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LESSON 1: CSS in the Electronics Industry
Hey there! Welcome to the online course of CSS!
As many of today's basic functions are being simplified by technology, computers have been on the forefront in
developing innovations through its many functions.
Many of the things that we thought were impossible before are now being achieved by computers nowadays.
In this digital economy, having the knowledge and skills in computer servicing is the start and most fundamental of
TOPIC 1: Why is CSS relevant?
In today’s industry, almost every establishment needs the assistance of technology.
Even establishments and businesses are now gearing towards the use of information technology to promote their
The demand for people who offer computer servicing and repair continues to increase as society rapidly changes.
For example
Computer hardware need maintenance services in order to repair normal wear and tear.
Network infrastructures used by organizations will need maintenance and monitoring.
Computer equipment would need occasional repair and maintenance; thus, requiring the assistance of computer
systems service providers.
Commonly, the industry’s main line of business is on selling computer hardware systems and components, as well as
providing repair and installation services.
Thus, if you were to venture in this industry, you must be well informed on basic concepts related to computer
systems servicing.
TOPIC 2: What jobs can I land on?
Since society is now becoming more technology-driven and technology-dependent, it is no wonder that more and
more establishments are in need of the expertise of computer service providers.
The Computer Systems Servicing National Certificate (NC II) Qualification trains its learners with competencies that
will allow them to diagnose and troubleshoot PC systems and software issues, as well as restoring its parts to return
the device to its normal function.
A person who has achieved the Computer Systems Servicing NC II Qualification is competent to be a:
TOPIC 3: What are my job functions in the future?
TOPIC 4: What does the Qualification require?
Because technology also changes rapidly, computer technicians must be updated with the current trends,
technology, and developments related to the computer industry. In addition to that, computer staff may need to
work with various people that will require their expertise. Thus, the ability to work in groups and the ability to
translate technical information to non-technical users may be required when working in this field.
Having a CSS NC II qualification is an entry point for a career in the computer field.
Being a computer technician may require you to travel to see clients or be at an office and workplaces as a member
of the IT support team. As a technician, you must possess the interests and skills that the job demands.
TOPIC 5: What knowledge and skills do I need?
As much as possible, you will need some prior knowledge and skills so that you will be able to perform computer
servicing easily.
LESSON 2: OHS Policies and Procedures
Occupational Health and Safety or OHS is concerned with health, safety, and welfare issues in the workplace. Policies
and procedures are important in discussing OHS because it aims to make the workplace safer and better for workers
and stakeholders.
It is concerned with many factors such as removal of hazards and reducing accidents in the workplace.
As a future computer technician, it is your responsibility to know these standard protocols especially since you will
be assembling and repairing expensive and sensitive equipment that need care and proper handling.
TOPIC 1: Occupational Health and Safety
Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) is a set of policies and procedures that is followed in a workplace in order to
prevent accidents, illnesses, and injuries.
It involves knowing the risks that can be encountered in a workplace and figuring out how it can be prevented.
Following OHS policies and procedures is important when dealing with electronics since it would protect not only
the personnel dealing with the components, but also the unit itself.
Three steps may be done to facilitate OHS procedures in a CSS work space:
Hazard identification
Risk assessment
Risk control
In addition to that, here are some additional OHS Procedures that must be observed in computer servicing:
TOPIC 2: Hazard Identification
Hazards are anything that can hurt a person. Example of hazards that can be encountered when conducting
computer systems servicing are:
Tangled electrical cords
Unsecured or unevenly stacked boxes
Hazard identification involves observing the workplace’s surroundings to recognize potential risks.
What are common hazards that can be encountered in the electronic industry?
LESSON 1: Understanding the Computer
We all know that computers are essential pieces of technology that we use to
make life easier and perform jobs faster.
A computer increases our productivity, connects us to the internet, lets us talk with
people across the world, helps us store a lot of information, and even make money!
In this lesson, we will start with the basics.
We want to understand how the computer works, how many types of computers are
there, what are the functions of the computer, and more!
TOPIC 1: The Computer
In technical terms, the computer is a device that accepts information in the form of
digitalized data, and manipulates it for some result based on a program or sequence of
instructions on how the data is to be processed.
TOPIC 2: Types of Computers
1. Supercomputer
Most powerful and most advance in terms of performance and data processing. These
computers are commonly used by large organizations to conduct specific tasks such
as weather forecasting, research, and exploration.
2. Mainframe Computer
Large and expensive computer capable of handling thousands of users and programs
simultaneously. Mainframe computers can handle, process, and store large amount of
data. These are commonly stored in large air-conditioned rooms because of its big
3. Minicomputer
Also known as midrange computers. It features all the functions of a large size
computer, but has a smaller size. Minicomputers can support many users because of
its multi-processing system.
Ex. K-202, IBM Midrange computers, SDS-92
4. Microcomputer
Most widely used and fastest growing type of computer. Desktop computers, laptops,
tablets, and smartphones are types of microcomputers.
TOPIC 3: Fundamental Elements of a Computer
LESSON 2: Basic Hardware Components of Computer Systems
A computer system consists of hardware and software components. As important as
the software which are the programs that run the computer, the hardware is the
physical equipment such as the case, storage drives, keyboards, monitors, cables,
speakers, and printers that builds up and let the software run.
It is important to learn about these components as these will be the basis before you
handle equipment especially in disassembling and assembling a computer system.
TOPIC 1: Computer Systems
The complete computer made up of the CPU, memory and related electronics (main
cabinet), all the peripheral devices connected to it and its operating system.
Computer systems fall into two broad divisions: clients and servers.
Client machines fall into three categories from low to high end: laptop, desktop and
Servers range from small to large: low-end servers, midrange servers and mainframes.
