Review Paper Electric Vehicle: A Neutral Picture Zain Ul Abideen1 *, Umar Daraz1 , Muhammad Ramzan1 , M.Hamza Naseer1 , Shaharyar Hassan 1 Abstract Electric Vehicles are considered to be the present and future, and new technologies will also emerge with electric vehicles, EVs can cause significant impact on our environment too if it is used without a policy, it can only benefit us and this planet if we use it with proper management and coordination. There are still many obstacle to tackle for EVs to be fully integrate into our world, This paper is focused on reviewing all the useful data available on the working of EVs, advantages, disadvantages, trends, impacts, economical values, energy sources, Its objective is to review and provide an overall neutral picture of current EV technology and also ways of future development to assist the future researchers. Keywords Electric, Battery, EVs, Environment, Transportation, V2G 1 Department of Computer Science, The University of Faisalabad, FSD, Pakistan *Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org Contents Introduction 1 1 Working 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Lithium-Ion Battery . . . . . . . . Brushless DC Motor . . . . . . . Micro-controllers . . . . . . . . . Charging Circuit . . . . . . . . . . Complimentary Components 2 Advantages and Disadvantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 .2 .2 .3 .3 3 2.1 Advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.2 Disadvantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 Positive Changes to Implement 4 3.1 SmartGrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.2 Vehicle-To-Grid(V2G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.3 Integration of renewable energy sources . . . . . . 4 4 Impact on Environment 4 5 Impact on Economy 5 6 Sales Figures 5 7 Barriers to EV Adoption 6 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 Technological Limitations . . . Limited Range . . . . . . . . . . . Long Charging Period . . . . . Insufficient Charging Stations High Price . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Discussion 6 9 Future Work 6 10 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 .6 .6 .6 .6 7 11 Author Contribution 7 12 Conflict of Interest 7 Acknowledgments 7 References 7 Introduction Electrical vehicle (EV) are based on electric propulsion system thus no internal combustion engine is used, everything from motor to air conditioning is based on electric power as energy source. The main advantage that EV has over the combustion engine is its efficiency of power, if designed smartly even the power that are meant to be wasted during braking system can also be harvested by smart braking system. Recently there was a massive research and development work is being reported in academic and industrial level. Many mainstreams automotive companies and new startup are putting their efforts and resources towards this new revolution. Many countries especially in West are creating incentives to users and giving them tax brakes, free parking, and free charging facilities. This paper is to review and examine the working, recent development, impacts, and potentials of EV in today’s world. 1. Working The Electric vehicle no matter what the size it has or whatever horse power we need from it, it is going to contain mainly same components but just in bigger size, Like if we need to make an suburban car it will have a Brush-less DC Motor (BLDC) inside, and if we need to make a truck as Tesla  did we just need to put the bigger BLDC motor. Key components of an electric vehicle consists of Electric Vehicle: A Neutral Picture — 2/9 Figure 1. EV Configuration adapted from  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Lithium-Ion Battery Brushless DC Motor Micro-controller Charging Circuit Complimentary Components. 1.1 Lithium-Ion Battery Everything seems to be perfect with Electric vehicles but only downside that people are still worried about is their battery because it doesn’t matter how smart a vehicle or a device is, if it cannot be powered or run for a decent time it is considered useless, thus, whenever someone mention EVs they will mention the battery and its specifications too. EVs with only batteries as their power source are known as battery electric vehicles (BEVs). BEVs have to rely solely on the energy stored in their battery packs; therefore the range of such vehicles depends directly on the battery capacity. Typically they can cover 100 km–250 km on one charge , and the top-tier models can go a lot further, from 300 km to 500 km , these ranges are totally dependent on driving condition and style, vehicle configurations, road conditions, climate, battery type and age. Once depleted, charging the battery pack takes quite a lot of time compared to refueling a conventional Internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle. It can take as long as 36h completely to replenish the batteries  , there are some setups can can take less time to recharge but none is comparable to the little time required to refill a fuel tank of an ICE car. Advantages of electric vehicles are their simple construction, operation and convenience. These produce less or ignore-able greenhouse gas (GHG), do not create any noise