BLS)
Size Exemption
The following are some size exemptions:
If a company had 10 or less workers at all times during the last calendar year,
it does not need to keep records unless surveyed by OSHA or BLS.
Size exemption is based on total number of employees in the company.
Temporary employees, supervised daily, also should be included.
Industry Exemption
The following are industry exemptions:
•
Partial exemption is for retail, services, finance, insurance, or real estate.
•
Not eligible: agriculture, mining, construction, manufacturing,
transportation, communication, electric, gas/sanitary services, wholesale
Partial exemptions apply to individual companies. If one has several operations
doing different work, some may have to keep records and some may not.
New Case
A case is new if:
•
If worker has not had a similar incident affecting the same body part
OSHA 30-Hour Construction Study Guide
11
•
The employee previously had a similar recordable injury or illness
affecting the same body part. But, after complete recovery, an event or
exposure in the workplace caused the signs and symptoms to reappear.
•
If exposure triggers a recurrence, it is a new case (e.g., asthma, rashes). If
symptoms recur without exposure--not a new case (example: TB).
General Recording Criteria
An injury or illness must be recorded if it results in one or more of the following:
•
Death, days away from work, restricted work activity, or job transfer
•
Medical treatment beyond first aid or loss of consciousness
•
A significant injury or illness diagnosed by an authorized professional.
Days Away Cases
The following criteria appliy to “days away” cases:
•
Record if the case involves one or more days away from work.
•
Check the “days away” box and enter calendar days away from work.
•
Do not include day of injury or illness.
•
Count calendar days employee was unable to work (include weekend
days, holidays, vacation days, etc.); cap the day count at 180 days.
•
If a medical opinion exists, the employer must follow that opinion.
Restricted Work
Restricted work activity occurs when:
•
Employee cannot do one or more job functions (ones done once a week).
•
An employee is kept from working a full workday.
•
A physician or licensed health care professional suggests any of above.
Transfer to Another Job
If an employer transfers an employee to another job, the following applies:
•
A transfer to another job counts the same as “days away” from work.
•
If job is permanently changed, stop counting “days away,” use at least one
OSHA 30-Hour Construction Study Guide
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Medical Treatment
Medical treatment is considered the management and care of a patient to combat
disease or disorder. Wound closing devices such as sutures and staples are
deemed as medical treatment. Medical treatment does not include:
•
First aid, visits to a PLHCP soley for observation or counseling
o Diagnostic procedures including like X-rays or blood tests
•
Drilling of fingernail or toenail, draining fluid from blister
•
Eye patches, finger guards, massage, offering fluids
•
Removing foreign bodies from eye using irrigation or cotton swab
•
Removing material from other than eyes by simple means like tweezers
Loss of Consciousness
All work-related cases involving loss of consciousness must be recorded.
Needlestick and Sharps Injuries
All work-related needlesticks and cuts from objects contaminated with human
blood or possible infectious material (like bodily fluids, tissues, or HIV-infected
materials) must be recorded. Record splashes or other exposures to such
materials not caused by cuts or scratches. Employers must record work-related
hearing loss where:
• STS or hearing level is 25 dBs or more above audiometric zero in STS ear
Forms
Employers must record cases on reporting forms within seven calendar days of
learning about a recordable case. Approved alternative forms include:
•
Readable, clear forms asking same facts,and using same instructions
•
Computer format is okay as long as forms can be printed as required.
OSHA 300 Privacy Protections
•
NEVER enter employee name on Form 300, instead enter “privacy case.”
•
Keep a private list of case numbers and worker names for privacy
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Privacy Concern Cases
Always consider these injuries or illnesses to be privacy concern cases, if:
•
Intimate body part or reproductive system is affected, or a sexual assault
•
Mental illnesses, HIV infection, hepatitis, or tuberculosis
•
Incident involves a potentially contaminated needlestick or sharps injury
•
Employee requests that his or her name not be used
OSHA 300 Disclosures
•
Use discretion in report wording if an employee’s name can be obvious.
•
If unauthorized people have access, remove names, unless given to:
o Auditors/consultants hired to evaluate health and safety programs
o Claims adjustor for workers’ compensation or other benefits
o Public health authority or law enforcement agency
Fatality/Catastrophe Reporting
Employers must report orally, within eight hours, any work-related fatality/incident
with three or more in-patient hospitalizations to the area OSHA office and the
nearest Department of Labor site. Regarding fatality/catastrophe reporting:
Employers must report fatal heart attacks.
Do not report highway/public street vehicle accidents outside work zones.
Do not need report commercial airplane, train, subway, or bus accidents.
Give OSHA the following facts on each fatality or multiple hospitalization incident:
The establishment name and location of the incident
• The time of the incident and number of fatalities or hospitalized employees
•
Names of injured employees and employer’s contact name and number
•
A brief description of the incident
Providing Records to Government Representatives
Employers must provide record copies within four business hours (in the time
zone stored) when requested by an authorized government official such as:
•
A representative of the Secretary of Labor, HHS, or State Plan
OSHA 30-Hour Construction Study Guide
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Case study
Babies Bits, Inc. assembles tems like specialty hats, seasonal blankets, and toys.
It runs three retail shops. Its 64 workers are mainly at the plant, but each store
has three fulltime people. Which must be done for each of these incidents?
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
Kit cut her hand on a box staple at one of the retail stores.
Edward lost consciousness after breathing some machine exhaust.
An explosion sent six workers to the hospital.
Recommendations
•
•
•
Kit’s cut does not have to be recorded since the store is partially exempt.
Ed’s loss of consciousness is criteria for incident recording.
Company name, location, time of incident, number and names of injured,
company contact name and phone, and event summary must be reported.
OSHA 30-Hour Construction Study Guide
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Module 2: Review Quiz
1. An injury or illness must be recorded if it results in all of the following EXCEPT:
Death
Breaking of the skin
Days away from work
Loss of consciousness
2. If a worker has not previously experienced a recordable injury or illness of the
same type that affects the same part of the body, OSHA considers it to be a:
New case
Violation
Urgent case
Reportable occurrence
3. According to OSHA, which of the following is NOT considered medical
treatment?
Stitches
Eye patches
Stomach pump
Intravenous medicine
4. Employers must enter each recordable case on reporting forms within ______
calendar days of receiving information that a recordable case has occurred.
Five
Six
Seven
Eight
5. The employer must give OSHA all of the following information for each fatality
or multiple hospitalization, EXCEPT:
Who should be held responsible
The establishment name
The location of the incident
The time of the incident
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NOTES:
OSHA 30-Hour Construction Study Guide
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Module 3:
GENERAL SAFETY AND HEALTH
This review covers OSHA 29 CFR 1926 Subpart C, General Safety and Health
Provisions. Topics include safety requirements, accident prevention, training and
education, providing proper first aid and fire protection, emergency action plan
elements and the important of requiring and providing adequate PPE.
Requirements
Under the general safety and health provisions covered in this standard,
contractors have specific duties to ensure that workers doing contract work are
never required to work under hazardous conditions. Employers must:
•
•
•
Conduct frequent, regular inspections to reduce risk
Use competent persons for inspections who can identify all hazards and
are authorized to take prompt corrective steps
To allow only qualified employees to operate equipment and machinery
Accident Prevention
It is a fact that hazards exist, but following safe work practices will reduce their
effects. Employers must ensure the following are in place:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Tag/lock procedures or plans to remove all unsafe devices from workplace
Proper training
Safety programs
First aid services
Effective fire protection and prevention
Routine cleanup of hazardous debris and safe containers for separation
Proper lighting
Safety Program Elements
All safety programs or emergency action plans must include the following:
1. Management Commitment and Employee Involvement - such
involvement must be documented
2. Worksite Analyses - detailed surveys to analyze all job hazards in
conjunction with a system for employee input and feedback
3. Hazard Prevention and Control - the use of engineering systems such
as machine guards, automatic off switches and PPE reduce hazards
4. Training and Education - a plan to train, monitor and retrain supervisors
and workers if there are substantial process changes or at least annually
OSHA 30-Hour Construction Study Guide
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Employee Medical and Exposure Records
Access to Employee Medical and Exposure Records
"Access" means the employee’s right and chance to examine and copy personal
records. Access must be given in a reasonable manner and place. If it cannot be
given in within 15 days after request, the employer must give a reason for delay
and the earliest date when the records will be made available.
Exposure Records
Upon request, the employer must provide the employee, or designated
representative, access to records. If no records exist, the employer must provide
records of other employees with job duties similar to those of the employee.
Access to these records does not require the written consent of other employees.
Such records must reasonably state the identity, amount, and nature of the toxic
substances or harmful physical agents to which the employee has been exposed.
Medical and Exposure Records
Access to the exposure and medical records of another employee can only be
provided with the specific written consent of the involved employee.
Prior to giving access to medical and exposure records, physicians, on behalf of
employers, are encouraged to discuss such records with employees or suggest
ways to disclose medical data other than face to face. A physician for the
employer can elect to give data on some diagnoses of terminal illnesses or
psychiatric conditions only to an employee's designated representative and not
directly to the employee.
Trade Secrets
Employers have the right to withhold the exact chemical name of a toxic
substance if they:
Can prove that the specific chemical identity of the substance is being
withheld as a trade secret
Give the chemical name to health professionals, employees and their
designated representatives only under certain specified conditions
Employee Information
When first employed and at least annually thereafter, employees must be told of
the existence, location and availability of their medical and exposure records.
OSHA 30-Hour Construction Study Guide
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Employers also must also inform employees on the access standard and make
copies available.
Transfer and Retention of Records
When closing a business, the owner must give its successor all employee
medical and exposure records. If there is no successor, the owner must tell
current affected employees their access rights at least three months prior to
closing and give written notice to the Director of NIOSH at least three months
prior to destroying records.
Employers must preserve and maintain exposure and medical records for all
employees, including:
The duration of employment plus 30 years
One-retention of source data for exposure records such as lab reports
Provide records at termination if work term is less than one year
One-time, first-aid records are exempt
Emergency Action Plan (EAP) Elements
The following items must be in the employer’s written action plan to explain how
both the employer and employees will response during emergencies:
Emergency escape procedures and emergency escape route assignments
Detailed procedures for employees who remain to operate emergency
equipment
Procedures to account for all employees after emergency evacuation
Rescue and medical duties for those employees who are to perform them
The preferred means of reporting fires and other emergencies
Names, job titles or departments to contact for further information
An employee alarm system
Evacuation plan with routes and training
A plan to train people who will facilitate the emergency processes
Case Study - Chlorine gas poisoning at drinking water facilities
John added hypochlorous acid soda, etc., to a drinking water tank at a hot
springs site. He was tired, yet planned to work a double shift. While inspecting
the water facility at 8:45 p.m., he found that only 10 percent of the volume of
polychlorinated aluminum and hypochlorous acid soda remained in the stirring
tanks. So he took action to correct the condition. As he opened the tank, a strong
chlorine vapor escaped which he inhaled.
OSHA 30-Hour Construction Study Guide
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He started coughing and gasping violently as the gas entered his nose and nasal
passages and lungs. With a burning throat and chest as symptoms, his hospital
exam concluded he had experienced liver function impairment.
Recommendations
•
Hypochlorous acid soda was mistakenly put into the tank with
polychlorinated aluminum which produced chlorine
•
The hypochlorous acid soda and polychlorinated aluminum bags looked
similar. They should have been clearly labeled.
•
The worker should have been trained in safe practices
•
The worker should not have been allowed to work a double shift which
caused exhaustion and impaired his ability to respond safely under these
hazardous circumstances.
OSHA 30-Hour Construction Study Guide
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Module 3: Review Quiz
1. Which of the following should be in an employer’s emergency action plan?
Emergency escape procedures and route assignments
Procedures to be practiced if employees remain after evacuation
One-way communication
Excavation plans with design testing and training
2. At employment and at least _____ thereafter, employees must be informed on
the existence, location, and availability of their medical/exposure records.
Quarterly
Annually
Bi-annually
Monthly
3. What does the term “access” mean regarding employees’ medical and
exposure records?
The employee’s right to privacy re their medical reports and records
Employee’s right and opportunity to discuss or review their records
Employee’s right and opportunity to examine and copy their records
Employee’s right to access to medical testing after a hazardous exposure
4. What is a vital element of a safety program?
Management commitment and employee involvement
Employee commitment to management
Compliance
Communication
5. Employers MUST ensure that which of the following are in place?
Training for at least one evident hazard
Access programs
Access to medical services
Tag/lock procedures for unsafe equipment
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NOTES:
OSHA 30-Hour Construction Study Guide
23
Module 4:
OSHA 1926 STD 3-1.1
This module reviews General Safety and Health Provisions; Safety Training and
Education;First Aid and Medical Attention, and Recordkeeping Requirements.
Requirements and Provisions
Contractors have specific requirements regarding employee health and safety.
Subcontractors must never be required by contractors to work under conditions
that are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to their health and safety.
Accident Prevention Responsibilities
Employers must decrease accident and injury risks by doing frequent job site
inspections. Inspections must be done by “competent persons” who can identify
existing and predictable hazards or unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous
conditions. This person must have the authority to correct or eliminate such risks.
Machinery and Tools
Only employees qualified by training or experience can be permitted to operate
equipment. Using machinery, tools, materials, or equipment that is not in
compliance is prohibited. All such unsafe apparatus must be tagged or locked to
render them inoperable or be physically removed from the points of operation.
Safety Training and Education
Employer Responsibilities
In an industrial environment, accidents are inevitable, but unsafe conditions can
be reduced with education and training. Employers must train workers to avoid
and recognize unsafe conditions and to control and eliminate any such hazards.
When employees must handle or use harmful substances, they must be trained
on safe handling and use, be made aware of potential hazards, and know
required personal hygiene and personal protective measures. If harmful plants
or animals are present, employees with potential exposure must be trained on
the hazards and first aid, as well as learn how to avoid injury.
Employer’s Safety and Health Program
OSHA compliance is vital but an effective program reaches beyond a set of rules
and works to prevent injuries and illnesses whether mandated or not.
OSHA 30-Hour Construction Study Guide
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Major Program Elements
1. Management Commitment and Employee Involvement
•
Policy statement: goals established, issued, communicated to workers
•
Program revised annually and management observes all safety rules
•
Involve employees in safety meetings, inspections; meeting agendas
•
Make the commitment of resources is adequate
•
Safety rules and procedures incorporated into site operations
2. Worksite Analysis
•
Conduct comprehensive baseline job site surveys for safety and health
•
Perform routine job hazards analyses
•
Assess risk factors of ergonomics applications to workers' tasks
•
Conduct regular site safety and health inspections
•
Provide a way for employees to notify management about hazards
3. Hazard Prevention and Control
Use engineering techniques and establish safe work practices
•
•
•
•
•
Provide PPE when engineering controls are not feasible
Use administrative controls to reduce the duration of exposure
Maintain the facility and equipment to prevent breakdowns
Plan and prepare for emergencies via training and emergency drills
Establish a medical program that includes on-site first aid
4. Safety and Health Training
•
Ensure workers know hazards they may face and are trained to avoid
•
Maintain physical protection in work areas
•
•
Understand safety and health responsibilities
Limit some jobs to certified, competent, or qualified workers
5. Training and Education
•
Supervisors must receive basic training
•
Specialized training must be taken when needed
•
Employee training program exists, is ongoing, and is effective
OSHA 30-Hour Construction Study Guide
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6. Assignment of Responsibility
Safety designee on site– must be knowledgeable and accountable
Supervisors and foremen must understand health responsibilities
7. Identification and Control of Hazards
Create safety committee and have management enforce rules
Recordkeeping Requirements
Employers must record and report work-related fatalities, injuries, and illnesses.
This does not imply fault, an OSHA violation, or that worker will get benefits.
Partial Exemption
Partially exempt employers because of size or industry must still:
ƒ
Report fatalities and multiple hospitalization incidents of three or
more
ƒ
Do an annual OSHA injury and illness survey (if requested by
OSHA)
ƒ
Do an annual BLS survey (if specifically requested to do so by BLS)
General Recording Criteria
An injury or illness is recordable if it results in one or more of the following:
- Death, days away from work, restricted work activity, job transfer
- Medical treatment beyond first aid or loss of consciousness
- Major injury or illness diagnosed by a PLHCP
Access to Employee Exposure and Medical Records
Access
"Access" means the employee’s right and opportunity to examine and copy his or
her records. Access to employee medical and exposure records must be given in
a reasonable manner and place.
If access cannot be given within 15 days after requested, the employer must
state the reason for delay and the earliest date when records will be available.
OSHA 30-Hour Construction Study Guide
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Responses to initial requests and new data added to initial requests must be
provided without cost to the worker or representative. The employer can give
copies of the requested records, provide access to copying facilities or lend
employees their records for copying. Plus, medical and exposure records are to
be made available, on request, for OSHA representatives to examine and copy.
Employers must give employees and their representatives access to records
relevant to them. Access to another worker’s records may be allowed only with
the specific written consent of the employee.
Physicians representing employers are encouraged to discuss record contents
with workers prior to granting actual access. A medical record is created or
maintained by a physician, nurse, or authorized care provider, and it includes:
ƒ
Medical exams and results throughout employment and preemployment
ƒ
Job and medical surveys, histories, job exposures, exposures
ƒ
Lab test results like chest X-rays taken to establish base-line data
ƒ
Biological monitoring, treatment, prescriptions, and medical complaints
ƒ
Medical opinions, diagnoses, progress notes and medical complaints
Employer physicians can choose to give data on serious diagnoses like terminal
illnesses or psychiatric problems only to an employee's representative.
Analyses Using Exposure or Medical Records
The Standard ensures workers, their representatives, and OSHA access to
analyses based on workplace data. If an analysis request identifies a worker by
name, etc., or asks for facts that can ID a worker, the employer must remove
such identifiers. If removal is impossible, the facts does not have to be provided.
Employee Exposure Record
An exposure record relevant to the employee consists of:
•
Monitored levels of toxic substance or harmful agent exposures
•
If unavailable, records of other workers with similar duties or job conditions
An employee exposure record is one containing any of the following data types:
•
Workplace monitoring of a toxic substance or harmful physical agent
•
Biological monitoring showing body absorption of toxins or harmful agents
•
MSDSs stating hazard; if unavailable list when and where hazards exists
OSHA 30-Hour Construction Study Guide
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Employee Information
When hired and at least yearly afterward, workers must be told the location, and
availability of their records. Employers must inform employees of rights and make
copies of the standard available, as well as ID who maintains and gives access.
Transfer of Records
If a company closes, it must give any successor all records. If no successor, it
must give affected employees access rights at least three months before closing,
or write the NIOSH Director at least three months prior to destroying records.
Retention of Records
The Standard does not require recordkeeping, but it does apply to records
created by employer in compliance with other OSHA rules or at free will.
• Exposure records and related data analyses must be kept for 30 years.
• Records must be kept at least the length of employment plus 30 years.
• Background data for records like lab reports must be kept for one year.
• Records for short-term service under a year should be provided at exit.
• One-time, first-aid records do not have to be kept for a specific term.
Case Study
The IBA Inc. board voted to sell the company to ABAS Manufacturing. What
responsibilities does IBA have toward its long-term employees and new hires?
Recommendations
•
•
Employees hired within the last year must be given copies of their
medical records if terminated as part of the terms of sale.
All medical records and analyses based on those records much be
given to the new owner.
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Module 4: Review Quiz
1. To decrease the risk of workplace accidents and injuries, employers must:
Video monitor all areas deemed “dangerous”
Provide frequent and regular inspections of the job site
Monitor every area of the job site daily
Hold daily safety training sessions
2. The ______must establish and supervise training programs to help workers
and managers to recognize, avoid, and prevent unsafe workplace conditions.
Employer
Federal government
Secretary
Health specialist
3. An injury or illness is recordable if it results in all of the following EXCEPT:
Death
Restricted work activity
Transfer to another job
First aid medial treatment
4. ______ refers to employees’ rights and opportunity to examine and copy
personal medical and exposure records.
Access
Review privileges
Trust rights
Advocacy
5. When hired and ______, employees must be told of the existence, location
and availability of their medical and exposure records.
Every two weeks thereafter
At least annually thereafter
At the beginning of every quarter
When medical needs arise
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NOTES:
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Module 5:
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH
This module review the Hazard Communication Standard designed to protect
workers exposed to health hazards and chemicals while on the job.
Introduction
The 1983 Standard requires chemical manufacturers, distributors, or importers to
assess hazards inherent in products they produce, distribute, or import. They
must also gather and document hazards on material safety data sheets that must
be given to at-risk workers. Plus, training must be given to all exposed workers.
What Are Hazardous Substances?
Chemicals can cause health problems from skin irritations to serious injuries or
diseases like cancer. Employers must consider using the least hazardous
chemicals when possible. A hazardous chemical is defined as "a chemical which
poses a physical or health related risk.”
Physical Hazards - Chemical reactions that result in fires, explosions, or the
release of a toxic gas that may cause physical trauma
Health Hazards - Health effects like illness or disease caused directly by
chemicals themselves and not by an injury resulting from a reaction.
Employers must write and implement a hazard communication program to
ensure all containers are labeled, employees are given access to MSDSs, and
effective training is conducted.
Exposure to Hazardous Substances
Hazardous substances enter the body in four ways:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Inhalation
Ingestion
Absorption
Injection
Inhalation
Inhalation takes chemicals into the nose or mouth, down the windpipe, and into
the lungs. Some chemicals are trapped in the lungs and others can pass into the
bloodstream. Gases, fumes, and tiny solid particles are commonly inhaled.
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Ingestion
This occurs when swallowing. From the stomach, chemicals enter the intestines
where they are absorbed into the bloodstream. Tiny particles are easily ingested.
Absorption
Absorption occurs when chemicals enter the bloodstream through the skin.
Injection
This occurs if a chemical enters the body via a wound, cut, or puncture. Gasses
under high pressure can cut the skin and inject chemicals directly into the body.
Permissible Exposure Limit - PEL
PELs are the regulated limits or concentrations of a substance allowed in the air.
PELs protect workers from exposure to hazardous airborne substances.
Material Safety Data Sheet - MSDS
A MSDS, lists chemical hazards. It contains informational and training data for
safe use and must be provided for every workplace chemical.
Asbestos
Asbestos is a group of naturally occurring, fibrous minerals with high tensile
strength, flexibility, and resistance to heat, chemicals, and electricity. It is found in
sprayed-on fireproofing, pipe insulation, ceiling tiles, fire-resistant drywall, drywall
joint compounds, acoustical products, etc. Few asbestos-containing products are
used today, so exposure often occurs during removal and building renovations.
Asbestos inhalation can cause diseases like gastrointestinal cancer and severe
lung impairment. Symptoms usually do not appear until 20 after initial exposure.
Classification of Asbestos
Class I - is the most hazardous; involves removing thermal insulation and
sprayed-on or troweled-on surfacing asbestos-containing materials
Class II - includes removing asbestos-containing materials that are not
thermal system insulation, like resilient flooring and roofing materials.
Class III - focuses on repair and maintenance operations where asbestoscontaining or presumed asbestos-containing materials are disturbed.
OSHA 30-Hour Construction Study Guide
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Class IV - covers custodial activities to clean up asbestos-containing waste
PEL - Permissible Exposure Limit
Employee exposure to asbestos must not exceed 0.1 fibers per cubic centimeter
(f/cc) of air, averaged over an eight-hour work shift. Short-term exposure must
also be limited to not more than 1 f/cc, averaged over 30 minutes. Rotation of
employees to achieve compliance with either PEL is prohibited.
Asbestos and Smoking
Smokers exposed to asbestos have a greater risk of lung cancer. Those exposed
to asbestos at any time or who suspect exposure, should not smoke.
General Compliance Requirements
For any employee exposed to airborne asbestos, the employer must provide and
ensure the use of PPE like coveralls, head coverings, gloves, face shields,
vented goggles, or other PPE wherever the chance of eye irritation exists.
Employers must also supply and ensure use of respirators where necessary.
Employers must provide medical examinations for workers who, for 30 or more
days per year, engage in Class I, II, or III work or experience symptoms.
Recordkeeping
Employers must record exact asbestos exposure measurements, including
dates, circumstances, sampling methods, evidence of accuracy, the number,
duration, and results of samples, PPE worn, name, social security number, and
results employee condition. These records must be kept for 30 years.
What Kinds of Building Materials May Contain Asbestos?
Asbestos dust exposure can occur at major construction sites, in shipyards, in
industry, and during construction or renovation of buildings. Even workers'
families and friends can be at risk, as asbestos can be carried on clothing. It is
important to note that workers are not always told they are working around
asbestos, and even a single, low dose exposure can result in harm.
This list shows asbestos use, although more products may contain asbestos.
Product
Roofing tiles
Roofing shingles
Sprayed coating
Troweled coating
Asbestos, cement
sheet
Location
Roofs
Roofs
Ceilings, walls, steelwork
Ceilings, walls
Fireplaces, boilers
% Asbestos
20 – 30
20 – 32
1 – 95
1- 95
20 – 50
OSHA 30-Hour Construction Study Guide
Dates of Use
1930 – present
1930 – present
1935 – 1978
1936 – 1978
1930 – present
33
Millboard, rollboard
Walls, commercial
buildings
Floor
Asphalt – asbestos
tile
Preformed pipe wrap Pipes
Paper tape
Furnaces, steam valves,
flanges, electrical wiring
Putty (mudding)
Plumbing joints
Gaskets / Packing
Pipe flanges, boiler doors,
valves, pipes
Hot tops
Used with ingot molds in
the steel pouring process
80 – 85
1925 – present
26 – 30
1920 – 1980
50
80
1926 – 1975
1901 – 1980
20 - 100
10 – 80
1900 – 1973
1900 – 1989
10 – 80
1960 - 1980
OSHA 30-Hour Construction Study Guide
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Module 5: Review Quiz
1. A hazardous chemical is defined as:
A chemical with a pungent odor
A chemical that is caustic
A chemical deemed “hazardous” by the employer
A chemical which poses a physical or health-related risk
2. Which of the methods of hazardous substance intake can result in the
substance entering your bloodstream through the intestines?
Ingestion
Inhalation
Absorption
Injection
3. Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) are regulatory limits on the ______.
Amount of hazardous substance one can work with in a day
Amount of time one can be exposed to a hazardous substance
Amount or concentration of a substance in the air
Amount of hazardous substance the human body can rid itself of
4. The Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) is used to communicate chemical
hazard information from the______.
Employer to the employee
Manufacturer to the employee
Employee to the manufacturer
Employee to the employer
5. _______ is the term for a group of naturally occurring, fibrous minerals with
high tensile strength, flexibility, and resistance to heat, chemicals, and electricity.
Insulation
Asbestos
Fibrous materials
Irritants
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NOTES:
OSHA 30-Hour Construction Study Guide
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Module 6:
PROCESS SAFETY MANAGEMENT OF HIGHLY
HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS
This module covers OSHA’s process safety management, or PSM, guidelines.
The Need for Process Safety Management (PSM)
Many incidents resulting from the unexpected release of toxic, reactive, or
flammable liquids and gases in processes involving the use of highly hazardous
chemicals occur each year. To eliminate or minimize these incidents, OSHA has
set Process Safety Management (PSM) guidelines.
OSHA Standards Application
The Standard mainly applies to manufacturing, particularly when pertaining to
chemicals, transportation equipment, and fabricated metal products. Other
affected sectors include natural gas liquids, farm product warehousing, electric,
gas, sanitary services, and wholesale trade. The Standard applies to both
pyrotechnics and to explosives manufacturers covered by OSHA rules. Finally,
the Standard has special provisions for contractors working in covered facilities.
PSM applies to all companies in each industry that deal with any of more than
130 specific toxic and reactive chemicals in listed quantities, including flammable
liquids and gases in quantities of 10,000 pounds (4,535.9 Kg) or more.
About the Process
What is process?
A process is any activity using highly hazardous chemicals, to include any use,
storage, manufacturing, handling, or on-site movement of such chemicals, or a
combination of these activities. Any activities involving a group of interconnected
vessels, or involving separate vessels located in areas where activities could
cause a potential release of highly hazardous chemicals is a single process.
Process Safety Information
Employers must compile written process safety information before doing any
process hazard analysis. Written process safety information helps employers and
employees recognize the hazards posed by those processes involving highly
hazardous chemicals. Furthermore the process safety information must include
data on the dangers of highly hazardous chemicals used by and produced in the
process, facts about the process technology, and details about equipment used.
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Process Hazard Analysis
Process hazard analysis is a systematic approach for identifying and evaluating
the hazards of processes involving hazardous chemicals. Employers must do
initial process analyses on all regulated processes. Such analyses must be
appropriately complex, and identify, evaluate, and control all related hazards.
Employers must determine and document the priority order for conducting each
analysis. This must be based on considerations such as:
•
The extent of the process hazard
•
Number of potential affected employees
•
Age of the process
•
Operating history of the process
Analyses must meet PSM requirements and be completed as soon as possible.
All analyses must be updated and revalidated regularly, at least every five years.
Employers must use one or more of the following methods, as appropriate, to
determine and evaluate the hazards of the process being analyzed:
• What-if
•
Checklist
•
What-lf/checklist
•
Hazard and operability study (HAZOP)
•
Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA)
•
Fault tree analysis
•
An appropriate equivalent methodology
Process hazard analyses must address the following:
•
The hazards of the process
•
The identification of any previous incident that had a potential for
catastrophic consequences in the workplace
•
Engineering and administrative controls applicable to the hazards
and their interrelationships, such as appropriate application of
detection methodologies to provide early warning of releases
(Acceptable detection methods can involve monitoring and control
instruments with alarms or devices like hydrocarbon sensors
•
Consequences of failure of engineering and administrative controls
•
Facility sitting
•
Human factors
OSHA 30-Hour Construction Study Guide
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•
A qualitative evaluation of a range of the possible safety and health
effects on employees if there is a failure of controls
A team with expertise in engineering and process operations must perform each
process hazard analysis. An inspection team must include at least one employee
with experience and knowledge about the process being evaluated and another
with knowledge about the specific process hazard analysis methodology used.
A system must be in place that addresses the team’s recommendations. The
employer must ensurethat:
•
The recommendations are resolved in a timely manner (ASAP)
•
The resolutions and actions to be taken are documented
•
A schedule for when these actions are to be completed is drawn up
•
Actions are communicated to all onsite workers--even maintenance
Analyses must be updated and revalidated at least every five years by a qualified
team to ensure they current. Employers must keep copies of analyses for OSHA,
if requested. Files must include process analyses, updates, revalidations for all
covered processes, and documented recommendations.
About Procedures
Operating Procedures
Employers must write and implement operating procedures that apply process
safety recommendations. It is vital that tasks and procedures related to covered
processes be appropriate, clear, consistent, and clearly stated to employees.
Procedures must address at least the following elements:
Steps for each operating phase:
1. Initial startup
2. Normal operations and temporary operations
3. Emergency shutdown guidelines and designation of shutdown
responsibility to qualified operators to ensure proper execution
4. Emergency operations and normal shutdown operations
5. Startup following a turnaround, or after an emergency shutdown
Operating limits:
•
Consequences of deviation and steps to correct or avoid deviation
Safety and health considerations:
OSHA 30-Hour Construction Study Guide
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•
Chemical properties and related hazards during process
•
Prevention precautions (engineering and administrative controls, PPE)
•
Control measures after physical contact or airborne exposure occurs
•
Quality control for raw materials and unsafe chemical inventory levels
•
Any special or unique hazards
•
Safety systems like interlocks, detection, and suppression systems
Training
Initial Training
Process safety management requires that employers implement effective training
programs to enable potentially exposed employees to work safely. Before an
employee is assigned to a new process, he or she must be specifically trained for
that process. The training must include:
•
Specific safety and health hazards of the process
•
All emergency operations, including shutdown
•
Other safe work practices
Employees already trained and experienced in a process do not need to train
before resuming work, instead the employer can certify in writing that these
employees have all required knowledge, skills, and abilities to perform safely.
Refresher Training
To ensure that employees have up-to-date process knowledge, refresher training
is required at least once every three years, or more often if necessary.
Note: Employers and employees must mutually decide on training frequency.
Training Documentation
Training records are vital. Employers must verify that employees have been
trained and that they understand how to apply it. Documentation must contain:
The identity of the employee
The date of training
The procedures or tests used to verify employee comprehension
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Module 6: Review Quiz
1. Process safety management standards apply to______, particularly those
pertaining to chemicals, transportation equipment, and fabricated metal products.
Hazardous substances manufacturers
Large-scale employers (>100 employees)
Manufacturing industries
Small-scale employers (<100 employees)
2. A ______is any activity involving a highly hazardous chemical, including use,
storage, manufacturing, handling, or on-site movement of such chemicals, or a
combination of these activities.
Hazardous situation
Task
Risk
Process
3. ______ is a systematic approach for identifying and evaluating the hazards of
processes involving hazardous chemicals.
Process hazard analysis
Process hazard identification
Process hazard evaluation
Chemical hazard evaluation
4. Employer developed operating procedures must cover all of the following
EXCEPT:
A.
B.
C.
D.
Passwords and other security information
Initial startup
Normal operations
Emergency operations
5. To assure that employees understand and adhere to the current procedure of
the process, refresher training is required at least ______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Once every year
Once every three years
Once every six months
Once in the first year of employment
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NOTES:
OSHA 30-Hour Construction Study Guide
42
Module 7:
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
This module reviews OSHA’s requirements for effective engineering, or work
practice, controls and use of personal protective equipment, or PPE.
The Need for Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
It is imperative that employers provide PPE to employees if:
•
Hazards exist or are likely to be present in a work environment
•
If exposure to hazardous chemicals, radiation, or mechanical irritants
•
If risk cannot be eliminated by engineering, work practice, or
administrative controls
Employers must also protect workers from various hazards like falling objects,
toxic substances, and noise exposures. Employers must use all feasible controls
to eliminate and reduce hazards, and, if not sufficient, then provide PPE.
Responsibilities of Employers and Employees
Employers must assess workplaces hazards, supply PPE to as needed, decide
when to use PPE, and provide proper training. Workers must use PPE correctly
and inspect/maintain their PPE on a daily basis. A PPE program includes:
•
Procedures for selecting, providing, and using PPE
•
How to assess work area to determine whether hazards are present or not
•
The PPE to be used if hazards are present or likely to be present
PPE Training
Every exposed employee is required to undergo training and understand:
•
Why and how training is necessary
•
PPE limitations; when and how to use PPE; how to clean/disinfect PPE
•
How to identify signs of wear (PPE) and how to dispose of PPE
Survey
Employers must survey the work environment, observe how workers perform
tasks and duties, and identify possible hazards like:
•
Objects that could fall from above
OSHA 30-Hour Construction Study Guide
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•
Exposed pipes or beams at work level
•
Exposed liquid chemicals; sources of heat, intense light, noise, or dust
•
Equipment or materials that could produce flying particles
Controls
Engineering Controls
If a hazard can be prevented by a physical change in the workplace, then it is
said to be eliminated with an engineering control. Engineering controls consist of:
•
Substitutions
•
Isolations
•
Ventilation
•
Equipment modifications
Administrative Controls
Administrative control procedures can significantly reduce hazards. They include
manipulations of the work schedule or changes in the ways work is performed.
Work Practice Controls
Work practice control is a type of administrative control where the employer
modifies the way in which employees do work. Some work practice controls are:
•
•
•
Changing work habits
Improving sanitation
Demonstrating good hygiene practices
Head Protection
Employees exposed to possible head injuries from falling/flying objects or
electrical shock, must be given hardhats (helmets). Causes of head injuries are:
•
Falling objects (such as tools, equipment)
•
Bumping heads against objects (such as pipes, beams)
•
Contact with exposed and energized electrical wirings and components
The three classes of hardhats that signify levels of head protection are:
Class G (General) - with good impact protection but limited voltage protection.
They are used in general operations like construction, shipbuilding, or lumbering
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Class E (Electrical) – safeguard from falling objects and high-voltage
shocks/burns.
Class C (Conductive) - designed for comfort and protect against bumps from
fixed objects, but do not protect against falling objects or electrical shock
Eye Protection
The Need for Eye Protection
The main cause of eye injuries in the workplace is failure to wear proper PPE.
Eye protection is vital when:
•
Dust and other flying particles like metal shavings or sawdust are present
•
There is an existence of molten metal or infected fluids that can splash
•
There is intense light from welding and lasers
•
There are corrosive gases/vapors/liquids
The following points are essential when selecting eye protection equipment:
•
It should be comfortable to wear and not restrict vision or movement
•
It should be durable and easy to clean and disinfect
•
It should not interfere with the function of other required PPE
Face Protection
Face shields protect against dust, splashes, or hazardous sprays. They are not
intended to be eye protection (wear safety glasses or goggles beneath shields).
Welding Shields
Welding shields protect eyes from radiant light burns, and both the face and eyes
from sparks, metal spatter, and slag chips. Always use helmets or hand shields
while arc welding or arc cutting operations, except submerged arc welding. All
attendants must also use eye protection. Plus, goggles or any other suitable eye
protection should be used during all gas welding or oxygen cutting operations.
Hearing Protection
It is often difficult to determine the need for hearing protection. An employee’s
exposure to excessive noise depends upon various factors which include:
•
How loud the noise is in terms of decibels (dBA)
•
The duration of noise exposure
OSHA 30-Hour Construction Study Guide
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•
Whether workers move between work areas with different noise levels
•
Whether noise is generated from one source or multiple sources
Ear Protection Equipment
Employers must employ engineering controls and work practices. If they do not
control the exposure up to an acceptable limit then, PPE is needed such as:
•
•
•
Earmuffs
Earplugs
Canal caps
Foot Protection
Foot protection is mandatory when any combination of the following is present:
•
•
•
•
Heavy objects like barrels or tools could roll onto or fall on employees’ feet
Sharp objects such as nails or spikes that might penetrate ordinary shoes
Molten metal that could splash on employees’ feet
Hot, wet, or slippery surfaces
Safety shoes are the most common type of foot protection. They have:
•
•
•
Impact-resistant toes and heat-resistant soles to protect against heat
Metal insoles to protect against puncture wounds
Electrically conductive or nonconductive properties as needed
Workers must not use foot powder or wear silk, wool or nylon socks. Foot powder
insulates conductive shoes and certain socks produce static electricity.
Hand Protection
Hands are the second most injured body part with back injuries being number
one. Hand protection must be used if any of the following is possible:
•
Burns or chemical exposure
•
Bruises or fractures
•
Abrasions, cuts, or punctures
•
Amputations
Gloves
Gloves are used to protect hands from injuries. The major kinds of gloves are:
•
Durable gloves made of metal mesh, leather, or canvas
•
Fabric and coated fabric gloves that protect from dirt and abrasion
OSHA 30-Hour Construction Study Guide
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•
Chemical and liquid resistant gloves
•
Rubber gloves used to protect from cuts, lacerations, and abrasions
Glove selection depends on the nature of the hazard(s), activity, and length of
activity. Selecting appropriate gloves is more difficult than choosing any other
PPE. Always use gloves according to their designed purpose.
Body Protection
Body injuries occur frequently in the construction industry. Causes include:
•
Intense heat
•
Splashes of hot metals and other hot liquids
•
Impacts from tools, machinery, and materials
•
Cuts, hazardous chemicals, and radiation
It is vital that exposed body parts be protected by:
•
Vests, aprons, jackets or coveralls
•
Full body suits
Case Study
A construction worker was severely cut on his hand while removing debris from
the job site. During treatment, he also learned that he had suffered some minor
hearing loss. What PPE could have been used to prevent his injuries and in
general, what types of PPE should the worker regularly use in the future?
Recommendations
•
•
•
•
•
Rubber gloves sufficient to protect from cuts, lacerations, and abrasions
Earplugs
Safety shoes
Hardhat
A face shield whenever dust, splashes, or hazardous sprays are present
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Module 7: Review Quiz
1. A PPE program includes all of the following EXCEPT:
A.
B.
C.
D.
The procedure for selecting, providing, and using PPE
A list of locations of all PPE around the work site
How to assess whether hazards are present or not
PPE to be used if workplace hazards are present or likely to be present
2. Every ______ is required to undergo training if he or she is going to use PPE.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Employee
Machinery operator
Exposed employee
Supervisor
3. If a potential hazard can be prevented by making a physical change in the
work environment, then the hazard can be eliminated with a(n) ______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Administrative control
Work practice control
Managerial decision
Engineering control
4. Which class of hardhat protects against bumps from fixed objects but does not
protect against falling objects or electrical shock?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Class G
Class E
Class C
Class F
5. Generally, ______ are the most used body part in the workplace. Therefore,
they are exposed to more hazards than any other part of the body.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Feet
Hands
Arms
Shoulders
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NOTES:
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Module 8:
FIRE PROTECTION FOR CONSTRUCTION
This module reviews fire protection equipment, types of fires, and fire prevention
systems such as evacuation procedures and emergency plans.
Classes of Fires
Knowing the different types of fires is essential to fire fighting. Different fires
require different equipment to extinguish them. The four fire classes are:
•
Class A - ordinary combustible (wood, rags, paper, rubbish)
•
Class B - combustible/flammable liquids (fuel oil, paint thinner, diesel)
•
Class C - electrical fires (energized equipment, breakers, defective wiring)
•
Class D - flammable/combustible metal fires (magnesium, potassium)
•
Multi-class is an unofficial class - for more than one kind of fire; labeled
with multi-classes like A-B, B-C, or A-B-C; typically contain dry chemicals
and an extinguishing agent with compressed, non-flammable gas
Classes of Fire Extinguishers
•
•
•
•
Class A - pressurized water cans
Class B - carbon dioxide
Class C - dry chemical
Class D - metal or sand
Placement Requirements
Extinguishers must be put in accessible locations and be kept in good operating
condition. They must be in the normal travel path and be clearly marked by class
and type. Temperatures should accommodate flash points of combustibles.
Flash point is the lowest temperature at which vapors of a liquid can catch fire.
Class A Extinguishers
These are water-based and used on paper, cloth, wood, trash, and other
common fires. They use a cooling and soaking stream effective on Class A fires.
A numeric rating refers to the amount of water held and therefore, its capacity.
Class B Extinguishers
These are pressurized with non-flammable CO2 gas that reduces or smothers
oxygen. CO2 can be safely used on clothing, equipment, and valuable
OSHA 30-Hour Construction Study Guide
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documents. These devices are designed for flammable liquid fires, and grease,
gasoline, oil, paint thinner, hydraulic fluids, flammable cleaning solvents, and
other hydrocarbon fuels. CO2 is very cold and puts out Class A fires. A numeric
rating denotes capacity in terms of square feet.
Class C Extinguishers
These devices put out electrical fires which must be extinguished using nonconductive extinguishing agents like carbon dioxide or a dry chemical. Only a
letter rating is used because there is no readily measurable quantity for Class C
fires. C indicates a non-conductive extinguishing agent.
Class D Extinguishers
These are used on flammable metals and are often metal specific. Metals like
magnesium, potassium, titanium, and sodium burn at high tempatures and emit
enough oxygen to fuel fire. Such metals react violently with water or other
chemicals. No picture designation is used and there is usually no numeric rating.
Alarms
In case of fire, the first step is to warn occupants and evacuate immediately.
Early fire warnings can be announced via strategically placed smoke alarms,
including ionization and photoelectric alarms.
Ionization smoke detectors activate more quickly in fast, flaming fires that
consume combustible materials rapidly and spread quickly.
Photoelectric smoke detectors act quicker on slow, smoldering fires. Their
detectors provide early detection of smoke when installed correctly.
Fire Sprinklers
Sprinklers give 24-hour protection by detecting and dousing fires before they
spread. Their design localizes fires as they react fast and independently.
Rescue and Evacuation
Employers must create detailed evacuation plans with employer-employee input.
Plan copies must be posted near all exits, stairways, extinguishing devices, and
at main traffic areas. Plans must show escape and exit routes, assembly points,
emergency call points, and list locations of all fire extinguishing equipment.
Injuries and First Aid
Most fire-related deaths (50-80 percent) are caused by smoke inhalation. Actual
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flames and burns are second to smoke inhalation. The National Traumatic
Occupational Fatalities surveillance system recorded 1,587 fire and flame-related
occupational fatalities from the civilian workforce in the U.S. between 1980 and
1995. Of these, 433 resulted from 127 incidents involving two or more victims.
Smoke Inhalation
Smoke inhalation is second to burns in terms of fire injuries. Smoke contains
poison gases can can burn victims’ throats. Symptoms are breathing trouble,
coughing, drowsiness, and vomiting. To prevent smoke inhalation:
•
•
•
Evacuate everyone from a smoke-filled room as quickly as possible
Use a wet cloth to cover mouth and nostrils
Rest after exposure, taking deep breaths, and do not re-enter until safe
Treatment of Minor and Electrical Burns
•
•
•
•
Minor, second degree burns or less, must be flushed with running water
Apply a clean, damp cloth over area to relieve pain; do not use ointment
Seek medical attention if pain persists or if the burn worsens
Electrical burns without visible signs, can still cause deep tissue damage
Prevention and Safety Practices
•
All equipment and wiring must follow code; seal pipe joints if vessels carry
flammable gas or liquid
•
Temporary buildings to have clear exists and no flammables stored
•
Store combustibles under stable conditions as their flash points (lowest
temperature at which vapors can catch fire) range from 140° to 200°F
•
No smoking; combustibles must not to be within 10 feet of structures;
driveways between storage should be at least 15 feet wide
•
Greatest distance between extinguishers should not exceed 100 feet
When there is Indoor storage
•
•
•
•
Allow safe distances between combustibles
Use proper stacking that is never with 3 feet of sprinklers
Have safe heating and lighting that is checked
Have 24-inch clearance path for travel OR barricades
Emergency Planning
Emergency plans must be reviewed at least annually and all workers must be
given a copy. They must define escape routes, list prevention methods, and
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describe evacuation procedures. Additionally, there must be regular inspections
and a plan to inform fire and rescue personnel. Specific regulations include:
•
•
•
•
Employer must create an enforceable, company-wide fire protection plan
Employer must provide all firefighting equipment and access at all times
Firefighting equipment must be conspicuously located and maintained
Get advice and input from a professional fire protection organization
Water Supply
Water must be made available at all times. To ensure this, maintain:
•
•
A temporary or permanent water supply capable of providing sufficient
volume, duration, and pressure to equipment
Properly tested underground equipment
Small Hose Lines
When small hose lines are used:
•
At least a 2A-rated extinguisher is needed for each 3,000 square feet
•
Travel distance between extinguishers must not exceed 100 feet
•
At least one extinguisher, rated no less than 2A, must be on each floor
•
At least one fire extinguisher should be located adjacent to a stairway
•
Extinguishers and water drums subject to freezing must be protected
•
Carbon tetrachloride or toxic vaporizing liquid extinguishers are prohibited
•
Portable extinguishers must be inspected and serviced periodically
Case Study
The site manager was behind schedule and decided to start work immediately.
An underground water tank was installed the night before. The manager verified
that the correct number of small-hose dependent extinguishers was available and
that combustible materials were safely stored away from operations, so he was
sure everything was safe. At 3 p.m. a fire ignited and spread rapidly. All
extinguishers failed and two workers were badly burned before being evacuated.
Recommendations
•
•
•
The underground tank was not pre-tested
Employees were not aware of emergency evacuation routes
Flammable gas had leaked from an un-inspected pipe joint
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Module 8: Review Quiz
1. Which class of extinguishers is used on electrical fires that need a nonconductive extinguishing agent such as carbon dioxide or a dry chemical?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Class A
Class AB
Class C
Class D
2. Although ______ is the main cause of fire-related deaths, it is second to burns
in terms of injuries.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Smoke inhalation
Electrocution from electrical fires
Third-degree burns
Smothering
3. ______ extinguishers are designed to fight fires that feed on flammable metals
like magnesium, potassium, titanium, and sodium, which burn at high
temperatures and give off enough oxygen to fuel combustion.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Class A
Class B
Class C
Class D
4. Carbon tetrachloride or other toxic vaporizing liquid extinguishers are:
A.
B.
C.
D.
Prohibited
Considered Class D
Used for the highest capacity
Cost effective
5. Which of the following supplies 24-hour protection and localizes fire damage?
A.
B.
C.
D.
A competent person onsite
2A-rated equipment
Sprinklers
Proper stacking with adequate pathway access
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NOTES:
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Module 9:
MATERIALS HANDLING
This module reviews materials handling and storage hazards, as well as ways
such hazards can be reduced or eliminated.
Two Main Hazards
•
•
Back and spinal injuries caused by bulkiness and weight of materials
Bending, twisting, and turning are body movements that cause back and
spinal injuries
When workers move materials they must be aware of the following:
•
•
•
Strains and sprains from improperly lifting large, heavy objects
Fractures and bruises from being struck by falling materials
Bruises caused by falling objects that have been improperly stacked
Methods of Prevention
When manually handling material, a worker must ask for help if a load is:
•
•
•
Bulky to the extent that it cannot be grasped or lifted properly
Bulky to the extent that he or she cannot see around or over it
One that cannot be handled safely
Blocks
When placing blocks under raised loads, workers must ensure that the raised
loads are kept in a raised position until their hands have been removed from
beneath. The blocks must be large and sturdy enough to be able to support the
load. Block materials with cracks, splintered pieces, and rot must not be used.
Handles, Holders and Protective Equipment
All loads should be fitted with handles and holders to reduce chances of injuries
to fingers and hands. If loads are sharp and have rough edges, workers must
wear gloves. Workers should also wear steel-toed shoes if carrying heavy loads.
Load Weight and Mechanical Moving Equipment
Workers must never overload mechanical moving equipment. All types of
material handling equipment have maximum weight specifications which must be
followed. As such, the type of equipment used to move a load from one point to
another must be dictated by the specifications of the load itself.
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Stored Materials
Workers must ensure that stored materials are not likely to create hazards. For
example, workers must ensure that storage spaces do not contain unapproved
flammable materials, cause explosions or tripping hazards, or easily harbor rats
and other pests. Plus, storage containers must have adequate capacity to handle
the volume of stored items,be accessible, and be maintained in good condition.
Stacking Lumber, Bricks and Masonry Blocks
If used lumber is stacked, workers must ensure that all nails have been removed
before stacking. that the lumber stacks are on level and solidly supported
bracing, and that they are stable and self-supporting.
Bags and Bundles
It is advisable that when bags and bundles are stacked, interlocking rows are
used. Bagged materials must be stacked by stepping back the layers and crosskeying the bags at least every ten bags high. When workers remove bags from
the stack, they must start with the top layer and work their way down.
Drums, Barrels and Kegs
•
•
•
Drums, barrels, and kegs must be stored symmetrically.
However, if they are stored on their sides, the bottom tiers must be
blocked accordingly to prevent them from rolling.
If barrels are stacked on end, planks must be placed between each tier.
•
If the stack is over two tiers, the lowest tier must be secured on each side.
Materials Handling Equipment
Conveyors
The following risks are associated with using conveyors:
•
•
Catching hands where the conveyor runs over support members.
If the conveyor is overhead, workers can be struck by falling materials.
•
A worker can become caught and pulled into the conveyor.
Cranes
Only qualified, competent persons should operate cranes. They must know lifting
specifications of all loads and the crane’s rated capacity. When using movable
cranes, operators must ensure that a boom angle indicator has been fitted. When
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a crane has a telescopic boom, some means of determining boom length must
be present. Crane-specific load rating charts must be put in the operator’s cabin.
Cranes must be inspected often by competent persons. Critical parts like hooks
and operating mechanisms, and load-carrying components must be checked
daily to ensure that no deterioration or maladjustments have occurred.
Slings
Employers must ensure that slings are visually inspected before and during use.
Powered Industrial Trucks
Powered industrial trucks, except earth-moving or over-the-road hauling vehicles,
must meet the design and construction requirements of the American National
Standard for Powered Industrial Trucks, Part II, ANSI b56.1-1969. New trucks
must have identifying marks indicating that they have been inspected.
Ergonomic Safety and Health Principles
Ergonomics teaches that jobs must be adapted to fit people, rather than forcing
people to fit jobs. The goal of ergonomics is to create conducive work
environments that fit workers’ needs and in turn, encourage better productivity.
Ergonomics seeks to change working conditions to make jobs as easy as
possible and reduce stressors that can cause trauma or injuries from repetitive
actions. Material storage and handling examples include reducing the weight of
objects lifted, using mechanical lifting aids, or improving accessibility to materials.
Fire Safety Precautions
Employees must note that flammable and combustible materials must be stored
according to their fire properties. For example, when storing flammable liquids,
employees must ensure that they are separated from other material by fire walls.
Combustibles must be stored in areas where smoking, open flames, and sparks
are prohibited. Some materials become dangerous when mixed, so employees
must know their reactive natures and appropriately separate them.
Aisles and Passageways
Safe clearance must be allowed in traffic areas for the mechanical movement of
materials, especially at loading docks, through doorways, and wherever turns
must be made. Allowing sufficient clearance prevents the possibility that workers
will get pinned down, a load will hit an obstruction, or a load will fall on a worker.
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Training and Education
Employees must be trained to safely handle materials. They should learn:
•
•
•
The dangers of handling heavy and bulky materials without proper training
How to avoid unnecessary physical stress and strain
Techniques to comfortably handle materials without physical strain
•
•
Proper use of equipment
How to recognize potential hazards and how to prevent or correct them
Safety and Health Program Management Guidelines
The four main elements of effective occupational safety and health planning are:
•
Management commitment and employee involvement
•
Worksite analysis
•
Hazard prevention and control
•
Safety and health training
Case Study
Relatively new, but used lumber has to be stacked in a warehouse. There is not
much room, so one of the workers suggests that it be stored in an aisle near the
back of the warehouse. While stacking the wood, several employees experience
cuts and after the job is finished, the foreman insists that the lumber be
immediately moved and restacked. Why?
Recommendations
•
•
•
•
The cuts were caused by old nails that should have been removed before
stacking
Workers did not wear protective PPE
A stack, under NO circumstances can be placed in an aisle
Clear aisles and passageways prevent hazards from falling objects
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Module 9: Review Quiz
1. Often, handling heavy and bulky objects results in ______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Accidents
Increased teamwork
Back and spinal injuries
More manpower needed
2. It is very important that efforts be made by ______to ensure that dangers from
improper handling are minimized, if not eliminated, from the workplace.
A.
B.
C.
D.
The employer
The worker
The safety manager
Both the employer and worker
3. What is the ideal way to store drums, barrels, and kegs?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Together
Symmetrically
In different storage areas
In cold conditions
4. Ergonomics includes changing ______ to make work as easy as possible and
reduce the stressors that can lead to trauma or injuries from repetitive actions.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Employees’ shifts
Workplace conditions
Tools
Temperature
5. Employees must always keep in mind that flammable and combustible
materials must be stored in accordance to______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Company policy
The will of the employer
Location they will be most used
Their fire characteristics or properties
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NOTES:
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Module 10:
BASIC HAND AND POWER TOOLS
This module reviews OSHA’s role in the prevention and elimination of illnesses
and injuries caused by the improper use of hand and power tools.
The Five Safety Precautions
Hazards regarding hand and power tools entail falling, flying, abrasive and
splashing objects, or being exposed to harmful dusts, fumes, mists, vapors, or
gases. These hazards can be prevented by following five basic safety rules:
•
Keep all tools in good condition with regular maintenance.
•
Use the right tool for the job.
•
Examine each tool for damage before use.
•
Operate according to the manufacturer's instructions.
•
Provide and use the proper protective equipment
In addition to safety precautions, basic tool safety calls for:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Regular maintenance, including keeping tools sharp
Using the right tool for the job
Inspecting tools before use and keeping floors trip/slip hazard free
Operating tools according to manufacturers’ instructions
Using correct personal protective equipment (PPE) and guards
NEVER USE:
o Wrenches when jaws are sprung
o Impact tools (chisels and wedges) when heads have mushroomed
o Tools with loose, cracked or splintered handles
o A screwdriver as a chisel
o Tools with taped handles – they may be hiding cracks
Power Tools
Power tools are very hazardous if used improperly. They are grouped by power
source, whether electric, pneumatic, liquid fuel, hydraulic or powder-actuated. To
be safe, always follow design limits, store in dry areas and use PPE. Remember:
• Don’t carry, lower, or hoist tools by their cords.
• Don’t yank cords or hoses to disconnect.
• Keep cords and hoses away from heat, oil, and sharp edges.
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Power tools must have constant pressure, positive On-Off or momentary On-Off
switches. Also, follow these workplace precautions:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Disconnect tools when not in use, prior to service, and when changing.
Keep uninvolved workers away from tools.
Secure work with clamps or a vice to free both hands for use.
Don’t hold the switch button while carrying a plugged-in tool.
Wear loose clothing and no jewelry.
Remove damaged electric tools and tag them: “Do Not Use.”
Remember to never remove guards when tools are in use. Guards are used to:
•
•
Guard exposed moving parts, belts, gears, shafts, pulleys, sprockets,
spindles, flywheels, chains, or other moving parts
Guard against flying chip and sparks
Pneumatic Tools
Pneumatic tools are powered by compressed air. They include nail guns, drills,
staplers, chippers, and sanders, and they most commonly cause injuries from
being hit by tool attachments or fasteners. Follow electric cords precautions, and:
•
•
Muzzle safety devices for nail guns
Air hoses must be fastened securely
Powder-Actuated Tools
Employees must be properly trained and tools must be tested daily for proper
loading to ensure safety devices are working. Use proper PPE and:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Do not use in explosive or flammable environments
Thoroughly inspect power-actuated tools before use.
Do not load a tool unless it will be used immediately.
Never leave a loaded tool unattended; keep hands clear of tool barrel.
Never point a tool at anyone.
Store unloaded tools in a locked box.
When Installing Jacks
To safely set up a jack, ensure that:
•
•
•
•
Its base is on a firm, level surface and it is centered
Manufacturer’s rated capacity is marked and not exceeded
It is lubricated and inspected.
Lift force is applied evenly
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•
The jack has a stop indicator
Mechanical power-transmission devices
These parts make up the mechanical system that transmits energy from a power
source to the tool. They include flywheels, pulleys, belts, connecting rods,
shafting, couplings, cams, spindles, chains, cranks, and gears. OSHA requires all
employers to ensure that workers do not get injured by getting caught in rotating
parts, in-running nip points, pulleys or other such components.
Overhead Horizontal Belts and Chains
Overhead horizontal belts, with lower parts seven feet or less from the work
surface must be guarded on sides and bottom. Guards must run the entire belt
length belt and follow the pulley line to the ceiling or be carried to the nearest
wall. If belts are located in a way that makes this unfeasible, the guard must
completely enclose the top and bottom runs of belt and the face of pulleys.
Horizontal overhead belts over seven feet above the work surface must be
guarded for their entire length if over passageways or work places and traveling
1,800 feet or more per minute. They must be guarded for their length if center to
center distance between pulleys is over 10 feet, or if the belt is 8 inches or wider.
Overhead chain and link belt drives follow the same rules as overhead horizontal
belts and should be guarded in the same manner as belts.
Vertical and Inclined Belts
Vertical and inclined belts must be enclosed by guards made of expanded metal,
perforated or solid sheet metal, wire mesh on a frame of angle iron, or iron pipe.
Guardrails can be used to guard vertical and inclined belts. They must be 42
inches high, with midrails between top rails and floor. Posts cannot be over eight
feet apart; they must be permanent, strong, smooth, and free of protrusions.
All guards for inclined belts have to be arranged to create at least a seven foot or
2.128 meter clearance, between belt and floor at any point outside of guard.
Gears
All gears must be guarded by completely enclosing them with guardrails at least
seven feet or, 2.128 meters, high extending six inches or, 15.24 centimeters,
above the gear mesh point. Gears can also be guarded by band guards covering
gear faces and having flanges extended inward beyond the root of the teeth on
the exposed side or sides. If part of the train of gears guarded by band guards is
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under six feet from the floor, disk guards or six-foot, entire enclosures are
required.
Pulleys
Pulleys seven feet or less from the floor or working platform must be guarded
with a sheet made of expanded metal, perforated or solid sheet metal, wire mesh
on a frame of angle iron, or iron pipe securely fastened to the floor or frame.
Pulleys serving as balance wheels, for example punch presses, where the point
of contact between belt and pulley is over six feet six inches from the floor or the
platform, can be guarded with disks covering the spokes.
Couplings
Shaft couplings must be constructed to prevent hazards from bolts, nuts,
setscrews or revolving surfaces. But, bolts, nuts and setscrews can be used if
covered with safety sleeves or where they are used parallel with the shafting and
are countersunk or else do not extend beyond the flange of the coupling.
Case Study
A 22-year-old carpenter’s apprentice was killed when he was struck in the head
by a nail fired from a powder-actuated nail gun. A nearby worker fired the gun
while attempting to anchor a plywood concrete form. Because the form was
hollow, the nail passed right through it like a bullet. It traveled seven feet before
striking the apprentice.
Recommendations
•
The nail gun operator had never received training on how to use the tool,
and none of the employees including the apprentice was wearing PPE.
•
Powder actuated nail guns should not be used to drive nails into easily
penetrated materials unless such material is backed by a substance that
will prevent the nail from passing through.
•
Employees who operate powder or pressure-actuated tools must be
trained to avoid firing into easily penetrated materials (like plywood).
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Module 10: Review Quiz
1. Overhead horizontal belts, with lower parts _______ from the work surface
must be guarded on sides and bottom.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Ten feet
Seven feet or less
Over seven feet
Less than three feet
2. Remember to ______ guards when tools are in use.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Clean
Never remove
Unplug
Remove
3. ______ tools are powered by compressed air. They include nail guns, staplers,
and drills, often cause injury from being hit by tool attachments or fasteners.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Power-actuated
Pneumatic
Hydraulic
The most dangerous
4. Overhead horizontal belts, with lower parts seven feet of less from the work
surface must be guarded on _______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Sides only
Sides and bottom
Horizontal sides, bottom, and top
Bottom
5. Employees must be properly trained and tools must be tested ______ for
proper loading to ensure safety devices are working.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Daily
Weekly
Monthly
Yearly
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NOTES:
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Module 11:
WELDING AND CUTTING
This module reviews the two most common types of welding and cutting, related
dangers, and safety measures to minimize and prevent injuries.
Gas Welding and Cutting
Transporting, Moving and Storing Compressed Gas Cylinders
Precautions must be taken when transporting, moving, or storing compressed
gas cylinders used in welding and cutting. To minimize chances of injury:
•
•
•
•
•
Valve protection caps must be in place and properly secured.
Cylinders must not be hoisted or transported using magnets or choker
slings.
Cylinders may only be hoisted if secured on a cradle, slingboard, or pallet.
When moving cylinders ensure not to drop them or strike them violently.
Move cylinders by tilting them and rolling them along bottom edges.
Placing Cylinders
Due to the flammable nature of the contents in a cylinder, they must be kept far
enough from the actual cutting operation. This ensures that hot slag or flames do
not reach them. If a distance is impractical, fire-resistant shields must be used.
Also, cylinders must not be allowed to become part of an electric circuit. Oxygen,
acetylene, or other fuel gas cylinders must not be taken into confined spaces.
Treatment of Cylinders
Cylinders, either full or empty, must never be used as rollers or support.
Damaged and defective cylinders are not to be used under any circumstances.
Gas mixing should not be attempted by anyone other than the gas supplier. Only
the owner of the cylinder, or any person authorized by him or her, shall be
allowed to refill the cylinder and no one will be allowed to use the cylinder for any
purpose other than that intended by the supplier.
Arc Welding and Cutting
Manual Electrode Holders
•
A manual electrode holder must be capable of handling the maximum
rated current. Furthermore, only those manual electrodes that have been
specifically manufactured for arc welding and cutting are allowed.
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•
Any current-carrying parts coming into contact with the holders must be
fully insulated against the maximum voltage.
Welding Cables and Connectors
All arc welding and cutting cables must be totally insulated, and they must be:
•
•
Flexible type
Capable of handling maximum current requirements for the work
Cables that are free from repairs and splices for a minimum distance of 10 feet
from the cable end to the electrode holder may be used. If it is necessary to
connect lengths of cable to one another, only connectors that have been
insulated to a level equivalent to the cable should be used. If the connections are
made using cable lugs, workers must ensure that they are secure and that any
exposed metal parts of the lugs are properly insulated.
Fire Prevention
When at all possible, all objects that are to be welded or cut must be moved to
a safe location. If the object cannot be moved, then all fire hazards in the area
of the object must either be moved or shielded prior to welding or cutting. No
welding or cutting should be performed where there exists the possibility of
flammable paints or other compounds creating a hazard. Additionally:
•
The work area must be equipped with suitable fire extinguishing equipment
that has been properly maintained and tested, and is ready for
instantaneous use.
•
If during welding or cutting it is determined that conventional fire prevention
methods are not sufficient, additional personnel must be assigned to guard
against the possibility of fire.
•
When welding or cutting is performed on walls, floors, or ceilings, the
penetration of sparks or heat may cause fire hazards in adjacent areas. As
such, precautions such as positioning properly rated shields, must be taken
to protect possibly affected areas.
•
To eliminate the chance of gas escaping through leaks or improperly closed
valves, the gas supply to the torch should be closed off at some point
outside the enclosed space whenever the torch is not being used or will be
left unattended for a substantial period of time.
o Torch and hose must be removed from confined spaces at night.
•
Drums, pails, and other containers that contain or have contained
flammable liquids must be properly securely unless the contents are being
removed or transferred.
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o Empty containers must be moved to safe area far from hot works.
•
Drums or other hollow containers that require welding or cutting must be
filled with water or, thoroughly cleaned, ventilated, and tested.
•
Drums, containers, and hollow structures must be vented or otherwise
opened to release any heat or pressure build-up from welding or cutting.
Fire Prevention and Toxic Preservative Coatings
Objects to be welded, heated, or cut must be removed to a safe location or, if
they cannot be moved, all movable flammable materials should be removed from
the area. Objects must not be moved while being welded, heated, or cut.
In addition, if all fire hazards that are present in the area cannot be removed,
precautionary measures must be taken to confine the sparks, slag, and heat.
To avoid ignition of highly flammable hardened preservative coatings, the
workers should strip the area to be heated.
It is important for employees working with toxic preservative coatings to be
protected by respirators, even when working in the open air.
Ventilation and Protection
Mechanical Ventilation
Mechanical ventilation must consist of either:
•
•
General mechanical exhaust ventilation systems
o General ventilation must be sufficient to create the necessary
number of air changes required to maintain welding fumes and
smoke within safe limits for the activity undertaken (see
1926.353(d) for safe limit details).
Local exhaust ventilation systems
o Must consist of freely moving hoods that can be placed by the
welder as close as is practicable to the work being performed. The
idea is to remove smoke and fumes at the source to keep the
breathing zone within safe limits.
o Contaminated air that has been exhausted from the working area
must be discharged into an open area or otherwise kept clear from
the source of intake air.
o All air replacing contaminated air that has been withdrawn must be
clean and breathable.
If general or local exhaust ventilation cannot be provided, employees working in
a confined space with the following metals must be fitted with air line respirators.
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•
Metals containing or coated with lead
•
Cadmium-bearing or coated base metals
•
Metals coated with mercury-bearing metals
Because of its high toxicity, any work involving beryllium base or filler metals
should be done with both air line respirators and local exhaust ventilation.
Case Study
Several 500-gallon barrels require welding to repair worn seams and valves. The
barrels are very heavy and bolted to cement foundations. What steps should the
welder take before starting the job?
Recommendations
•
•
•
•
•
•
Ensure barrels are empty; if they need to be drained, avoid spilling liquids.
Fill the vessels with water.
Clear the area of combustibles including debris; if any combustibles cannot
be moved, then properly shield them from sparks, etc.
Close valves on welding torch to stop leaking gas when not being used.
Evaluate whether a local exhaust system in needed.
Ensure that functioning fire extinguishers are at hand.
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Module 11: Review Quiz
1. Precautions must be taken when transporting, moving, or storing compressed
gas cylinders used in welding and cutting. To reduce chances of injury ______
must not be hoisted or transported using magnets or choker slings.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Valve protection caps
Welding cables
Cylinders
Electrode holders
2. When moving cylinders, they can only be hoisted if secured on all of the
following EXCEPT:
A.
B.
C.
D.
Cradle
Crane
Slingboard
Pallet
3. A manual electrode holder must be capable of handling the______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Minimum rated current
Force which the job demands
Maximum rated current
Median rated current
4. It is important for employees working with toxic preservative coatings to be
protected by______, even when working in the open air.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Respirators
Face guards
Goggles
Gloves
5. All arc welding and cutting cables must be ______ at all times.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Ready for use
In use
Accounted for
Completely insulated
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NOTES:
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Module 12:
ELECTRICAL SAFETY
This module reviews OSHA’s1926 Subpart K that regulates electrical work. It
reduces electrical hazards by requiring safe design and installation practices.
The Dangers
The following are the main types of electrical injuries:
•
•
Direct – electrocution, electrical shock, burns and arc flash/blast
Indirect – falls, back injuries and cuts to the hands
Shock Severity
The severity of the shock depends on:
•
•
•
The path of current through the body
The amount of current flowing through the body (amps)
The duration of the shocking current through the body
Electrical Hazards and How to Control Them
Electrical accidents are caused by a combination of the following three factors:
1. Unsafe equipment and/or installation
2. Workplaces made unsafe by the environment
3. Unsafe work practices
Some general effective controls include:
•
•
•
•
•
Guard live parts of electric equipment operating at 50 volts or more
Close openings through which conductors enter
Provide covers for all pull boxes, junction boxes and fittings
Avoid overhead power lines which are usually NOT insulated
Maintain distance; use PPE and non-conductive ladders near power lines
Controlling Inadequate Wiring Hazard
Here are some important points to consider when using wires:
•
•
•
Wiring depends on operation, materials, electrical load, and environment
Use fixed cords rather than flexible cords
Use the correct extension cord
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Flexible cords must be designed for hard or extra-hard usage. Ratings must be
indelibly marked about every 24” (NEC code Article 400.6) of the cord. Since
cords not rugged enough for construction conditions wear faster, the NEC and
OSHA have specified cord types for construction. This rule specifies cord types
for applications, such as portable tools, appliances, and temporary and portable
lights. Cords are marked HARD or EXTRA HARD SERVICE.
Controlling Defective Cords and Wires
When working with cords and wires, look for:
•
•
•
•
Damaged insulation in wires, tools, or appliances
Exposed insulation that can become energized if touched by a live wire
Electric hand tools that are old, damaged, or misused
Proper grounding
The following OSHA requirements apply to the use of cords and wires:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Live wires should be insulated and checked before use.
Only use cords that are three-wire type.
Only cords marked for hard or extra-hard usage should be used.
Only use cords, connection devices, and fittings with strain relief.
Cords should be removed by pulling on the plugs, not on the cords.
Unmarked or modified cords must be taken out of service immediately.
Grounding
Grounding creates a low-resistance path from a tool to the earth to disperse
unwanted current. Remember:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Tools plugged into improperly grounded circuits can become energized.
Properly ground power supply systems, and electrical circuits and devices.
Frequently inspect to ensure that path to ground is continuous.
Inspect electrical equipment before use.
Don’t remove ground prongs from tools or extension cords.
Ground exposed metal parts of equipment.
Control – Using a GFCI (Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupter)
A GFCI performs the following functions:
•
•
•
Protects from shock
Detects differences in current between the black and white wires
Shuts off electricity in 1/40th of a second if a ground fault is detected
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The Assured Equipment Grounding Conductor Program (AEGCP)
An employer must use either GFCIs or an effective grounding conductor to
protect workers. All AEGCPs on construction sites must cover:
•
•
•
All cord sets
Receptacles not part of a building or structure
Equipment connected by plug and cord available for use by the employer
AEGCPs require:
•
•
•
Written, available procedures adopted by the employer
A competent person assigned to implement the program
Daily visual damage inspections
Controlling Hazards Using Electrical Protective Devices
Electrical protective devices automatically open circuits if excess current from
overload or ground-fault is detected. Electrical protective devices include:
•
•
•
GFCIs
Fuses
Circuit breakers
Power Tool Requirements
A power tool must be grounded by a 3-wire cord and a wire to ground. It must
also be double-insulated or be powered by a low-voltage isolation transformer.
Control by Locking Out and Tagging Out Circuits
These four steps should be performed when locking out and tagging out circuits:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Apply locks to the power source after de-energizing.
Tag deactivated controls
Tag de-energized equipment and circuits at all possibly energized points.
Tags must identify equipment or circuits being worked on.
Safety-Related Work Practices
To constantly protect workers from electrical, the standard requires employers to:
•
Barricade areas with exposed energized equipment.
•
Pre-plan work, post warnings, and use protective measures.
•
Keep working spaces and walkways clear of cords.
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•
Use special insulated tools for working on fuses with energized terminals.
•
Prohibit use of worn or frayed cords and cables.
•
Prohibit using staples to fasten cords or to hang cords from nails.
Controlling Electrical Hazards with Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
When working with potentially lives wires, PPE is required to protect from
electrical hazards. Use the following measures to prevent electrical hazards:
•
Use proper safety shoe foot protection (not tennis shoes.
•
Use rubber insulating gloves, hoods, sleeves, matting, and blankets.
•
Use insulated, non-conductive hardhats (Class E electrical/utility type).
Training
Employers must train workers who use electric tools in safe work practices and:
•
•
•
•
De-energizing electric equipment before inspecting or repairing
Using cords, cables, and electric tools that are in good repair
Lockout/tagout recognition and procedures
Using appropriate protective equipment
Employees must be trained to de-energize equipment, when unexpected startup
is possible. Before doing inspections or repairs, ALL ELECTRICAL CURRENT
MUST BE TURNED OFF at the switch box and it must be padlocked in the OFF
position. The switch and/or controls, or other devices being locked, must be
tagged securely to show they are being serviced. Tags must say: “Do Not Start!”
Case Study
Ed was delayed in traffic and arrived late to service shop equipment for a longtime client. He had always been able to depend on this client to implement the
highest of safety standards, so he felt he could work fast to save time. After
getting an angry cell phone call from his wife, he began work immediately. He
noticed a potentially live wire as he bent down to reach a switch and assumed
the equipment was properly shut down. He was fatally electrocuted on the spot.
Recommendations
•
Ed should have de-energized the equipment or looked for locks and tags.
•
Locks and tags should have been present if the client was in compliance.
•
Live wires should have been insulated and pre-checked for energy.
•
Ed allowed outside distractions to divert his focus from safety.
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Module 12: Review Quiz
1. Which of the following is a required step when locking and tagging out circuits?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Apply locks to the power source after de-energizing
Apply tags to the power source after de-energizing
Apply either a lock or tag when work is done
Write the hazard warning on the lock
2. GFCIs, fuses, and circuit breakers are examples of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
PPE
Circuit shock interceptors
Electrical protective devices
Electrical insulation devices
3. What does a GFCI do?
A.
B.
C.
D.
It completes the grounding process
It protects from shock
It can be used in lieu of lockout
It is a circuit flow device
4. Grounding creates a/an ______ path from a tool to the earth to disperse
unwanted current.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Open
High-resistance
Closed
Low-resistance
5. When working with cords and wires, look for:
A.
B.
C.
D.
Damaged insulation and proper grounding
Exposed insulation that can become energized if touched by a live wire
Old hand tools or those damaged or misused
All of the above
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NOTES:
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Module 13:
SCAFFOLDS
This module reviews safety regulations regarding the construction and use of
scaffolding.
Scaffolds – Suspended and Supported
A scaffold is a term used to describe any sort of temporary elevated platform that
is used to support either workers, materials, or both. Suspended scaffolds are
supported by rope from fixed overhead positions. Various suspended ones, are:
•
Two-point/swing stage – most common; hung from building top by rope
•
Single point adjustable/spiders – supports one worker; uses one rope
•
Catenary - many ropes support platform; usually built at construction site
•
Multi-point adjustable – support platform(s); most often chimney hoists
•
Interior hung – only used indoors; hung from roof or ceiling
•
Needle beam – platform is supported by two needle beams hung by rope
•
Multi-level – a series of platforms arranged vertically
•
Float (ship) – platform supported by two bearers and hung by ropes
Supported scaffolds have one or more platforms on poles and beams which are
secured in the ground. The various types of supported scaffolds are:
•
Frame or fabricated – common and practical; a platform elevated on tubes
•
Mobile – similar to frame but mounted on wheels or casters
•
Pump jack - platform on vertical poles; fitted with moveable brackets
•
Ladder jack - platform on brackets attached to a pair of ladders
•
Tube and coupler – heavy duty; lattice-like frame fastened by couplers
•
Pole – single pole or two pole; made entirely of wooden poles and boards
•
Specialty – made for specific uses like brick laying, outrigging, carpentry
Regulations for Suspension Scaffolds
The regulations for the two-point scaffold are applicable to all other types of
suspension scaffolds, unless stated otherwise. Of particular importance, are:
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•
Anchorage to hold 4 times intended load; tiebacks only secured to
structural members like foundation beams; no vents etc.
•
Support ropes must be capable of holding 6 times the intended load..
•
The preferred access to the scaffold is from the roof
•
Adequate fall protection has to be present like guardrails
•
Platforms at least 18 inches wide and able to hold itself and 4 times
maximum allowed weight
•
Stable design to minimize sway when raised and lowered
•
Must be clear of any power source and clear of power lines
•
Workers must be trained by experts.
Requirements for Single-Point Adjustable
The rope must always be vertical unless all of the following conditions are met:
•
•
•
Rigging designed by qualified person
Scaffold is accessible by rescuers and rope is protected from chafe.
Scaffold is positioned so it will not contact other surfaces if it sways.
Requirements for Cantenary
Cantenary scaffolding should:
•
•
Not have more than two interconnected platforms at any one time
Always have personal fall arrest protection since there are no guardrails
Requirements for Multi-Point Adjustable
Suspension for multi-point adjustable scaffolds must be:
•
•
•
Built with added independent support lines equal to the number of
supported points
Built so independent support lines are attached to same anchorages
Built so supports attach directly to support stirrup, not other platforms
Requirements for Interior Hung
Because interior hung scaffolds can only be suspended from roof structures, roof
structures must be inspected to ensure that they have sufficient strength.
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Requirements for Needle Beam
Ropes or hangers must be used for scaffold support. If one edge is supported by
a permanent structural member, then, a rope need only be fastened to one end.
Needle beams must be secured to ensure they do not roll or are displaced.
Requirements for Float (Ship)
Platforms must be secured to at least two bearers (wooden beams) that extend
to at least 6 inches beyond the platform. Rope connections must be secure so
the platform does not shift or slip. Each employee must use a fall arrest system.
Regulations for Supported Scaffolds
The rules for frame or fabricated scaffolds are applicable to all other types of
supported scaffolds, unless stated otherwise.
Requirements for Frame or Fabricated
A level foundation is vital for any structure to be considered stable. Foundations:
•
•
Must be firm; on base plates or mud sills; hold weight without movement
Poles and frame to be braced to prevent sway; entire frame to be level
Requirements for Mobile
Mobile scaffolds must be stabile when moving. If moved manually, force must be
applied toward the base in an area less than 5 feet above ground. If moved by a
powered system, it must be so designed. Employees must never be on scaffolds
when moving, unless so designed.
Requirements for Pump Jack
Pump jack bracket and braces must be of metal plates and have angles to
ensure strength. Bracket must be fitted to prevent slippage. Plus:
•
•
•
Secure poles with rigid triangular bracing at bottom, top, and other points.
If pass bracing is used, an added brace must be put about 4 feet above
the pass brace and be in place until the pump jack has been moved.
Wood to be straight-grained and free of defects
Requirements for Ladder Jacks
Ladders that support ladder jack scaffolds must be constructed and positioned to
prevent slipping. They should also be suitably fastened for stability.
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Requirements for Platforms
The greatest height a platform can be placed is 20 feet from the supported base.
General Issues Regarding Support Scaffolds
•
•
•
•
•
Access should be designed for safety; NO climbing cross-braces
Platforms must be fully planked with gaps no more than one inch.
Platforms should be no more than 14 inches from structure.
If over 4 times minimum base dimensions use ties, braces, and guys
With multi-level heights avoid overhead power lines.
How Can Falls From Scaffolds Be Reduced?
Employers can reduce the risk of falling by following uniform practices like:
•
•
•
•
•
Ensuring construction is in accordance with the manufacturer
Not using modified scaffold components or mixing different components
Only using components made of the same metal
Not climbing cross-braces
Providing safe access, personal fall protection, and guardrails
Guidelines for guardrails include:
•
•
•
•
Scaffolds over 6 feet need guardrails, midrail, and toeboards.
Guardrails to hold up to 200 # applied at any point and from any direction
Midrails to hold 150 pounds applied at any point and from any direction
Guardrails must be smooth and not protrude from platforms.
Personal fall arrest systems must be used if there are no guardrails. They are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Full body harnesses that absorb shock
Lanyards or vertical lifelines that absorb shock
Self retracting lifelines (SRLs) that reduce entanglement and tripping
Horizontal lifelines connected to a two-point, horizontal cable
Arrest line must limit maximum arresting force to less than 1,260 pounds.
Arrest line must be rigged to ensure worker does not freefall over 6 feet.
System to hold twice the impact energy of a worker freefalling for 6 feet.
Case Study
An employee was working on a scaffold during stormy weather. It is suspected
that he lost his balance and fell when a strong gust of wind made the scaffold
sway, causing it to hit another platform. He fell 15 feet to his death.
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Recommendations
•
•
•
There were no guardrails and he did not use a personal fall arrest system.
The scaffold should not have swayed, especially into another structure.
It was unsafe to be working on a scaffold during such stormy weather.
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Module 13: Review Quiz
1. Employees working at heights over ___ feet must use personal fall arrest
systems.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Six
Eight
Ten
Twelve
2. Guardrails must hold up to _____ pounds applied at any point and from any
direction to the top-rail.
A.
B.
C.
D.
250
150
200
300
3. When moving a mobile scaffold manually, force must be applied as close to
the base as possible and in an area that is _______ above ground.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Five to seven feet
Near five feet
Less than four feet
Less than five feet
4. Which is the most commonly used scaffold?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Two-point or swing stage
Single point
Catenary
Multi-point adjustable
5. Which of these fall arrest systems is designed to absorb free-fall shock?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Torso harness
Lanyard or vertical lifeline
Catenary
Horizontal lifeline
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NOTES:
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Module 14:
BASIC FALL PROTECTION
This review covers rules for most construction workers, except those inspecting,
investigating or assessing conditions prior to starting work or after completion.
Falls and Preventive Measures
Before allowing work to start, employers must assess all surfaces for structural
integrity. If hazards exist, approved fall protection must be used. Falls are the
chief cause of deaths averaging 362 annually from 1995 to 1999. So, to reverse
this trend, employers have been given detailed guidelines by OSHA.
Types of Protective Systems
•
•
•
•
•
Guardrail systems
Personal arrest system
Safety net system
Safety Monitoring System: competent person spots risk and warns
workers
Warning Line System: warning barrier on a roof edge that designates a
safe work area that does not require guardrails, body belts, or safety nets
Areas that MUST have Fall Protection
A protection system is mandatory if falls can be over six feet, including:
•
Unprotected sides and edges – guardrails, nets, fall arrest
•
Leading edges – guardrails, nets, fall arrest
•
Hoist areas and holes – guardrails, fall arrest
•
Formwork, re-bar, reinforcing steel – fall arrest, nets, positioning devices
•
Ramps, runways, and other walkways – at least guardrails
•
Excavations - guardrails, fence, cover
•
Dangerous equipment – guardrails and equipment guards
•
Overhand bricklaying - guardrails, nets, fall arrest or access zones
•
Low-sloped roof work – guardrails, nets, fall arrest or, warning line system
and guardrails, or warning line system and safety monitoring
•
Steep roofs – guardrails with toe-boards, nets, fall arrest
•
Pre-cast concrete erection - guardrails, nets, fall arrest
•
Residential construction - guardrails, nets, fall arrest
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•
Walking/working surfaces not otherwise addressed
•
Wall opens
Active Systems of Fall Protection
Active systems require employee manipulation to be effective. They are:
•
•
•
Designed to operate in free fall situations
Part of other systems/components or activated to provide protection
Designed to protect employees from falls and forces that can cause injury
Guardrails
Guardrails must have top rail, mid rail, posts, and toeboards, and withstand a
force of at least 200 pounds applied within 2 inches of top edge, outward or
downward, and at any point on top. They must be steel or plastic and have:
•
Top edge 42 inches + or - 3 inches above work level if edge height can
exceed 45 inches.
•
Midrails, screens, mesh, intermediate vertical members, or the equivalent
MUST be installed between the top edge of the guardrail system and work
surface if no wall or parapet of 21 inches high.
•
Top rails and midrails to be at least 1/4 inch diameter
•
Pipe railings to be schedule 40 pipe, with posts spaced 8 feet or less
•
Structural steel railings: posts, top rails, and midrails to be at least 2x2
inch by 3/8-inch angles, with posts spaced 8 feet or less
•
Intermediate members between posts must be less than 19 inches apart.
Safety Net Systems
Safety net systems must comply with the following provisions:
•
•
•
•
•
Installed as close as viable under working surfaces but never over 30 feet
Must be drop-tested after installation and before use
Drop-tests with 400-pound bag of sand; nets with approved border rope
Must have clearance beneath to prevent contact with surface or structures
Must have no defects, uniform connections, and no fallen materials
Passive Systems
Passive systems do not need worker interaction. A personal fall arrest system
(PFAS) is passive. Attachment to guardrails or hoists is NOT allowed. Prompt
rescue or assurance that workers can rescue themselves is a must.
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Inspecting Fall Protection Equipment
All fall protection equipment must be inspected before each use for:
•
•
•
•
Tears, cuts, burns, and abrasions
Distorted hooks, damaged springs, and non-functioning parts
Manufacturer labels
Deformed eyelets, Dee-rings, dirt, grease, oil, corrosives, and acids
PFAS – Harnesses and Lanyards
•
•
•
•
•
•
Full body harnesses are preferred because of even weight distribution.
Body belts can not be used for fall arrest.
Lanyards connect worker to a deceleration device, lifeline, or anchorage.
Lanyards require a minimum breaking strength of 5,000 pounds.
Lanyards attach to Dee-rings between workers’ shoulder blades.
Types: self retracting, shock absorbing, synthetic webbing, synthetic rope
PFAS – Life Lines, Snaphooks and Anchorage Points
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Life lines connect to one or both ends of anchorage point
Life lines are vertical (5,000-pound strength) and horizontal double locking
Snaphooks connect lanyards to Dee-rings on a body harness.
Snaphooks and Dee-rings to have tensile strength of 5,000 pounds.
Use one snaphook per Dee-ring and lock each.
Best when above worker’s head to stop a fall more than 6 feet.
Attachment anchorage points must support at least 5,000 # per employee.
Positioning Device Systems
A positioning device system is a body belt or body harness system rigged to
support an employee on an elevated vertical surface. Such devices:
•
•
•
Must be inspected before each use
Must be rigged so worker cannot free fall over 2 feet
Must secured to an anchorage able to support at least twice the potential
impact load of an employee's fall or 3,000 pounds, whichever is greater.
Safety Monitoring System
The employer must use a competent person to monitor who is:
•
•
Competent to recognize fall hazards and able to warn employees
Able to work on the same surface or can see conditions
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•
•
Close enough to communicate orally with the employee
Focused only on monitoring
Covers
Covers are required to protect workers from falling through holes. Covers to be:
•
•
•
Secured, color coded, or marked: HOLE or COVER
Roadway covers to support at least twice the maximum axle load
All others to support at least twice the weight of employees and equipment
Falling Objects Protection
Workers must use hardhats and one of the following measures:
•
•
•
Erect toe-boards, screens, or guardrail systems
Erect canopies to keep falling objects from the edge so they won’t fall
Barricade area to which objects could fall, keep employees out
Fall Protection Plan
Fall protection plans are okay employer shows usual systems are infeasible or
unsafe. They must be strictly enforced, done by a qualified person, and include:
•
•
•
Statement of Policy and fall protection systems to be used
Implementation steps
Enforcement and accident investigation methods and approved changes
Case Study
This accident occurred while building a two-story condominium building. The day
it happened, three workers were on the ground to insert pillars into the floor
joists, which were then lifted by a mobile crane. The victim and two coworkers did
the elevated assembly work. Framing for the second-floor ceiling was already
complete. Late in the day, the victim fell onto the concrete foundation from a
scaffolding board stretched over a second-floor ceiling beam.
Recommendations
•
•
•
Scaffolding board was not fixed; no guardrail or fall protection system.
No competent person for fall protection was onsite during the project.
Victim was new that day and did not have safety orientation.
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Module 14: Review Quiz
1. When can a fall protection plan be used instead of a conventional system?
A.
B.
C.
D.
On smaller conventional jobs when a variance is filed
When conventional systems are not available or cost effective
When conventional systems are not feasible or actually more dangerous
When employer justifies the decision and ensures the use of monitoring
2. Safety net systems must be:
A.
B.
C.
D.
Installed as close as viable under working surfaces but never over 30 feet
Used only if guardrails or lanyards cannot be installed under 30 feet
Specifically included as part of a fall protection plan
All of the above
3. The acronym, PFAS, stands for:
A.
B.
C.
D.
Passive Fall Arrest System
Protective Fall Arrest System
Personal Fall Arrest System
Personal Fall Active System
4. Which of the following is the way to protect workers from falling objects?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Require hardhats, erect toe-boards, screens, or net systems
Erect canopies to keep falling objects from the edge so they won’t fall
Use hardhats, barricade area where objects could fall, keep workers out
File a comprehensive fall protection program
5. When using a safety monitoring system, which of the following must be done?
A.
B.
C.
D.
A competent person must supervise at all times
A competent person must be ready to implement immediate rescue
A competent person must be nearby
A competent person must be totally focused on monitoring safety
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NOTES:
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Module 15:
CRANES AND RIGGING
This module reviews Subpart N which sets safety practices to reduce crane,
derrick, hoist, elevator, conveyor, and aerial lift hazards.
General Standards
Nearly 30 percent of employee electrocutions involve cranes. Mechanical failures
cause 11 percent of crane accidents. Plus, mechanical failures are often from a
lack of preventive maintenance, training, or experience.
A competent person is one who is capable of identifying hazardous working
conditions and who has the authority to take prompt corrective measures.
Employer authorized competent persons must inspect all machinery and
equipment before and during use, to ensure that it works or is promptly repaired.
The following are examples of typical crane hazards:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Improper load rating
Excessive speeds
No hand signals
Inadequate inspection and maintenance
Unguarded parts or swing radius
Working too close to power lines
Improper exhaust system
Shattered windows due to not having safety glass
No steps/guardrails walkways
No boom angle indicator or outriggers
Required Planning Before Any Start-Up
Employers must follow these safety guidelines before initial start-up:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Level crane and ensure support surface is firm and can support the load.
Contact power line owners and determine precautions.
Know crane capacities, limitations, and job site restrictions.
Barricade areas within the swing radius.
Ensure proper maintenance and inspections.
Determine safe areas to store materials and place machinery.
How do Accidents Occur?
•
Instability
OSHA 30-Hour Construction Study Guide
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•
•
Lack of communication and training
Inadequate maintenance or inspection
Types of Cranes
The differences between cranes are great enough to require specific training on
each. Operators cannot expect to be totally proficient in the operation of the
many types of cranes used today. And, they cannot be expected to move from
one type of crane to another without adequate training on the specifics of each
piece of equipment. The main differences occur in:
•
•
Boom hoists
Load line controls
All suggested operating speeds, load capacities, and warnings must be clearly
posted. Instructions and warnings must be posted to be visible while working.
Loads
Crane operators must ID load limits and approximate load weights. Load weights
can be found on shipping documentation. Then, the operator must verify lift
calculations and determine if it is within the crane’s load rating. Operators must
also consider factors that can limit the load rating of a crane, such as:
•
•
•
•
If crane is not on level ground
Wind conditions at the time
Side loads or lifting over the side
Any extensions, jibs or other attachments
Lifting principles
There are four basic lifting principles that govern a crane's mobility and safety:
•
•
•
•
Center of Gravity - point around which weight is evenly distributed
Leverage - used to change the leverage point or fulcrum.
Stability - relationship of the load weight, angle of the boom, and its radius
Structural Integrity - ALL parts of crane work in proportion and strength
Annual Inspections
Thorough documented inspections of hoisting machinery must be done on an
annual basis. Plus, visual inspections must be done before and during shifts, and
again at least once a month. Employers must keep records of such inspections.
The following must be inspected on a regular basis:
OSHA 30-Hour Construction Study Guide
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•
•
•
•
•
•
Air pressure and no leaks and proper inflation
Clearance for rotating superstructure
Wire rope wear which must be immediately removed from use
Physical damage to crane
Loose or missing hardware, nuts, or bolts
Fluid leaks
Training
Operators must be certifiably qualified to operate specific cranes before allowed
to do so. They must also have on-the-job training, to learn specific workplace
hazards. When training on the job, there must a supervisor present at all times.
Prohibitions for Cranes, the Personnel Platform, and Rigging
Using a derrick or crane to hoist workers on a personnel platform is prohibited.
The only exception is when conventional means to reach the worksite are more
dangerous or the structure’s design does not allow access.
Operational Criteria
Hoisting a personnel platform should be performed:
•
•
•
In a controlled, slow, and cautious manner
With wire rope, shackles, and other rigging hardware able to support at
least five times the maximum load
With engaged locking devices when an occupied worker platform is fixed
Outriggers
Manufacturer’s specifications must be followed when cranes are equipped with
outriggers, including:
•
Always make sure that the total weight of the loaded personnel platform
and related rigging does not exceed 50 percent of the manufacturer’s
rated capacity for the configuration and radius of the crane or derrick.
•
The use of machines having booms in which lowering is controlled by a
brake without any aid from other devices or equipment that slow down
lowering speeds is not allowed
Case Study
A worker fell to his death while being hoisted on a personnel platform to his
worksite. The platform’s rated capacity was 250 pounds. The man weighed 195
and he estimated that is portable equipment was within safe lifting limits. Since
he was late, he asked his buddy, Jack, a crane operator to give him a quick lift.
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Recommendations
•
The platform was not visually inspected that morning and there was
damage to the rigging.
•
A hoist should be lifted in a controlled, slow, cautious manner and not by a
crane. Since the platform was too fast, it was high enough for a fatal fall by
the time the rigging broke.
•
The worker’s 195 pounds plus the 100 pounds of equipment exceeded the
50 percent of capacity guideline
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Module 15: Review Quiz
1. Using a derrick or crane to hoist workers on a personnel platform is prohibited,
except if:
A.
B.
C.
D.
Conventional means to reach the site are more dangerous
A safety engineer approves the configuration
A supervisor is present
An exception is obtained from OSHA
2. What are two basic lifting principles that govern a crane's mobility and safety?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Center of gravity and balance
Leverage and stability
Design and framework
Structural Integrity and balance
3. A thorough documented inspection of hoisting machinery must be done:
A.
B.
C.
D.
Bi-annually
Quarterly
Weekly
Annually
4. Accidents occur due to:
A.
B.
C.
D.
Stability
Proper communication
Lack of training
Timely maintenance or inspection
5. Employers must always use competent persons to conduct OSHA-required
inspections. What is the definition of a competent person?
A. One able to find hazards and re-inspect suggested safety measures
B. An engineertrained to find hazards and whose suggestions will be valued
C. One who is capable of identifying hazardous working conditions and who
has the authority to take prompt corrective measures
D. Someone with construction expertise who can make concrete suggestions
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NOTES:
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Module 16:
MOTOR VEHICLES
This module reviews Motor Vehicles, Rollover Protection, and Signs, Signals,
and Barricades as defined by OSHA.
General Requirements
Subpart O - Motor Vehicles
Motor vehicles operated on off-highway jobsites, not open to public traffic are
covered by this subpart. All such vehicles must be equipped with:
•
•
•
•
Service brake systems, emergency brake systems, and parking brake
systems that can use common components but must always be operable
At least two operable headlight and taillight when visibility warrants
Operable brake light regardless of light conditions
Adequate, audible, operational warning devices at operator’s station
Never allow the use of motor vehicles with obstructed rear views unless:
•
A reverse signal alarm is installed that can be heard above noise levels
•
An observer is onsite to signal safe clearance
•
They are equipped with windshields and powered wipers
•
All cracked and broken glass is replaced
•
Proper defogging and defrosting devices are installed and maintained
All vehicles must be checked at the start of each shift to ensure that parts,
equipment, and accessories are in safe operating condition and are free of
apparent damage that could cause failure while in use. All defects must be
corrected before vehicles are put into service. These components include:
•
Service brakes – including trailer brake connections
•
Parking system (hand brakes)
•
Emergency stopping system (brakes)
•
Tires
•
Horn
•
Steering mechanism
•
Coupling devices
•
Seat belts and safety devices
•
Operating controls
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Safe maintenance also applies to the following, when it is essential:
•
•
•
•
•
Lights
Reflectors
Windshield wipers
Defrosters
Fire extinguishers, etc.
If a haulage vehicle is loaded by a via crane, power shovel, loader, or similar
apparatus, it must have:
•
•
•
•
•
A cab shield and/or canopy that effectively protects the operator from
shifting or falling materials
A system to prevent material movement during transport
Securely installed seats that are adequate to seat the intended number of
workers
Permanent dump truck supports that can be locked into position to prevent
accidentally lowering a worker during maintenance or inspection work
Dump truck trip handles on tailgate to keep operator clear during dumping
Material Handling Equipment
Seat belts must be installed on the following types of equipment:
•
•
•
•
•
Loaders, crawlers, or wheel tractors
Bulldozers, scrapers, off-highway trucks, graders
Agricultural and industrial tractors and similar equipment
Equipment designed for standup operation
Equipment without rollover protective structures (ROPSs) or canopies
Employers must take into account access roadways and grades. They must
never move equipment or vehicles on any access roadway or grade, unless it is
constructed and maintained to safely accommodate such movement. Emergency
access ramps and beams must be built to contain/control runaway vehicles.
A service braking system is required on all earth-moving equipment. The system
must be able to stop and hold equipment when fully loaded.
Regarding audible alarms, employers must ensure:
•
•
•
Bidirectional equipments must have horns audible over noise levels
That horns are kept operational and used whenever machinery is moved
If rear view is obstructed use alarms or employees to signal clearance
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ROPS
Subpart W - Rollover Protection
Rollover protective structures for material handling is designated as ROPS. The
design objective of ROPS is to minimize the likelihood of a complete overturn of
equipment. ROPS and supporting attachments must be designed, fabricated,
and installed in a manner that supports at least two times the weight of the prime
mover applied at the point of impact. Structures requiring ROPS include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Rubber-tired, self-propelled scrapers
Rubber-tired front-end loaders
Rubber-tired dozers
Wheel-type agricultural and industrial tractors
Crawler tractors, crawler-type loaders
Motor graders with or without construction attachments
The exception to this rule is sideboom pipe laying tractors.
Each ROPS must have the following information permanently attached:
•
•
•
Manufacturer’s or fabricator’s name and address
ROPS model number, if any
Machine make, model, or series number that the edifice is designed to fit
Accident Prevention Signs and Tags
Subpart S - igns, Signals, and Barricades
Signs and symbols must always be visible during work and they must be
removed or covered promptly when the hazards they address no longer exist.
The following types of signs are to be used to prevent moving vehicle related
accidents at constructions sites:
•
•
Danger signs
o Danger signs to be used only where an immediate hazard exists.
o Danger signs must have red as upper panel dominant color, black
outline on borders, an white lower panel for additional sign wording.
Caution signs
o Caution signs must be used only to warn against potential hazards
or to caution against unsafe practices.
o Caution signs must be dominantly yellow, with black border and
upper panel; yellow lettering that states “caution” on black panel;
black lettering must be used for additional wording.
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•
•
•
•
Exit signs
o Exit signs must be lettered in legible red letters six inches or taller
and at least ¾ inch wide on white fields.
Safety instruction signs
o White with green upper panels, using white letters to convey main
message, with other wording in black letters on white backgrounds.
Directional signs
o Other than automotive traffic signs, to be white with a black panel
and a white directional symbol. Wording must be black on white.
Traffic signs
o Construction areas to be posted with traffic signs at hazard points.
Accident Prevention Tags
These tags must be used only as a a temporary way to warn employees of
hazards such as defective tools or equipment that needs repair etc. These tags
cannot be used as a permanent substitute for accident prevention signs.
Case study
Although his truck’s rear window was fogged up, Ben was certain that he could
safely maneuver his truck in reverse to complete the last demolition debris dump
for the day Ben had years of experience and excellent depth perception. But,
while backing up, he saw three coworkers running toward him, waving their
hands wildly. A young, inexperienced worker had cut behind the truck to leave
early for the day and he was killled.
Recommendations
•
•
•
The windshield defoggers were defective
A worker should have been called to give hand signals to the driver and in
this case prohibit the yound worker from cutting through the area
Ben’s backup alarm was not audible above the demolition noise
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Module 16: Review Quiz
1. All vehicles must have a service brake system, an emergency brake system
and a(n)______. These systems can utilize common components.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Emergency cut-off switch
Audible warning device
Hydraulic brake system
Parking brake system
2. Motor vehicles covered by Subpart O of the OSHA regulations are those
vehicles that operate within a(n) ______ which is not open to public traffic.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Designated work site
Off-highway jobsite
Confined work area
Official job site
3. All vehicles must be checked ______ to ensure parts, equipment, and
accessories are in safe operating condition and are free of apparent damage.
A.
B.
C.
D.
At the beginning of each week
At the end of each shift
At the start of each shift
At beginning of each month
4. Which type of sign must have red as the dominant color for the upper panel,
black outline on the borders, and a white lower panel for additional sign wording?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Danger sign
Directional sign
Traffic sign
Exit sign
5. Which type of accident prevention sign must be white with green upper panels,
using white letters to convey principal messages?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Safety instruction sign
Directional sign
Traffic sign
Danger sign
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NOTES:
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Module 17:
EXCAVATIONS
This module reviews regulations for construction-related excavations. Rules
protect workers from cave-ins, while in trenches and during all phases of work.
Scope of Standard
The Standard applies to ALL man-made open excavations including trenches.
But, house foundation and basement excavations (even ones that technically
become trenches when formwork, foundations or walls are constructed) are
EXEMPT if they meet exemption rules.
An excavation is any man-made cut, cavity, trench or depression in the earth’s
surface formed by earth removal. In addition to cave-ins, related dangers are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Lack of oxygen–asphyxiation and fire
Accidental break of underground utility (such as gas, electricity) lines
Falls and collapse from moving machinery near the excavation edge
Inhalation of toxic fumes or materials
Water accumulation and drowning
Explosive, flammable gases, falls
Adjacent Structures
Any structure nearby an excavation is called an adjacent structure. The main
concern for excavations near adjacent structures is the structure’s stability.
Excavations by adjacent structures can create surcharges, change soil
conditions or other disruptions that could lead to an accident. Also, vibrations
from nearby structures like highways could cause excavation-related cave-ins.
Protective Systems
Excavations 20 feet and over must have protective systems planned and
designed by engineers. Plans must be stamped by registered professional
engineers and kept at project sites. Employers must enforce such plans.
The only exceptions are when excavations are made entirely in stable rock or, if
they are less than five feet deep and have no potential for cave-in.
A protective system must be designed to accommodate soil type, depth of cut
and the type of trench operations. Examples of protective systems include:
•
Sloping, or benching, systems - formation of one or a series of horizontal
levels or steps along the side walls of an excavation
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•
Shoring, or shielding, systems - support excavation walls; used where
location or depth makes sloping impractical
•
Trench boxes - shields used in trenches to support the trench face;
aluminum or steel, and can be used in conjunction with sloping/benching.
When choosing a protective system, evaluate the following factors:
•
•
•
•
•
Soil classification
Depth of cut
Water content of soil
Changes due to weather and climate
Other operations in the vicinity
Warning Systems for Mobile Equipment
When using mobile equipment near an excavation edge, use warnings like:
•
•
•
Barricades
Hand or mechanical signals
Stop logs
Equipment in General
ALL equipment and materials must be properly and/or routinely maintained,
inspected, and stored. All defect equipment must be removed from service.
Water Accumulation
Any water accumulation is prohibited without water removal equipment. Plus,
employees cannot work near or in water without these precautions in place:
•
•
•
Shield systems to prevent cave-ins, diversion ditches, dikes, etc.
Safety harnesses and lifelines
A competent person being present to supervise
Hazardous Atmospheres: Do Not Work Conditions
Before entering an excavation over four feet deep, a competent person must test
for combustible gas, oxygen deficiency or other hazards. If one exists, provide:
•
•
•
Ventilation systems and respirators
Safety harness and line; basket stretcher
Constant supervision
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Some toxic atmospheres must be totally avoided, including:
•
•
•
If oxygen is less than 19.5% or over 23.5%
If combustible gas concentrations are over 20% of lower flammable limit
If threshold limit values for airborne contaminants exceed ACGIH limit
Access and Egress
Stairways, ladders or ramps must be installed on trenches over four feet deep.
This is done to limit lateral employee travel to no more than 25 feet. Additionally:
•
•
Ramps/runways with differing structural members must be connected.
Structural members must be of uniform thickness.
Surface Crossing
Surface crossings are prohibited unless there are no alternatives. If absolutely
essential, they must be constructed under engineering supervision and be:
•
•
•
At least 20 inches wide
Have standard rails
Extend at least 2 feet past the surface edge
Falls
To reduce the dangers from falling, employers must:
•
Keep equipment and materials that can roll at least two feet from edge of
excavation, and/or use retaining devices to stop movement.
•
Use, hand or mechanical signals, or stop logs to alert the equipment
operators when moving toward edge; grade slopes away from edge.
•
Use scaling to remove loose rock or soil, or barricades or equivalent
protection to protect employees against falling rock, soil or materials.
•
Prohibit work on faces of sloped/benched excavations at levels above
other employees, unless adequately protected.
•
Prohibit employees from being below all moving loads.
Inspections of Excavations
Employees must be immediately evacuated from any excavation if there is:
•
•
•
A possible cave-in is identified
A hazardous atmosphere is detected
A failing protective system
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•
Any potentially dangerous situation arises
Employees must NOT be allowed to return to the excavation until precautions
have been taken to ensure safety.
Soil Classifications
•
Cohesive soil - high clay content, durable and doesn’t break up; plastic
form; example cemented soils like hardpan
•
Fissured - breaks up easily; has fracture lines
•
Granular - gravel, sand or silt; course grained soil; little or no clay; easily
disintegrates when dry; example is sandy loam
Soil Types
•
Type A is a type of cohesive soil with an unconfined compression strength
value of 1.5 ton per square foot, or more; examples are clay and caliche.
•
Type B is cohesive soil with an indefinite strength of more than 0.5 tsf, but
less than 1.5 tsf.
•
Type C is cohesive soil with an unlimited compressive strength of 0.5 tsf
or less; examples are gravel, sand, and loamy sand.
Soil and Rock: Testing and Classification
There are visual and manual tests. Each involves:
•
Visual analysis - to identify qualitative site data, excavation sides and
adjacent soil; soil samples taken; roughly calculate the array and
approximate amounts of particle sizes; competent person must inspect.
•
Manual testing - hand done; example is pat test for plasticity; roll moist
ball into 1/8 inch diameter threads; cohesive if each can be held by hand
Soil classification requires at least one visual and at least one manual test by a
competent person. If soil system is layered, the weakest layer is analyzed to
classify the system. But, each layer can be classified alone if a more stable layer
lies under a less stable layer.
Case Study
The accident occurred on a project intended to remove an agricultural channel. It
required a trench to be dug to install two drainage pipes. A water pipe buried
under one trench 28 inches deep was cracked by a tremor the night before.
Water caused earth to slowly fall into the trench.
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Soon after the project began, the worker outside the trench saw a crack in the
soil near the trench edge. He instantly warned the others to exit immediately, but
they could not get out before the slope collapsed. One worker was asphyxiated.
Recommendations
•
•
•
Lack of effective planning, pre-inspection and protective system
Lack of measures to protect against collapse of the ground
The work was being performed without proper supervision.
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Module 17: Review Quiz
1. Which of the following is an example of manual soil testing to detect plasticity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
A cohesive test
A crack test
A silt test
A pat test
2. If soil testing determines a layered soil system:
A.
B.
C.
D.
The weakest layer is used for analysis to categorize the system.
The strongest layer is used for analysis to classify the system.
Each layer is classified individually when a less stable layer is beneath.
Soil testing does not determine a layered system, because it doesn’t exist.
3. Which is exempt under the Standard?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Platforms for concerts
House foundations
Condominium complex foundations
All of the above
4. If a surface crossing over an excavation is absolutely necessary, it must be:
A.
B.
C.
D.
At least 20 inches wide and have standard ramps
Have rails at least 3 feet high
At least 20 inches wide and have standard rails
Extend at least 1 foot past the surface edge
5. What are some controls to protect workers from hazardous atmospheres?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Ventilation systems and respirators
Safety harnesses and lines; basket stretchers
Constant supervision
All of the above
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NOTES:
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Module 18:
CONCRETE AND MASONRY CONSTRUCTION
This module reviews expanded protection for concrete and masonry workers
under OSHA 29 CFR Part 1926.7, Subpart Q and portions of 1910. It lists
detailed procedures to effect such protection.
Revised Standard
The Standard expands protection for workers in several general ways:
•
•
•
It expands ways to protect against masonry wall collapse.
It permits employers to use several new and recent ways to test concrete.
It clarifies rules for cast-in-place and pre-cast concrete.
Protective measures now required:
•
Employers cannot place loads before getting qualified design verification.
•
Protruding reinforcing steel must be guarded to eliminate impalement.
•
Must post signs and not allow employees behind jack during tensioning
•
Employees are never to ride or work under moving concrete buckets.
•
Protective head/face PPE must be worn when using a pneumatic hose.
•
All bulk storage devices must have conical or taped bottoms.
•
Concrete pumping discharge piping requires 100 percent overload design.
•
Troweling machines require automatic shut off switches.
•
Concrete buggy handles cannot extend beyond the wheels on either side.
•
Powered concrete buckets require devices to prevent accidental dumping.
•
Tremies must be secured with wire ropes and regular couplings.
•
Energized bull float handles must be nonconductive or insulated.
Lockout/Tagout Procedures
Precise lockout and tagout procedures save lives. No employee should ever be
allowed to operate or repair equipment where inadvertent operation can occur,
causing injury, unless ALL potentially hazardous power has been locked out and
tagged. All tags must read: “Do Not Start” or contain similar language.
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Formwork
Formwork must be designed, fabricated, erected, supported, braced, and
maintained so that it is able to support, without failure, vertical and lateral loads.
Drawings or plans, even revisions for the jack layout, formwork (including shoring
equipment), working decks, and scaffolds, must be available at the jobsite.
Shoring and Re-Shoring
All shoring equipment (including equipment used in re-shoring operations) must:
•
•
•
Be inspected prior to erection
Be reinforced immediately if found to be weakened or damaged
Have sound, rigid sills able to carry the maximum intended load
All base plates, shore heads, extension devices, and adjustment screws must be
in firm contact, and secured when necessary, with the form and foundation.
Tiered, single-post shore construction calls for shores to be designed as follows:
•
Shores must be designed by a qualified designer, and inspected by an
engineer qualified in structural design.
•
Single-post shoring must be vertically aligned.
•
Single-post shores must be spliced to prevent misalignment.
•
Single-post shores must be adequately braced in two mutually
perpendicular directions at the splice level. Each tier also must be
diagonally braced in the same two directions.
•
Adjustment cannot be made after concrete is poured.
Additionally, vertical slips forms must be:
•
•
•
Specifically designed for that purpose
Adequately braced when not encased in concrete
Positioned so loads do not exceed the rated capacity of the jacks
Pre-Cast Concrete
Pre-cast concrete wall units, structural framing, and tilt-up wall panels must be
supported to prevent overturning or collapse until permanently connected.
Lifting inserts must be capable of supporting at least two times the maximum
intended load. Lifting inserts for other pre-cast members, excluding tilt-up
members, must be capable of supporting four times the load. Lifting hardware
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members must be capable of supporting five times the load.
Lift-Slab Operations
Lift-slab operations must be designed and planned by a registered professional
engineer who has experience in lift-slab construction. If implemented by the
employer, it must provide detailed instructions and sketches indicating the
prescribed method of erection and provision to ensure lateral stability of the
building/structure during construction. Additionally:
•
•
•
•
Jacks or lifting units must indicate rated capacity that cannot be exceeded.
Jacking equipment must be able to support at least two and one-half times
the load during jacking operations, and never be overloaded.
Jacking equipment here includes any load bearing component that is used
to carry out the lifting operation(s) such as threaded rods, footings, etc.
ONLY essential employees are permitted in or near all operation phases
The Term: “Reinforced Sufficiently” to Ensure Integrity
Here, a registered engineer, apart from the design and/or planning engineer must
determine from the plans that, if there is a loss of support at any jack location,
that the loss will be confined totally to that location, and not effect the whole.
Limited Access Zones
Whenever a masonry wall is being constructed, employers must establish a
limited access zone prior to starting construction. This zone must be:
•
•
•
•
The same height of constructed wall plus 4 feet, and its entire length
On the side of the wall without a scaffold
Have restricted entry only to employees actively engaged in construction
Retained until the wall is supported to prevent overturning and collapse,
unless the wall exceeds 8 feet and unsupported, then it must be braced.
Formwork
Formwork is the total support system for freshly poured concrete, including the
mold or sheeting (form) and all members like shores, reshores, hardware and
braces. It can be wooden, metal or plastic, and must be strong enough to support
the weight of wet concrete. Formwork is divided into two classes:
•
•
Class I formwork is used temporarily or for the support of light loads.
Class II formwork is used for structures that will support heavy loads.
Forms must prevent concrete leakage and be inspected for weakness. Wood
forms can be oiled or wetted to prevent sticking. Oil should be allowed to
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penetrate the wood to prevent absorption of water. Most light-grade petroleum
oils will do.
Steel forms can also be oiled with compounded, petroleum oils. Such forms
should be clean and smooth. Oil must be brushed, sprayed or swabbed evenly.
Concrete Reinforcement
Concrete has a high compressive strength, or resistance to being crushed, but it
has little tensile strength, or resistance to being pulled. So, reinforcing steel, with
high tensile strength, is embedded in concrete to support it. Reinforcement is:
•
Commonly done with round, relatively smooth, 1/4" diameter bars that can
slip through the concrete easily without friction (or bonding)
Case Study
During a lift-slab operation a worker’s legs were crushed beneath a fallen slab
and his back was severely injured because of the angle at which he fell. While in
the hospital he was interviewed concerning the circumstances of the operation.
Additionally, the site was inspected for conditions that led to the accident.
Recommendations
•
To cut cost, the employer used sketches and instructions from a prior job
that he felt was comparable, but the method of erection did not ensure
lateral stability of the new structure.
•
The jack was overloaded by 200 pounds.
•
The injured worker was not essential to the job and should not have been
allowed on site.
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Module 18: Review Quiz
1. Pre-cast concrete wall units, structural framing, and tilt-up wall panels must be
supported to prevent overturning and to prevent collapse until:
A.
B.
C.
D.
Temporary forms are completed
Permanent connections are completed
Reinforcement is displaced
A limited access zone is available
2. Formwork must be designed, fabricated, erected, supported, braced, and
maintained so that it will be capable of supporting, without failure, all:
A.
B.
C.
D.
Horizontal and diagonal bracing
Scaffolding
Vertical and lateral loads
Steel reinforcement
3. One of the primary aspects of this revised standard is that:
A.
B.
C.
D.
It requires additional scaffolding on walls that are over-sized
It defines specific formwork guidelines
It allows the use of new concrete testing methods
It expands formwork classes to include Class III
4. Whenever a masonry wall is being constructed, employers must establish: a
limited access zone prior to starting construction. This zone must be as follows:
A.
B.
C.
D.
A limited access zone as prescribed by the design engineer
A limited access zone that extends 5 feet beyond the wall length
A limited access zone the same height of constructed wall plus 8 feet
A limited access zone prior to starting construction
5. Lift-slab operations require which of the following?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Design and inspection services by an engineering firm
Jacking equipment that has been serviced within 60 days
Jacking equipment must support at least 2 ½ times the load being lifted
A limited access zone that extends beyond the length of the intended wall
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NOTES:
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Module 19:
STAIRWAYS AND LADDERS
This module reviews the standards applicable to all stairways and ladders used
in alteration, construction, repair and demolition of sites regulated by OSHA.
OSHA Standards Exemptions
OSHA does not regulate ladders purposely manufactured for scaffold access and
egress, but it does regulate general-purpose ladders with scaffolds.
Rules for Construction and Use
Employers must provide a stairway or ladder if elevation between steps is over
19 inches. Stairways must be 30 to 50 degrees from the horizontal with uniform
riser height and tread depth; height or tread cannot vary over ¼ inch. If doors or
gates open directly to a stairway, at least a 20-inch wide platform is required
beyond the swing of the door. Additionally, there must be:
•
•
•
Landings at least 30 inches deep and 22 inches wide every 12 feet or less
of vertical rise are required on temporary stairways.
Stairways must be installed 30-50 degrees from the horizontal.
Metal pan landings and treads must be secured in place before filling.
Stairrails and Handrails
Stairrails and handrails protect workers from falling. OSHA requires:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Handrails be on stairways with four or more risers, or over 30 inches
If there is a fall hazard over six feet, a stairrail system must be installed
Handrails and top rails withhold a load/force of 200 pounds
Stairrails and handrails be smooth to prevent, punctures, cuts, etc.
Handrails be 30 to 37 inches from rail top to surface of tread
After 1991, stairwell handrails to be 36-37 inches from rail surface to
tread; before 1991, stairrails can be 30-34 inches from rail surface to tread
Ladder Safety
Ladders must be in safe, working condition and used in clean areas. Also:
•
Avoid slippery conditions and secure ladders especially in traffic areas.
•
Rungs to be 10-14 inches apart; cleats and steps to be uniformly spaced.
•
Use ladders only for designed use; never use the top step of a stepladder.
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•
Competent persons must inspect ladders; if defective, tag “Do Not Use.”
•
Never allow anyone to climb on crossbracing unless the design allows it
•
Never move, shift, or extend a ladder while in use.
•
Ladder surfaces must be free of puncture or laceration hazards.
•
Ladders with a pitch over 90 degrees from horizontal are prohibited.
•
The step-across space from step centerline or rungs of fixed ladders to the
nearest structural edge worked on, must be under 12 inches.
Ladders near Energized Electrical Equipment
Ladders must have nonconductive side rails if they are used in places where
workers or ladders could contact exposed energized electrical equipment.
Climbing a Ladder Safely
Always face a ladder when using it. Grab it with at least one hand when mounting
or dismounting. Never carry anything that could cause loss of balance. Use
ladders only on stable, level surfaces unless secured properly.
Double-Cleated Ladders
Use double-cleated ladders when ladders are the only way to enter or exit areas
with 25 or more workers and when used for two-way simultaneous traffic.
Structural Defects Standards – Same for Fixed and Portable
Ladders with defects like broken or missing rungs, cleats, or steps, split rails,
corroded components, or other such defects must be tagged with “Do Not Use”
or similar wording, and be removed from service until properly repaired. Ladders
must be repaired according to their design and by a qualified person.
Slipping Hazards
Ladders must be kept free of paint, oil, grease or other slipping hazards. Never
apply varnish or an opaque covering. OSHA requires warning labels at least on
one face of a ladder side rail. Rung treads must be slip resistant.
Ladder Angles
Non-self-supporting ladders must be placed or positioned at an angle where the
horizontal distance from the top support to the foot of the ladder is 1/4 the
ladder’s working length (the distance between the foot and top support). The top
of a non-self-supporting ladder must be placed with the two rails supported
unless it is equipped with a single support attachment.
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Ladder Rail Extensions on Portable Ladders
If portable ladders are used to access upper landing surfaces, side rails must
extend at least three feet above such surfaces. If not possible, ladders must be
secured, equipped with grasping device to help workers mount and dismount.
Tall Fixed Ladders Requirements
All fixed ladders 24 feet or more must be equipped with:
•
•
•
•
A ladder safety device
Self-retracting lifelines with rest platforms every 150 feet or less
Cage or well, and multiple ladder sections each less than 50 feet
Strength to hold at least two loads of 250 pounds each, concentrated
between any two consecutive attachments
Fixed ladders require fall arrest systems or, cages or wells, when climbs exceed
24 feet, or when the top of the ladder is over 24 feet above lower levels. Cages
and wells must be designed to permit easy access or egress.
The climb on a fixed ladder equipped only with a cage or well must not exceed
50 feet. If ladder safety devices are also present, the climb can exceed 50 feet.
Training
Employees must be trained by a competent person to:
•
Know the maximum load-carrying capacities of various ladders
•
Identify and address fall hazards in the workplace
•
Know how to maintain, erect, assemble, and disassemble fall protection
•
Be able to safely position and use ladders and stairways
Before using a portable ladder, inspect for cracks, dents, and missing rungs.
Rungs must be designed to minimize slipping. Portable ladders must hold,
without failure, the following loads:
•
Non-self-supporting ladders must hold at least four times the maximum
intended load applied downward or vertically at a 75 ½° degree angle.
•
Self-supporting ladders must support at least four times the maximum
intended load in a fully opened position on a level surface.
•
Maximum intended load for these ladder designs is at least 200 pounds.
The top of a non-self-supporting ladder must be placed with the two rails
supported unless it is equipped with a single support attachment. Working loads
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corresponding to the duty rating of portable ladders that pass the applicable
ANSI test requirements shall be as follows:
Duty rating
Ladder type
(pounds)
Working load (Kg)
Extra heavy duty
Heavy duty
Medium duty
Light duty
IA
I
II
III
300
250
225
200
136.2
113.5
102.2
90.8
Offset Platforms
Except when portable ladders are used to access fixed ladders, ladders must be
offset with a landing platform between each ladder if two or more separate
ladders are used to reach a work area. Landing platforms to provide a horizontal
surface of at least 24 by 30 inches and be at least as strong as the ladders.
The Case - Two Painters Electrocuted
Two workers, painting light poles by a restaurant, used a spray gun on a 36 foot
aluminum extension ladder. A power line was located 21 feet above the ground.
The ladder was extended at least beyond the crossbar.
One victim was on the ladder and the second steadied it. The restaurant owner
heard a scream and saw the painter and the ladder fall. The other worker who
had been steadying the ladder was lying on the ground. The rescue squad
arrived almost immediately, but after a few minutes, both painters were dead.
Recommendations
•
The ladder should have been wooden or had nonconductive side rails
•
A wood block was under one leg of the ladder to steady it, so the ladder
was not properly secured
•
The top ladder rung was split which impaired the worker’s balance
•
The victims had not received any safety and health training
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Module 19: Review Quiz
1. All fixed ladders 24 feet or more must be equipped with:
A.
B.
C.
D.
A ladder safety device
Self-retracting lifelines with rest platforms every 300 feet
Multiple ladder sections each over 75 feet
All of the above
2. The length of continuous climb for any fixed ladder equipped only with a cage
or well must not exceed:
A.
B.
C.
D.
25 feet
30 feet
75 feet
50 feet
3. Fixed ladders must have fall arrest systems or, cages or wells, when a climb
exceeds ______ or, when the top of the ladder is over 24 feet above lower levels.
A.
B.
C.
D.
24 feet
30 feet
50 feet
60 feet
4. The working length of a ladder is defined as the:
A.
B.
C.
D.
Distance between the foot and top support
Distance between the top and the tread
Distance between the foot and the second-to-top step
Distance between the top and bottom rungs
5. When portable ladders are used to access an upper landing surface, the side
rails must extend at least ______ above the upper landing surface.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Two feet
Three feet
One foot
One-half foot
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NOTES:
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Module 20:
CONFINED SPACE ENTRY
This module reviews regulations for permit-required confined spaces and
discusses the hazards that can exist during work in confined spaces.
Introduction to Confined Spaces
A confined space is a space which, by design, has limited openings for entry
(ingress) and exit (egress), poor natural ventilation that could contain or produce
dangerous air contaminants, and is not intended for continuous occupancy. Such
spaces exist in many industrial settings, from steel mills to paper mills, from
shipyards to farms, and from public utilities to the construction industry.
Confined spaces include, but are not limited to, the following:
•
Storage tanks
•
Compartments of ships
•
Process vessels
•
Pits
•
Vats
•
Silos
•
Sewers and wells
•
Digesters and degreasers
•
Reaction vessels
•
Boilers
•
Ventilation or exhaust ducts, tunnels, underground utility vaults, pipelines
Classification
Confined spaces are classified into two categories:
1. Open-topped spaces deep enough to restrict natural air movement like:
•
•
•
Degreasers
Pits
Selected types of tanks and excavations
2. Enclosures with limited openings for entry and exit. Examples include:
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•
•
•
Sewers
Tanks
Silos
Hazards
Confined space hazards cause serious injury and death. Contributing factors are:
1. Failure to recognize and control hazards associated with confined spaces.
2. Inadequate or incorrect response that is spontaneous and not planned.
Atmospheric Conditions
Confined space atmosphere must be tested before entry. Monitoring must be
done during entry and occupancy. Conditions must be tested in a specific order
to protect all persons. The Standard specifies the following order of testing:
2. Oxygen content
3. Flammable gas and vapors
4. Potential toxic air contaminants
Oxygen Deficiency
Oxygen deficiency occurs from chemical or biological reactions that displace or
consume oxygen. This can occur during welding or cutting combustion. Less
obvious consumption occurs during bacterial action like fermentation in spaces
near garbage dumps, landfills, or swampy areas. Oxygen can also be consumed
during chemical reactions related to rust as it forms on metal tanks, vats, etc.
Important Facts about Oxygen and Oxygen Deficiency
•
•
•
Ambient air has an oxygen content of 21%.
When the oxygen level drops below 17%, the first sign of hypoxia is a
deterioration of night vision, which is usually not noticeable.
Physiologic effects include increased breathing volume and heartbeat.
Prevention Program
Workers in confined spaces can be exposed to various hazards, ranging from
oxygen-deficiency or toxic atmosphere to the release of hazardous energy.
Hazardous energy release can be from electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, or
chemical sources. So, it is vital for employers to develop and implement
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comprehensive, written, confined-space entry programs. The following elements
are recommended as a guide in developing a confined space program:
•
•
•
•
Identification of all confined spaces at the facility/operation
Posting a warning sign at the entrance of all confined spaces
Evaluation of hazards associated with each type of confined space
Doing a job safety analysis for each task to be done in a confined space
Duties of Employers and Employees
All employees required to enter into confined or enclosed spaces must be
instructed as to the nature of the hazards involved, the necessary precautions to
be taken, and the use of required protective and emergency equipment.
Rescue Teams
Employers must select a rescue team or service that:
•
Can reach victim(s) within required time frame.
•
Is equipped and proficient in, performing the needed rescue services.
Employers must also:
•
•
Inform each rescue team or service of potential hazards.
Supply access to all spaces for rescue planning and practice.
Rescue and Emergency Services
Attendants must be in constant communication with authorized entrants (workers
inside the space) and must immediately call rescue services as soon as he or
she determines that authorized entrants need assistance to escape hazards.
Attendants must:
•
Warn all unauthorized persons to stay away from confined space.
•
Inform entrants and supervisors if unauthorized persons have entered.
•
Perform non-entry rescues as specified by planned rescue procedure.
Authorized entrants must alert their attendant whenever:
•
•
Entrant recognizes any warning sign or exposure symptom.
The entrant detects a prohibited condition.
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Testing Protocol
Employees cannot enter spaces, until internal atmospheres are tested (in the
order given) with calibrated direct-reading instruments to quantify the following:
1. Oxygen content
2. Flammable gases and vapors
3. Potential toxic air contaminants
Case Study
Two workers are scheduled to enter a permit-required confined space to weld
leaking tank joints. Outline the conditions that must be present and accounted
for.
Recommendations
•
•
•
•
•
Atmospheric testing must be done before and during the process.
Entrants must be trained in safe operations and be able to identify signs of
exposure.
Entrants must stay in constant contact with their trained attendant.
The attendant must have immediate access to capable, prepared
emergency help.
Proper respirators must be provided as well as other appropriate PPE.
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Module 20: Review Quiz
1. A confined space is defined as a space which, by design, has all of the
following EXCEPT:
A.
B.
C.
D.
Limited openings for entry and exit
Well-lit entrances and exits
Unfavorable natural ventilation causing air to have contaminants
Is not intended for continuous associate occupancy
2. The ______ of a confined space must first be tested before entry is made,
except in certain circumstances.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Atmosphere
Sturdiness
Size
Hazard level
3. Atmospheric conditions must be tested in a specific order to protect all
persons. Select the correct order from the choices below:
A.
B.
C.
D.
Flammable gas and vapors, oxygen content, toxic air contaminants
Oxygen content, flammable gas and vapors, toxic air contaminants
Flammable gas and vapors, toxic air contaminants, oxygen content,
Toxic air contaminants, flammable gas and vapors, oxygen content
4. All employees required to enter confined or enclosed spaces must be
instructed as to the nature of inherent hazards involved, precautions, and______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
The maximum amount of time they will spend in the confined area
In the use of protective and emergency equipment required
The location of the exits
Who to call in case of emergency
5. The ______ must call rescue and other services as soon as he or she
determines that entrants may need help in escaping confined space hazards.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Work site supervisor
Employer
Attendant
Safety manager
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NOTES:
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Module 21:
BASIC SAFETY ORIENTATION
This module reviews how to avoid some of the most common safety and health
hazards that employees face while on the job.
Hazard Communication
Employers must identify and inform employees of potential workplace hazards.
This is best achieved by creating a well-written hazard communication program.
Chemical Hazards
Hazardous chemicals cause physical injury or diseases like cancer and asthma.
Examples are asbestos, lead, and radioactive substances.
Container Labels
All containers holding hazardous chemicals in the worksite must be labeled
properly. Labels must display data on contents and associated dangers.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
These are usually supplied by a chemical manufacturer to identify physical and
chemical properties, acute or chronic health effects, exposure limits, suggested
PPE, and handling instructions for products.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Employers must train employees to properly handle, use, and maintain PPE.
Eye and Face Protection
Eye protection is usually provided by safety glasses or goggles. A worker’s
prescription glasses are not safety glasses and should never be substituted.
Head Protection
Hardhats are most often provided for head protection. They prevent injuries from
falling objects. At times, workers will require specially designed hardhats.
Hand and Foot Protection
This varies by job (electrical work entails rubber gloves, latex or neoprene gloves
protect against some chemicals. Employers must research the best options.
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Foot protection guards feet from cuts or falling objects. Foot protection is often
achieved with steel toe boots, metatarsal guards, and chemical resistant boots.
Chemical Protective Clothing
Many occupations and industries require personnel to wear chemical protective
equipment. All protective clothing must be puncture and wear-resistant.
Respiratory Protection
Employees must be equipped with respirators if the air in the work area is
hazardous to breathe because of toxic fumes, oxygen deficiency, etc.
Hearing Protection
Continued exposure to high noise levels can result in impaired or total hearing.
To prevent this, employees must wear proper hearing protection equipment.
Hearing protection is effected by earplugs or earmuffs, or a combination of both.
Fall Protection
In general industry, falls are the second leading cause of accidental deaths.
These fatalities can be avoided by following proper fall protection practices.
Personal Fall Arrest Systems (PFAS)
PFASs are specifically designed for each employee. They must be inspected
before use for cuts, tears, mold, or other defects. Every system has a body
harness, overhead anchor, and lifeline.
Ladders
Ladders must support four times their expected load and be properly secured to
the ground, positioned on hard, level ground, and tied securely at the top.
Scaffolds
Only qualified workers can install scaffolds. They should support at least four
times their expected load, and be inspected by the scaffold builder before use.
Guardrail Systems
When employees work on elevated platforms, they must be enclosed with
guardrails to keep them from falling. Guardrails must be at least 42 inches high.
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Lockout/Tagout
Energized parts in the work are must be locked out and tagged out. These
procedures are done to prevent workers from shock, electrocution, etc. Only
authorized workers can affix locks and tags on energy sources. All switches must
be checked to ensure that the equipment can not be started.
Confined Space Hazards
Confined spaces have limited means of entry or exit. They typically have poor
ventilation,which causes flammable, toxic, or oxygen-deficient environments.
Fire Prevention
All workers must follow safe fire prevention practices, such as:
•
Ensuring proper wiring and equipment maintenance
•
Ensuring that flammable chemicals and substances are properly stored
•
Designating specific areas where employees are allowed to smoke
Basic First Aid
Workers must be trained in basic first aid. First aid varies by situation. For
example, a victim in shock must be laid down, kept warm, and encouraged to be
calm. A supervisor should be alerted and asked to call for medical assistance.
Bleeding wounds must be elevated, cleaned, and bandaged.
Different types of burns require different types of first aid treatment. For instance:
•
First degree burns should be flushed immediately with cold water.
•
A damp bandage should be placed on second degree burns.
Ointments should not be used.
•
A dry bandage should be used to cover third degree burns.
For second and third degree burns, medical assistance should be sought.
Never move victims with fractured bones or head/neck injuries.
Blood-borne Pathogens
Blood-borne pathogens are viruses, bacteria, or parasites in human blood. They
can infect patients with viruses like HIV or HBV. Employees must ensure they
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never come into contact with any blood or body fluids. If they must handle such
fluids, they must wear PPE, especially gloves and safety glasses.
Temperature Stress
Extremely hot or cold working conditions can cause varied disorders. Employees
must make sure to take protective measures against heat and cold stress.
Heat Stress
Heat stress is very common and it causes disorders like sunburn, heat
exhaustion, heat cramps, and heat stroke. Its symptoms are headaches, thirst,
nausea, muscle cramps, dizziness, and weakness. Employees must regularly
monitor the workplace for excessive heat and take preventive measures.
Cold Exposure
Frostbite and hypothermia can result from exposure to extreme cold. When this
risk exists, employees must dress warmly and limit skin exposure.
Case Study
When a general contractor fell behind schedule, a team of electricians was called
in to help complete the wiring on a 10-story building. One electrical worker almost
killed himself by falling off a latter, and another was shocked while testing a
circuit. What could have caused these accidents?
Recommendations
•
•
The worker who fell did not properly secure his ladder. It was placed on
uneven ground and not securely tied at the top. When it moved, he lost his
balance and fell. It could have been fatal if he were working higher up.
The shock was suffered because the worker was in a hurry and did not put
on his rubber gloves.
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Module 21: Review Quiz
1. A chemical is said to be hazardous if it can cause a physical injury or cause
a(n) ______ in the employee handling it.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Explosion
Disease
Rash
Allergic reaction
2. A Material Safety Data Sheet contains complete safety information regarding a
hazardous chemical and is usually developed by the______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Employer
Safety manager
OSHA representative
Manufacturer of that chemical
3. What is the best type of hand protection for electrical work?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Rubber gloves
Neoprene gloves
Latex gloves
Wool gloves
4. Some of the most basic fire prevention practices include all of the following
EXCEPT:
A.
B.
C.
D.
Ensuring that proper wiring has been installed at the workplace
Designating specific areas where employees are allowed to smoke
Ensuring all equipment at the work site is in good condition and defect free
Assuming flammable chemicals and substances are properly stored
5. Blood-borne pathogens are viruses, bacteria, or parasites found in______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
The air
Damp, enclosed spaces
Infected wounds
Human blood
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NOTES:
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Module 22:
LEAD SAFETY IN THE WORKPLACE
This module reviews the toxic nature of lead poisoning and how to minimize risk
of exposure at work.
Introduction
Despite its usefulness, lead is very toxic if absorbed in lethal quantities through
inhalation or ingestion. When it enters the body, it circulates in the bloodstream
and builds up in organs causing irreversible harm. Although the body rids itself of
most absorbed lead, some remains in the blood and tissues. With increased
exposure, stored lead slowly increases in volume, causing lead poisoning.
Lead in the Construction Industry
Lead is used often in construction due to its unique properties such as:
•
•
•
Low melting point
High molecular weight and high density
Very easy to shape (ductile) and readily available
Lead compounds are often applied to steel and iron as paint primer. Lead is also
used to make metal alloys found in lead shielding in walls and lead pipes.
Routes of Exposure to Lead
Lead enters the body by inhalation or ingestion, but not usually through the skin.
Inhalation
In construction, inhalation is the most common route of lead absorption. It occurs
when airborne lead particles are in the work environment. Inhalation can also
occur when a worker smokes in a contaminated area.
Ingestion
Workers can accidentally consume lead particles while eating or drinking
contaminated food or beverages, or by eating, drinking, or smoking with
contaminated hands. If workers do not follow specific work guidelines and
hygiene practices, they can take contaminants home, exposing their families.
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Health Hazards of Lead Exposure
Lead can severely damage the nervous, urinary, blood-forming, and reproductive
systems. It can cause anemia as it hinders the formation of hemoglobin. It can
also cause damage to the cells in the kidneys, leading to kidney failure. Lead has
also been found to reduce sperm count in men and decrease their fertility.
Signs and Symptoms of Lead Poisoning
Lead exposure affects people differently and can cause harm before symptoms
appear. Early signs can be overlooked as everyday medical complaints like:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Loss of appetite, metallic taste
Irritability and moodiness
Joint and muscle aches
Trouble sleeping
Lack of concentration
Fatigue and headaches
Decreased sex drive
Later Signs
Brief intense exposure or prolonged overexposure can result in severe harm to
the blood-forming, nervous, urinary, and reproductive systems. Problems include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Anemia
Kidney failure
Stomach pains
High blood pressure
Convulsions or seizures, tremors
Constipation, diarrhea, or nausea
Wrist or foot drop
Reduced fertility
Medical Monitoring
Lead has an action level of 30 micrograms per cubic meter (ug/m3). If a worker is
exposed at or above the action level, initial medical surveillance is required.
Employers must perform medical monitoring every six months. If a worker has a
blood lead level of 40 ug/100g, he or she must be tested at least every other
month until the lead level goes below 40 ug/100g permanently. Employers must
notify workers in writing within five daysif blood test indicates over 40 ug/100g.
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If the blood lead level is at or above 50 ug/100g, a worker cannot enter any lead
contaminated area until two consecutive tests confirm the lead level has dropped
to 40 ug/100g. Employers must provide annual medical exams to those whose
blood lead levels have been at or above 40 ug/100g during the prior year.
Lead Control Measures
Employers must enforce control measures and work practices are used to reduce
lead exposure. The permissible exposure level of lead is 50 ug/m3. Employers
must ensure exposure is never over that level for over an eight-hour period.
Exhaust Ventilation
Equipment and tools used to remove lead-based paint must have a highefficiency particulate air (HEPA) vacuums attached to collect lead dust particles.
Employers must provide local exhaust ventilation for welding, cutting, burning, or
heating. Clean up with HEPA vacuums to prevent introducing airborne particles.
Encapsulation
Employers must follow similar precautions if they are making all lead-based paint
inaccessible by encapsulating it with a material that adheres to the surface, like
epoxy coating, acrylic, or flexible wall coverings. Lead can be enclosed with
plywood paneling, gypsum wallboard, aluminum, or vinyl. Vinyl tiles or linoleum
flooring can be used to cover floors that are coated with lead-based paint.
Substitution
Avoid using materials that contain lead by selecting other materials. For example,
epoxy-covered primers with zinc can be used instead of coatings with lead.
Modification
To reduce lead exposure, apply lead-containing paint with brushes or rollers
instead of spraying it.
Isolation
Employers cannot completely enclose and ventilate some abrasive blasting
tasks. However, they can isolate such operations in order to reduce the risk of
lead exposure by restricting unauthorized personnel from entering these areas.
Respiratory Protection
If air at a construction site has a high lead content, everyone must use
respirators in addition to the basic protective measures.
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Protective Clothing
If you are required to perform lead-related tasks, your employer must provide you
with clean, dry, protective clothing and equipment free of cost.
Case Study
A worker whose blood lead level was 52 ug/100g was asked to work overtime.
After three days of overtime he experienced severe headache and fatigue. At
night he even told his wife that he had a metallic taste in his mouth for weeks.
Upon seeing a doctor, the worker was told that he had high blood pressure that
was directly related to excessive lead exposure.
Recommendations
•
•
•
•
With blood lead levels at or over 50 ug/100g workers must not even be
allowed to enter lead-contaminated areas until two consecutive tests
confirm lead levels have dropped to 40 ug/100g.
The employer did not provide testing and initial surveillance after the
worker was exposed at or above the action level.
The work site atmosphere should have been tested and controlled via a
local exhaust system, cleaned up using vacuums with HEPA filters, etc.
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Module 22: Review Quiz
1. If air at a construction site has a high lead content, _____must use respirators
in addition to the basic protective measures.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Those with elevated lead levels
The employer
Everyone
Supervisors
2. When lead enters the body it circulates in the bloodstream and accumulates
in______, causing irreversible harm to body tissues.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Various organs
The stomach
The heart
The brain
3. Early signs of lead poisoning can include all of the following EXCEPT:
A.
B.
C.
D.
Metallic taste
Anemia
Moodiness
Joint and muscle aches
4. Your employer is required to perform medical monitoring ______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Every six months
Every year
Every week
Four times throughout the year
5. The permissible exposure level of lead is______. Your employer must ensure
that exposure does not go above this level for more than an eight-hour period.
A.
B.
C.
D.
75 ug/m3
100 ug/m3
20 ug/m3
50 ug/m3
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NOTES:
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Module 23:
USE OF EXPLOSIVES IN THE WORKPLACE
This module reviews regulations that pertain to work involving explosives.
Commercial Explosives
Explosives used for commercial purposes are divided into these categories:
Class 1: Gunpowder Class
Gunpowder is an explosive substance which burns rapidly. It consists of
saltpetre, sulphur, and charcoal.
Class 2: Nitrate Mixture Class
A nitrate mixture denotes a preparation, other than gunpowder, made by mixing a
nitrate with any form of carbon or carbon compounds by mechanical means. This
mixture can contain sulphur and another non-explosive material.
Class 3: Nitro-compound Class
Nitro-compounds are chemical compounds with explosive properties. Some nitrocompounds must be combined with metals before they become explosive.
Division 1 - preparations or chemical compounds with nitroglycerin or
another liquid nitro-compound. Examples include blasting gelatin,
ballistite, gelignite, dynamite, gelatin dynamite, and cordite.
Division 2 - any explosive nitro-compounds not in Division 1 like E.C.
sporting powder, ammonal, gun-cotton, picric acid, and TNT.
Class 4: Chlorate Mixture Class
These contain chlorates and are classified into 2 divisions.
Division 1 - includes chlorate mixtures that also contain nitro-glycerin or
any other liquid nitro-compound.
Division 2 - includes any chlorate mixture not designated as Division 1.
Class 5: Fulminate Class
Fulminates are chemical compounds that are highly explosive and very
dangerous. The fulminate class also consists of two divisions.
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Division 1 - includes compounds that are fulminates of sliver or mercury.
These compounds are used in percussion caps.
Division 2 - includes chlorides or Iodides of nitrogen, fulminates of gold
and silver, diazobenol, and nitrate diazobenzol, lead azide, and tetrazine.
Class 6: Ammunition Class
Includes explosives of all classes enclosed in a case to form cartridges for small
arms, safety, or other fuses for blasting, shells, tubes for firing explosive,
percussion caps, detonators, or any other explosives other than fireworks. This
class is divided into three divisions: Division 1, Division 2, and Division 3.
Division 1 - includes safety cartridges, safety fuses, and percussion caps.
Division 2 - includes any ammunition that is not included in Division 1 and
which does not contain any means through which it could be ignited.
Division 3 - includes ammunition not included in Division 1 and which
contains its own means of ignition.
Uses of Explosives in Construction
Explosives are often used in almost every phase of heavy construction,
especially in highway, dam, and pipeline construction. Excavations also require a
significant amount of explosive material. If not handled properly, explosives can
kill. Therefore, safety, economy, and controllability are vital when handling them.
Potential Hazards of Explosives
If blasts are not controlled properly, they can cause injuries like include eye
damage, lacerations, burns, hearing loss, etc. Some explosives are toxic if
inhaled or ingested, or they contact the skin. Although most explosives are not
highly toxic, if handled improperly, they can cause systemic poisoning which
usually affects the bone marrow and the liver.
Some explosives produce toxic chemical byproducts after blasting. These
chemicals can irritate the respiratory tract and the skin, and can also cause
systemic effects if there is an exposure to high levels for a short time.
Guidelines for Handing Explosives
Workers must be sited far from blasting if an unacceptable risk exists, or use
protective barriers. Such operations are remote operations. If the risk is judged
as acceptable, employees can work nearby. These are contact operations.
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Explosives must be safely stored in magazines and unavailable to unauthorized
people. An inventory and use record must be kept on all explosives present.
If fire occurs near explosives, never enter the area or try to fight it. Always
immediately notify the employer or supervisor.
Transportation of Explosives
Surface Transportation
Employers must ensure that drivers are licensed, physically fit, and tested for
knowledge of local, state, and federal laws over explosives transport before hire.
