Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 1 Test Part 1: The Language of Anatomy 1. Why would you have a hard time learning and understanding physiology if you did not also understand anatomy? 2. Why is an understanding of anatomical position important to an anatomy student? On the incomplete flow chart provided below, give the cavity names that belong in boxes 3–8. These will be numbers 3-8 on the test as well. 9. Which cavity is bounded by the ribs? 10. Which cavity contains the small intestines? 11. Which body cavity affords the least amount of protection to the organs it houses? 12. Arrange the following terms from superior to inferior: cervical, coxal, crural, femoral, lumbar, nasal, orbital, sternal, tarsal 13. Arrange the following terms from distal to proximal: calcaneal, femoral, plantar, popliteal, sural 14. When we say that the body demonstrates homeostasis, do we mean that the conditions in the body are unchanging? Explain. 15. In the following statement, is the boldface word used correctly? If not, which word works better? Blood in superficial blood vessels gives color to the skin. 16. In the following statement, is the boldface word used correctly? If not, which word works better? The mouth is superior to the nose. 17. Which word does not belong? Axillary, cephalic, brachial, antecubital 18. Which word does not belong? Cranial, occipital, tarsal, temporal Part 2: The Autopsy Report Number from 1-9 and describe the location of the injuries sustained by this victim. Part 3: Homeostasis Read the scenarios regarding homeostatic mechanisms in the body and answer the questions that follow. Carbon dioxide: When we exercise our muscles give off carbon dioxide as a waste product. This increases in the level of carbon dioxide in the blood above the ideal 23-29 units per liter of blood. Receptors in the carotid arteries sense the change in carbon dioxide and send a message to the brain. The brain will stimulate the lungs to change the respiration rate. This change will lower the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood to within the normal range. Questions 1. What is the set point in this example? 2. Name at least 2 body systems that are involved in this example. 3. Will respiration rate increase or decrease in this example? 4. Is this an example of positive or negative feedback? Kristoff Has to Urinate and Defecate: Elsa has trapped the kingdom of Arendelle in an eternal winter. Anna teams up with rugged mountain man Kristoff and his reindeer sidekick Sven. The 3 start out on an epic journey to try to save the kingdom. Unfortunately, Kristoff forgot to “try before he left on the journey” and he now needs to urinate and defecate. Potty breaks are not in the script. Kristoff is going to have to “hold it”. How can you save Kristoff? Questions 5. Name the 2 body systems that are not in homeostasis in Kristoff’s body. 6. Kristoff is not able to get rid of metabolic wastes, which are filtered out by his kidneys. Why is it not a good idea for Kristoff to “hold it”? 7. How would you edit this major motion picture to bring Kristoff’s body back to a state of homeostasis? Explain. Ursula is Drying Out: Ursula is an evil seawitch. She was banished and exiled from Atlantica by King Triton. Atlantica had a low salinity level compared to Ursula’s new habitat. Ursula spends all of her time under the sea and the high salinity concentration of the water in her new habitat is drying out her body. How can you save Ursula? Questions 8. Name a body system that is not in homeostasis in Ursula’s body. 9. Which part of your body protects your internal organs from desiccation (drying out), from bacteria, from heat, and from chemical substances? 10. How would you edit this major motion picture to bring Ursula’s body back to a state of homeostasis? Explain. Mushu Stops Getting Bigger: Mushu, Mulan’s closest companion, is a tiny, scrawny, red-orange Chinese dragon with a larger-than-life personality. Mushu is very sensitive about his size and Mulan suspects a hormone imbalance might have affected Mushu’s ability to get bigger. How can you save Mushu? Questions 11. Name a body system that is not in homeostasis when Mushu stops getting bigger. 12. What does it mean that Mushu’s ability to increase in size was stunted? 13. How would you edit this major motion picture to bring Mushu’s body back to homeostasis and to restart the process of getting bigger? Explain.