TOPIC 1: Computer Systems
Processing Devices
Processing devices are the computer’s circuitry in the system unit.
Motherboard – the circuit board housing the memory and the central processing unit
Central Processing Unit (CPU) – manipulates input data into the information needed by
the users
Memory – also known as Random Access Memory or RAM. It is a series of electronic
elements that act as temporary storage of data and program instructions while the
instructions are being processed by the CPU.
Chips – these make up the CPU and the memory; these are electronic devices that
contain many microscopic pathways designed to carry electrical currents.
Storage devices store data and programs. These hold data, information, and programs
Solid State Drive (SSD) – mass storage device that stores data in a permanent state
even without power. Similar to an HDD’s function, only the internal components are
different. SSDs do not have moving parts but store data on magnetic platters making
use of flash memory.
Hard Disk Drive (HHD) – often called hard drive or hard disk. This is the most common
storage device that do not need power to maintain data; these store data through
spinning platters or magnetic disks, recording individual bits written into the disk.
Flash Drive – highly portable small data storage devices making use of flash memory
and a Universal Serial Bus (USB) port connection
CD – “compact disc”, this storage device can hold up to 700 MB; it is read by an optical
drive through a laser
Input Devices
Input devices allow the user to communicate with the computer by entering data or
Keyboard – primary input device used to input alphanumeric data and commands to the
Mouse – primary input device used to navigate and interact with the monitor output
Scanner – scans documents and converts them digitally, which can be edited on a
Webcam – small cameras attached to a monitor or desk that record or broadcast video
Joystick – device used to control video games, aside from the keyboard
Output Devices
Output devices enable the computer to show the processed data and information
understandably to the user.
Printer – prints paper documents, photographs, and other outputs called hard copies
which are physical versions of the documents.
Monitor – acts as the primary display of the unit where the user interface and programs
are reflected.
Speakers – sound system device that produce audio output from the computer
TOPIC 2: The System Unit
The System Unit is the overall structure that houses the processor, memory, and
electronic components of the computer that are used to process data. All input and
output devices are connected into the system unit. The system unit is housed by what
is known as system case or computer case. It holds and protects most components of a
The Computer Case contains the framework to support and enclose internal
components of the computer. It helps to prevent damage from static electricity. It
typically made up of plastic, steel, and aluminum which are available in a variety of
styles. The size and layout of a case is called a form factor. It is also designed to keep
internal components cool by using airflow vents and cooling fans.
Computer cases are referred to in a number of ways: Computer chassis, Cabinet,
Tower, Box and Housing.
Tower (Full, Mid, Mini)
Desktop (Standard, Slimline)
TOPIC 2: The System Unit
Power Supply
Power supplies serve as the source for electricity to the computer. Attached are vital
hardware cables and buses for transferring power to various components in the
The following are the basic connector you can see in a power supply:
ATX 24 pin main power connector is the standard motherboard power connector used
in nearly every computer.
SATA 15 pin power supply connector is one of several standard peripheral power
connectors. SATA power connectors only connect to SATA drives like hard drives and
optical drives. SATA power connectors do not work with older PATA devices.
Molex 4 pin power supply connector is a standard peripheral power connector. Molex
power connectors connect to many different kinds of internal peripherals including
PATA hard drives and optical drives, some video cards, and even some other devices.
Floppy drive 4 pin power supply connector is the standard floppy drive power
connector. The floppy power connector, also called a Berg connector or Mini-Molex
connector, is included in even the newest power supplies even though floppy drives are
becoming obsolete.
ATX 4 pin power supply connector is a standard motherboard power connector used to
provide +12 VDC to the processor voltage regulator. This small connector usually
attaches to the motherboard near the CPU.
ATX 6 pin power supply connector is a motherboard power connector used to provide
+12 VDC to the processor voltage regulator but the 4-pin variety is the more commonly
used connector. This small connector usually attaches to the motherboard near the
TOPIC 2: The System Unit
The motherboard is also known as mainboard, system board, logic board, or MOBO. It
holds and allows communication between the crucial components of the computer such
as the CPU and memory. It also provides connection for other peripherals. This
provides the path which the processor (CPU) communicates with all the components of
the computer.
There are several components that are attached to the motherboard. These include:
1. Chip – small piece of semiconducting material, where more integrated circuits are
embedded. They have standard-sized pin connectors that allows them to be attached
to the motherboard.
2. Bus - an electrical path that enables data flow between various system
3. Integrated Circuit (IC) – contains microscopic pathways that carry electric current.
The IC contains millions of elements such as resistors, capacitators, and transistors.
Many different kinds of chips are located in the motherboard
Microprocessor – this is the central processing unit on a chip.
Different variety of chip packages:
1. Dual Inline Package (DIP) – this has two parallel rows of pints that attach the chip
package to the circuit board
2. Pin Grid Array (PGA) – holds a larger number of pins because the pins are
mounted on the surface of the package.
3. Flip Chip-PGA (CF-PGA) Package – higher performance PGA packaging that
places the chip on the opposite sides of the pins.
4. Single Edge Contact (SEC) Cartridge – does not use pins but connects to one of
the edges in the motherboard.
The form factor of motherboards pertains to the size and shape of the board. It also
describes the physical layout of the different components and devices on the
motherboard. Various form factors exist for motherboards:
AT – Advanced Technology
ATX – Advanced Technology Extended
Mini-ATX – Smaller footprint of ATX
Micro-ATX – Smaller footprint of ATX
LPX – Low-profile Extended
NLX – New Low-profile Extended
BTX – Balanced Technology Extended
The function of the northbridge is primarily a fast path between the CPU and the video
bus and system RAM. While the southbridge connects with the slow
hardware/components of the system.
See the photo below (courtesy of Quora) to understand the function of these bridges: