Journal Question #2 Differentiate between pseudoscience and science. Scientific Method 1. Observation - begins with an observation of an event that leads to a question - example: Observation - an owl catches a mouse in the dark. Question – How do owls detect prey on dark nights? Examples of scientific method in this presentation are derived from Modern Biology textbook 2003 2. Form a hypothesis - we combine the observation with our previous knowledge to form an educated (logical) guess as to how the event is occurring. (a hypothesis) - example 1. The owl uses its sight to detect mice in the dark. 2. The owl uses its hearing to detect mice in the dark 3. The owl uses heat to detect mice in the dark 3. Experiment A. Design control group – group used for comparison experimental group – group exposed to the factor being tested. independent variable – variable manipulated by the researcher dependent variable – variable being measured - example A. B. control group - A. owls in the light experimental group - B. owls in the dark independent variable – amount of light dependent variable – ability of the owl to catch the mouse. B. Data Collection data – information gained from observation qualitative data – description of what our senses detect quantitative data – data collected as numerical values - example The ability of the owl to strike the mouse in the dark will be measured and compared by determining the distance from the owl’s strike to the mouse and to the leaf in the light and the dark. C. Analysis - must choose the best way to organize the data for best interpretation - organization options : tables, pictures, graphs, etc. - graphs Line Graph - mostly used to track changes of time or show trends Bar Graph - mostly used to compare things between different groups Pie Chart - mostly used to compare parts of the whole - example 4. Conclusion - researchers makes a conclusion based on the interpretation of the data. - example based on the results of the owl experiment researchers believe that the owl is using its sense of hearing to detect mice in the dark 5. Reporting - results are published in scientific journals - peer reviewed -parts: Abstract, Introduction/Background, Materials and Method, Results, Discussion - example Overview Metric Laboratory Preview 1. half of the class will start this lab 2. work in pair – does not matter what station you start at 3. read through the whole lab before starting! Graphing Laboratory Preview 1. half of the class will start this lab 2. in part B all graphs must be done on the computer using excel or another graphing program 3. if you do not have access to a computer later today or tonight, make sure to do all your graphs before you leave Homework Reminder 1. 2. 3. 4. Field Research due Tomorrow! Metric Lab must be handed in before you go Graphing lab due Wednesday Simpson hand out due Tomorrow!