Underground Transportation
Explosives moved underground must be taken to their destinations immediately.
When transported for blasting, only the quantity needed for the blast should be
sent to the underground loading area. NEVER leave explosives unattended.
Storage of Explosives
Employers must designate special areas to store explosives and related
materials. Always store explosives and blasting agents in approved facilities.
Never store detonators, blasting caps, electric blasting caps, or cartridges in the
same magazine as other explosives or blasting agents. Never smoke or use any
fire-producing device within 50 feet of the magazine where explosives are stored.
Loading of Explosives
Before loading explosives, employers must establish efficient and safe
procedures. All drill holes where explosive cartridges have to be inserted must be
large enough to easily admit the cartridges. Only tamp explosives with either
wood rods or plastic tamping poles that do not have any exposed metal parts.
Initiation of Explosive Charges
Never use electric blasting caps if an external electrical source is present. Leg
wires of blasting caps must be short-circuited or shunted until attached to circuits.
Use of Safety Fuses
Safety fuses can only be used when it is too dangerous to use electric blasting
caps due to extraneous electricity. Never use a hammered or broken safety fuse,
and never hang one from a nail or a projection that can cause it to severely bend.
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Inspecting After Blasts and Misfires
After blasting, the blaster must immediately detach the firing line from the
blasting machine. If power switches are used, lock or switch them “OFF.”
Blasters must inspect their blasting areas for misfires. They must follow proper
measures to vacate the area and tell employees about the danger zone. Only
qualified employees can eliminate misfire hazards within the danger zone.
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Module 23: Review Quiz
1. ______ are chemical compounds that possess explosive properties.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Explosive compounds
Chlorates
Nitro-compounds
Fulminates
2. ______ are chemical compounds that are highly explosive and very
dangerous.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Chlorates
Fulminates
Nitro-compounds
Explosive compounds
3. Although most explosives are not highly toxic, if handled improperly they can
cause______, which usually affects the bone marrow and the liver.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Systemic poisoning
Cancer
Lacerations
Lymphoma
4. Unused explosives must be safely stored away in ______ where they are not
available to unauthorized personnel.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Fenced off areas
Secured closets
Magazines
Vaults
5. Before loading explosives for transportation, ______ must establish efficient
and safe procedures.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Employers
The safety manager
The job site supervisor
OSHA representatives
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NOTES:
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Glossary
Module 1: Key Terms
Administer: Manage; give out, especially in doses
Hazards: Sources of danger
Terrain: Features of the land
Trench: Long narrow cut in land
Module 2: Key Terms
Asbestosis: An incurable lung disease often linked to occupational exposure
BLS: Bureau of Labor Statistics
HCP: Health Care Professional
PLHCP: Physician or other Licensed Health Care Professional
Silicosis: An occupational, respiratory lung disease caused by silica inhalation
TB: Tuberculosis
Module 3: Key Terms
ANSI: American National Standards Institute
Authorized Person: A person assigned by the employer to perform a duty or to
be at a particular jobsite
Competent Person: A person that has the authorization to take corrective action
and who is able to recognize existing and predictable hazards
Employer: A contractor or subcontractor
Qualified: One who, by professional training and experience, has successfully
demonstrated his or her ability to solve hazardous, workplace problems
Module 4: Key Terms
Authorized Person: A person assigned by the employer to perform a duty or to
be at a particular jobsite
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Competent Person: A person who has authorization to take corrective action
and who is able to recognize existing and predictable hazards
Module 5: Key Terms
Article: An item other than a fluid or particle: 1) formed into shape or design
during manufacture, 2) with its end use dependent in whole or in part upon its
shape or design, and 3) when finally used under normal conditions it does not
emit more than very small quantities, or trace amounts, of hazardous chemicals.
Chemical: Any element, compound, or mixture of elements and/or compounds
Container: Any bag, barrel, bottle, box, can, cylinder, drum, reaction vessel,
storage tank, or the like, that contains a hazardous chemical
Explosive: A chemical that can almost instantaneously release pressure, gas,
and heat when subjected to sudden shock, pressure, or high temperature
Hazardous Chemical: Any chemical that poses a physical or health hazard
Trade Secret: Any confidential formula, pattern, process, device, information, or
compilation of data that gives an employer an advantage over competitors
Workplace: A job site at one geographical location with multiple work areas
Module 6: Key Terms
Atmospheric Tank: A storage tank which has been designed to operate at
pressures from atmospheric through 0.5 psig. (pounds per square inch gauge)
Catastrophic Release: A huge uninhibited emission, fire, or explosion, involving
one or more highly hazardous chemicals, causing serious workplace danger
Chemical: An element or compound produced by chemical reactions on a large
scale for either industrial or consumer use, or for reaction with other chemicals
Facility: The buildings, containers, or equipment which contains a process
Highly Hazardous Chemical: A substance possessing toxic, reactive,
flammable, or explosive materials/chemicals
Hot Work: Work involving electric or gas welding, cutting, brazing, or similar
flame or spark-producing operations
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Normally Unoccupied Remote Facility: A facility operated, maintained, or
serviced by ones who visit the facility periodically
Module 7: Key Terms
dBA: Adjusted decibels
Contaminant: Any material which by reason of its action upon, within, or to a
person is likely to cause physical harm
Radiant Energy: An energy type that emanates outwardly from its source
Module 8: Key Terms
Approved: Equipment approved by a nationally known laboratory or agency
Closed Container: A container so sealed by means of a lid or other device that
neither liquid nor vapor will escape from it at ordinary temperatures
Combustible Liquids: Any liquid having a flash point between 140°F and 200°F
Combustion: A chemical change accompanied by heat and light production
Flammable: Able to easily ignite, burn, or rapidly spread flames
Flammable Liquids: Any liquid having a flash point below 140°F and having a
vapor pressure not exceeding 40 pounds per square inch (absolute) at 100°F
Flash Point: The lowest temperature at which liquid vapors can catch fire
Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG): Material composed mainly of any of these
hydrocarbons, or mixtures: propane, propylene, butane or butylenes
Portable Tank: A closed container having a liquid capacity of more than 60 U.S.
gallons, and not intended for fixed installation
Safety Can: An approved closed container, with less than 5-gallon capacity,
having a flash-arresting screen, spring-closing lid, and spout cover, and designed
to safely relieve internal pressure when subjected to fire exposure
Module 9: Key Terms
ANSI: American National Standards Institute
Conveyor: A mechanical apparatus that moves material from place to place
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Crane: A large, sometimes mobile, machine used to transport material vertically
Forklift: A powered industrial truckused to move material that has large forks
(capable of vertical motion) that are installed at the front
Powered Industrial Trucks: Trucks used to transport material; can be modified
to operate in hazardous conditions.
Screw Conveyor: Device designed to convey flowable solid materials
Module 10: Key Terms
Hazard: Danger or risk
PPE: Personal protective equipment
PSI: Pounds per square inch
Training: Process of being taught or learning a skill or information
Module 11: Key Terms
Acetylene: Forms explosive mixtures with oxygen or air; when dissolved in
acetone it is non-explosive and must be stored dissolved in acetone under
pressure in steel cylinders for commercial use.
Beryllium: A light, strong, brittle, toxic, bivalent metallic element as a hardening
agent in alloys
Cadmium: A bluish white malleable ductile toxic bivalent metallic element used
especially in protective plating and in bearing metals
Chromium: A blue-white metallic element found naturally only in combination
and used especially in alloys and in electroplating
Grounding: To connect electrically with a ground
PSI: Pounds per square inch
Ultraviolet Rays: Beyond visible spectrum at violet end; describes radiation with
wavelengths shorter than visible light wavelengths and longer than X-rays
Module 12: Key Terms
Amperes: The volume or intensity of the current flow
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AWG: American wire gauge (AWG); a measurement standard used to size wire
Circuit: Total current path, including voltage source, conductors, and load
Conductors: Have free electrons that allow current to flow through the material
Current: Electron movement (measured in amperes)
Electric Shock: The effects of current flowing through the body
GFCI: Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupter
Grounding: An intentional conductive connection to the earth that provides a
path back to the source for any fault current that may occur in a circuit.
Insulators: Materials that have few free electrons, prohibiting current flow.
Resistance: Opposition to current flow
Volts: The electrical pressure (measure of electrical force)
Watts: Measurement of electrical power
Wire Gauge: System used to measure the physical size of wire
Module 13: Key Terms
Bearer (putlog): A horizontal transverse scaffold member (which may be
supported by ledgers or runners) upon which the scaffold platform rests and
which joins scaffold uprights, posts, poles, and similar members
Boatswains' Chair: A single-point adjustable suspension scaffold with a seat or
sling designed to support one employee in a sitting position
Body Harness: A system of straps secured to an employee that distributes fall
arrest forces over at least the thighs, pelvis, waist, chest and shoulders, with
means for attaching it to other components of a personal fall arrest system
Brace: A rigid connection that holds one scaffold member in a fixed position with
respect to another member, or to a building or structure
Chimney hoist: A multi-point adjustable suspension scaffold used to provide
access to work inside chimneys (see multi-point adjustable suspension scaffold)
Coupler: A device for locking together the tubes of a tube and coupler scaffold
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Crawling Board (chicken ladder): A supported scaffold with a plank with cleats
spaced and secured to provide footing, for use on sloped surfaces such as roofs.
Lifeline: A flexible line connecting to anchorage at one end to hang vertically
(vertical lifeline), or connecting to anchorages at each end to stretch horizontally
(horizontal lifeline). It also serves to connect other components.
Maximum Intended Load: The total expected weight of transmitted loads
applied to a scaffold or a scaffold component at any one time
Outrigger: The structural member of a supported scaffold used to increase the
base width of a scaffold to support and increase scaffold stability
Outrigger Beam (Thrustout): Structural member or scaffold outrigger that
supports the scaffold by extending outward toward scaffold’s attachment point
Module 14: Key Terms
Anchorage: Secure attachment point for lifelines, lanyards, or slowdown devices
Body Belt: A strap with means both for securing it about the waist and for
attaching it to a lanyard, lifeline, or deceleration device
Body Harness: Straps secured around the body to distribute fall-arrest forces
over at least the thighs, pelvis, waist, chest, and shoulders
Connector: A device that is used to couple (connect) parts of a personal fall
arrest system or positioning device system together
Controlled Access Zone: An area clearly designated for specific work (like
overhand bricklaying) that does not require fall protection systems like guardrails
Deceleration Device: Any device like a rope, grab, ripstitch lanyard, automatic
self-retracting lifeline/lanyard that dissipates energy during a fall arrest
Guardrail System: A structure of barrier railings to prevent employee falls
Hole: A gap at least two inches in a floor, roof, or walking/working surface
Lanyard: A flexible line of rope, wire rope, or strap that connects at each end of
body belt or body harness to a deceleration device, lifeline, or anchorage
Leading Edge: The edge of a floor, roof, or walking/working surface like a deck
that extends as additional floor, roof, formwork, etc. is added.
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Lifeline: Flexible line to connect anchorage at one end to hang vertically (vertical
lifeline), or to connect anchorage at both ends to stretch horizontally (horizontal
lifeline).
Low-Slope Roof: A roof tha slopes less than or equal to 4 in 12 (vertical to
horizontal)
Opening: A gap or void 30 inches (76 cm) or more high and 18 inches (46 cm)
or more wide, in a wall or partition, through which employees can fall
Personal Fall Arrest System: Systems with but not limited to anchorages,
connectors, and body harnesses;.body belts prohibited after January 1, 1998.
Positioning Device System: Body belt or harness that provides worker support
on elevated vertical surfaces, and allows free hands when leaning backwards
Rope Grab: This is a deceleration device that travels on a lifeline and
automatically, by friction, engages the lifeline and locks to arrest a fall.
Safety-Monitoring System: A safety system in which a competent person is
responsible for recognizing and warning employees of fall hazards
Self-Retracting Lifeline/Lanyard: A deceleration device with a drum-wound line
that slowly extracts or retracts under normal tension. With tension it locks.
Snaphook: Hook-shaped connector with a normally closed keeper, or similar
arrangement, that can be opened to receive an object or closed to retain it
Steep Roof: A roof having a slope greater than 4 in 12 (vertical to horizontal)
Toe-Board: A low protective barrier that prevents material and equipment from
falling to lower levels and which protects personnel from falling
Unprotected Sides and Edges: A side or edge (except at access points) of a
floor, roof, ramp, or runway without a wall or guardrail system 39 inches or higher
Walking/Working Surface: Surface where employees walk or work, including
but not limited to floors, roofs, ramps, bridges, runways, formwork, and concrete
reinforcing steel. Does not include ladders, vehicles, or trailers.
Warning Line System: A barrier to alert that there is a nearby unprotected roof
side or edge; designates work area where roofing can be done safely without the
use of guardrail, body belt, or safety net systems to protect employees
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Module 15: Key
Accident: Harmful event, even that cause unexpected or without apparent cause
Act: As a statute, decree, or enactment, resulting from a decision by a legislative
ANSI: American National Standards Institute
Boom: Inclined spar, strut, or other long member that supports hoisting tackle
Boom angle indicator: An accessory device used to measure the angle of
boom base section centerline to horizontal
Counter weight: Weights used to balance loads and provide crane stability
Crane: Consists of a rotating structure for lifting and lowering horizontally on
rubber tires or crawler treads
Deck: The revolving superstructure or turntable bed
Drum: The spool or cylindrical member around which cables are wound for
raising and lowering loads
Load: The weight of the object being lifted including: load blocks and hooks, wire
ropes, rigging, boom attachments, and ancillary attachments
Outrigger: Support members affixed to a crane’s carrier frame used to level it
PCSA: Power Crane and Shovel Association
Pendants: Stationary wire ropes used to support the boom
Radius: The horizontal distance from the axis of the rotation of the crane’s
superstructure to the center of the suspended load
Standards: Measurement for quantitative or qualitative value, a criterion
Superstructure: Rotating frame, gantry and boom, or other operating equipment
Module 16: Key Terms
Barricade: An obstruction to deter the passage of persons or vehicles
ROPS: Rollover protective structures
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Signs: Visual warnings of hazard, temporarily or permanently affixed to, or
placed at locations, where hazards exist
Signals: Moving signs, provided by workers, such as flagmen, or by devices,
such as flashing lights, to warn of possible or existing hazards
Tags: Temporary signs, usually attached to equipment or structures, to warn of
existing or immediate hazards
Module 17: Key
Confined Space: Space that, by design and/or configuration, has limited
openings for entry and exit, unfavorable natural ventilation, may contain or
produce hazardous substances, and is not intended for constant occupancy
Excavation: Man-made cut, cavity, trench, or depression made by earth removal
Hazardous Atmosphere: Can cause death, illness, or injury to those exposed
due to its explosive, flammable, poisonous, corrosive, oxidizing, irritating,
oxygen-deficient, toxic, or otherwise harmful nature
Shield: A structure able to withstand a cave-in and protect employees
Shoring: Structures supporting excavation sides to prevent cave-ins
Sloping: A technique using specific angles of incline on both excavation sides
Trench: Small excavation below ground deeper than it is wide (not over 15 feet)
Module 18: Key Terms
Concrete: A mixture of cement, sand, aggregate, and water in specific
proportions that hardens to a strong stony consistency over varied time periods
Jack: Portable mechanical or hydraulic lifting system to raise heavy objects
Masonry: Stonework; the stone or brick parts of a building or other structure
Reinforcing: To strengthen byadding external support or internal stiffening
Scaffolds: Framework to support workers; a temporary framework of poles and
planks used to support workers and materials during all construction phases
Shoring: To support by, or as if by, a prop
Sills: A building bottom of frame; horizontal part at bottom of window/door frame
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Slab: Architecture stone base; a flat rectangular foundation of concrete or stone
Module 19: Key Terms
Cleat: A ladder crosspiece or rectangular cross section placed on edge upon
which a person may step while ascending or descending a ladder
Double-Cleat Ladder: Has center rail to enable up-down traffic at same time
Failure: Load refusal, breakage, or separation of components
Fixed Ladder: Cannot be moved or carried since it is a part of a structure
Handrail: A rail used to provide employees with a handhold for support
Job-Made Ladder: Fabricated by workers at job site; not commercially made
Ladder: A set of horizontal bars fixed between two uprights for vertical climbing
Load Refusal: Point where structural members lose their ability to carry loads
Point of Access: Areas used by workers for job-related passage between levels
Portable Ladder: A ladder that can be readily moved or carried
Single-Cleat Ladder: Ladder with side rails connected by cleats, rungs, or steps
Stair: One of a set of fixed indoor steps
Stairrail System: A vertical barrier erected along the unprotected sides and
edges of a stairway to prevent employees from falling to lower levels
Tread Depth: Horizontal distance from front to back of a tread (excluding nosing)
Module 20: Key Terms
Acceptable Entry Conditions: Conditions that must exist in a permit space to
allow entry and to ensure that employees involved with a permit-required,
confined space entry can safely enter into, and work within, the space
Attendant: One stationed outside one or more permit spaces who monitors
entrants and performs duties assigned in the employer’s permit space program
Authorized Entrant: One authorized by the employer to enter a permit space
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Emergency: Any occurrence (including hazard or monitoring equipment failure),
or event, internal or external to the permit space that could endanger entrants
Entry Permit: A certificate supplied by the employer to control entry into a permit
space that addresses regulation specified in section (f) of the standard
Hot Work Permit: The employer’s written authorization to perform operations—
like riveting, welding, cutting, burning, etc.—capable of causing ignition sources
Inerting: The displacement of permit space atmosphere by noncombustible gas
(such as nitrogen) to the extent to make atmosphere noncombustible
Non-Permit Confined Space: Confined space without atmospheric hazards, but
has the potential to contain lethal hazards or cause serious physical harm
Oxygen Deficient Atmosphere: Has less than 19.5 percent oxygen by volume
Oxygen Enriched Atmosphere: Has more than 23.5 percent oxygen by volume
Permit-Required Confined Space Program: Program to control and protect
workers from permit space hazards and to regulate employee entry
Retrieval System: Equipment used for non-entry rescue of persons from spaces
Testing: Process of identifying and evaluating permit space hazards
Module 21: Key Terms
Blood-Borne Pathogens: Infectious microorganisms in human blood that can
cause diseases like Hepatitis B and C, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Guardrail: A protective railing that encloses an elevated platform
Hazardous Chemical: A chemical that can cause physical harm or a disease
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS): A data sheet containing contains hazardrelated information about a specific substance
Oxygen Deficient Atmosphere: Has less than 19.5 percent oxygen by volume
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE): All types of chemical protective clothing
such as suits, gloves, boots, and eye protection along with respiratory protection
Scaffold: An interim platform for workers to sit or stand on when working above
the ground
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Module 22: Key Terms
Action Level: Level of lead particulates in the air that requires monitoring so that
PEL is not exceeded; 30 micrograms per cubic meter (ug/m3) for eight hours
Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL): The maximum level of lead particles in air
that is acceptable for normal exposure; 50 micrograms per cubic meter (ug/m3)
Toxic Substance: Substance that affects proper functioning of an organism
resulting in a change in physiology through a chemical process
Module 23: Key Terms
Blast Area: The area where explosives are loaded and blasting is carried out
Blasting Agent: Material or mixture of fuel and oxidizer used for blasting, but not
considered explosive; its ingredients are also not classified as explosives
Blasting Cap: A tube closed at one end, containing detonating compounds that
can be ignited by safety fuse flame
Detonating Cord: A flexible cord filled with high explosives; when detonated,
these explosives have enough strength to detonate other explosives they contact
Detonator: Blasting caps, electric blasting caps, delay electric blasting caps, and
non-electric delay blasting caps
Electric Blasting Cap: One designed to detonate by means of electric current
Magazine: Structure, other than manufacturing site, used for explosives storage
Primary Blasting: Operation where an original rock formation is dislodged
Safety Fuse: Flexible cord with burnable matter used to take fire to firing cap
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Module Review Quiz Answer Key
Module 1:
A
B
D
B
A
Module 7
B
C
D
C
B
Module 13:
A
C
D
A
B
Module 2
B
A
B
C
A
Module 8:
C
A
D
A
C
Module 14:
C
A
C
C
D
Module 3:
A
B
C
A
D
Module 9:
C
D
B
B
D
Module 15:
A
B
D
C
C
Module 4
B
A
D
A
B
Module 10:
B
D
C
B
A
Module 16:
D
B
C
A
A
Module 5
D
A
C
B
B
Module 11:
C
B
C
A
D
Module 17:
D
A
B
C
D
Module 6
C
D
A
A
B
Module 12:
A
C
B
D
D
Module 18:
B.
C.
C.
D.
C.
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Module 19:
A.
D.
A.
A.
B.
Module 21:
B
D
A
D
D
Module 20:
B
A
B
B
C
Module 22:
C
A
B
A
D
Module 23:
C
B
A
C
A
OSHA 30-Hour Construction Study Guide
161
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