Instructional Planning Identify Instructional Goals •Goals are general statements of desired instructional outcomes that usually can be broken down into a variety of much more specific behaviors ( Reiser & Dick, 1996) Analyze Learners • Students’ general ability level • Their learning styles • Their prerequisite knowledge and skills in the subject • Their attitude towards learning that subject Identify Objectives • Components of Objectives Audience Specifies who the learners are Behavior Describes the learning outcome to be exhibited by students as a result of instruction Equipment or tools that may or may not be used or the setting Criterion or standard of acceptable performance in terms of time, accuracy, proportion or quality Conditions Degree Classification of Objectives Cognitive – specifies types of thinking process required by students, ranging from simple to complex Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Know facts, recall information Understand and can explain using own words Apply knowledge to practical situation Break down complex concepts intro simpler related parts Combine elements to form new original entity Make judgements Affective Domain – specify degree of commitment or emotional intensity required by students. • Receiving – concentrate on and receive information • Responding – respond positively to information by actively engaging in it. • Valuing – express attitude/belief about the value of something. • Organizing – compare and integrate attitude/value they have expressed with those they hold, thus internalizing the value. • Characterizing – act out their values. Psychomotor Domain – specify simple reflex actions to complex actions which communicate message to others. • • • • • • • Perception – use sensory cues that guide later attempt to perform skill. Set – ready to perform skill. Guided response – practice skill under supervision of expert. Mechanism – become more proficient in skill through practice. Complex or overt response – perform skill with a high degree of proficiency. Adaptation – modify previously learned skills to perform related skills Origination – create new, original performances based on previously learned skills. Plan Instructional Activities • Introduction • Motivating students • Informing students of objectives • Helping students to recall prerequisites • Development • Presenting information and examples • Providing practice and feedback • Conclusion • Summarizing the lesson Choose Instructional Media •Practicality •Appropriateness in relation to your students’ characteristics •Activity matching •Objective matching Develop Assessment Tools Implement Instruction Present lesson #1 to whole class Assess all students Present lesson #2 to whole class Assess all students Mastery Learning Approach Present lesson #1 Assess Provide Enrichment Present lesson #2 Did students achieve mastery? Remediate the nonmastery students Reasses Revise Instruction • Student performance on oral/written practice exercises/quizzes given • Student performance on tests(continual assessment/semestral assessment) • Observation of student attitudes/behaviors during lessons • Student attitudes following lesson(s). • Teacher’s reflection of delivery of lesson(s). Planning (also called forethought) is the process of thinking about and organizing the activities required to achieve a desired goal. It involves the creation and maintenance of a plan. As such, planning is a fundamental property of intelligent behavior. This thought process is essential to the creation and refinement of a plan; that is, it combines forecasting of developments with the preparation of scenarios of how to react to them. Planning is spontaneous order. Planning for effective learning experiences is one of the skills the teacher has to develop. Also insures more or less the direction that his efforts will take. It helps create whole- some discipline, a pleasant classroom atmosphere, and purposeful teaching- learning activities that are free from waste in terms of time and effort. Careful planning can give the teacher a sense of confidence and ensure effective learning. Careful planning can give the teacher a sense of confidence and ensure effective learning. Instructional Planning and Delivery Instructional planning is a process of the teacher using appropriate curricula, instructional strategies, and resources during the planning process to address the diverse needs of students. • Sets of instruction, selecting teaching materials, designing the learning activities, methods, and deciding on the pacing and allocation of instructional time, and determining what learning opportunities their students are going to have. • Year Plan, Unit Plan & Lesson Plan Instructional delivery is a process in which teachers apply a repertoire of instructional strategies to communicate and interact with students around academic content, and to support student engagement. Delivery vary in different ability, interest and learning styles of the learners. Strategies and Techniques Instructional planning involve decisions related to what will be taught, how it will be organized for learning and how learning will be assessed. For analytical purposes it is necessary to identify what students and teachers will do. Determination of Instructional Strategy Specific Content Assessment of Entering Behaviors Specific Objective Organizing of Leaning Activities Evaluation of Performance Allocation of Time Allocation of Leaning Space Selection of Resources Analysis of Feedback To make effective our instructional delivery the following area and focus must be considered. Area Focus Differentiation The teacher uses multiple instructional materials, activities, strategies, and assessment techniques to meet students’ needs and maximize the learning of all students. Variety The teacher implements a variety of classroom techniques, and strategies also enhances student motivation and decreases discipline problems. Cognitive challenge The teacher provides in-depth explanations of academic content and covers higher-order concepts and skills thoroughly. Student engagement The teacher is supportive and persistent in keeping students on task and encouraging them to actively integrate new information with prior learning. Recognizing pattern of student learning The teacher recognizes the schema or pattern in student learning, and makes inferences about the situation (such as identifying the difficulties the students are having), and promptly adjusts the materials, learning activities, and assessment techniques to maximize student learning. Questioning The teacher uses multiples levels (particularly higher cognitive levels) of questioning to stimulate student thinking and monitor student learning. Relevance The learning process and the outcomes of learning have authentic “bearing” on students’ life. An improved and a well planned instructional planning and delivery can create an effective, meaningful lessons that will help learners understand even extraneous information. Planning and preparing for teaching includes everything you do to get organized for your role as a teacher. It is cyclical in nature and happens continuously. Because you are engaged in the learning process, you will constantly plan and prepare for teaching. Nothing is ever stagnant in the classroom. The learning process demands constant attention. It is never ending. Planning and preparing for teaching includes everything you do to get organized for your role as a teacher. It is cyclical in nature and happens continuously. Because you are engaged in the learning process, you will constantly plan and prepare for teaching. Nothing is ever stagnant in the classroom. The learning process demands constant attention. It is never ending. • http://www.ask.com/wiki/Planning • http://www.apsva.us/cms/lib2/VA01000586/Centric ity/Domain/25/Brief%204%20%20Performanc e%20Standard%202%20Instructional%20Pla nning.pdf • http://www.apsva.us/cms/lib2/VA01000586/Centric ity/Domain/25/Brief%205%20Performance%2 0Standard%203%20Instructional%20Delivery. pdf • http://www.uwplatt.edu/~steck/Petrina%20Text/Ch apter%204.pdf Thank you!