pollution and thus beneficial to the environment. Electric propulsion provides instant and high torques, even at low speeds. These advantages, coupled with their limitation of range, makes them the perfect vehicle to use in urban areas  Figure 2. Lithium-Ion Diagram  via a closed loop controller, these controller provides pulses or waves of current to the motor windings that control the speed and torque of that motor. The main advantages of brushless motor over brushed motor is their high power-to-weight ratio, high speed, electronically controlled, and low maintenance. The development of semiconductors in the 1970s allowed the commutator to be eliminated in DC motors, and also the brushes in the permanent magnet motor. In brushless DC motors, and electronic servo system replaces the mechanical commutator contacts . The only disadvantage of BLDC motor is that it can only be operated using either a dedicated controller or by programming the controller to control phases of BLDC. BLDCs are useful for use in small cars requiring a maximum 60 kW of power . Figure 3. BLDC Motor Internal Configuration  1.2 Brushless DC Motor A brushless DC electric (BLDC motor or BL motor, also known as electronically commutated motor (ECM or EC motor) are synchronous motor which are powered by DC electricity via an inverter or switching power supply unit (SPSU) which produces electricity to drive each phase of the motor 1.3 Micro-controllers Micro-controller is a brain in any machine that needs to control or process any data or sometimes the reason behind a machine being called ”smart machine”, Usually an electric Electric Vehicle: A Neutral Picture — 3/9 vehicle has one main controller which is the main controller and processor and works like kernel of vehicle, then there are mini micro-controllers which are being used for low processing tasks like controlling all the electronics inside the cabin or outside of it, then we have a BLDC controller which is a different controller and has an Insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) or 6 transistors based circuit to drive the BLDC motor . 1.4 Charging Circuit To charge an EV we need an AC power source that is converted into DC using inverting circuits to charge the batteries. This system needs an AC-DC converter. According to the SAE EV AC Charging Power Levels, they can be classified as below: Level 1: The maximum voltage is 120 V, the current can be 12 A or 16 A depending on the circuit ratings. This system can be used with standard 110 V household outlets without requiring any special arrangement, using on-board chargers. Charging a small EV with this arrangement can take 0.5–12.5 h. These characteristics make this system suitable for overnight charging   . Level 2: Level 2 charging uses a direct connection to the grid through an Electric Vehicle Service Equipment (EVSE). On-board charger is used for this system. Maximum system ratings are 240 V, 60 A and 14.4 kW. This system is used as a primary charging method for EVs  . Level 3: This system uses a permanently wired supply dedicated for EV charging, with power ratings greater than 14.4 kW. ‘Fast chargers’—which recharge an average EV battery pack in no more than 30 min, can be considered level 3 chargers  . Figure 4. Typical placements of different converters in an EV. AC-DC converter transforms the power from grid to be stored in the storage through another stage of DC-DC conversion. Power is supplied to the motor from the storage through the DC-DC converter and the motor drives  1.5 Complimentary Components Just to make a micro-controller to be able to work it needs a lot of complimentary components like transistors, capacitors, resistors, and even power supply for some main components can also be counted as complimentary. 2. Advantages and Disadvantages At first glance it looks like electric vehicles are all paradise and there can be nothing wrong with them but actually there is nothing in this world that does not have disadvantages along advantages to it. 2.1 Advantages Fuel can be harnessed from any source of electricity, which is available in most homes and businesses . It reduces hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide, responsible for many environmental problems, by 98%  and also reduces pollution. . Compared to gasoline powered vehicles, electric vehicles are considered to be ninetyseven percent cleaner, producing no tailpipe emissions that can place particulate matter into the air . The process of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere, also known as global warming, diminishes the Earth’s ozone layer, which is what occurs at this time. A factor that makes electric vehicles clean is their ability to use half the number of parts a gasoline powered vehicle does, including gasoline and oil . Particulate matter, carcinogens released into the atmosphere by gas-powered vehicles, “can increase asthma conditions, as well as irritate respiratory systems” . The carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere by internal combustion vehicles reduces the ozone layer, which absorbs ninety-seven to ninety-nine percent of the sun’s high frequency ultraviolet light  According to Ozone Layer, “Every one percent decrease in the earths ozone shield is projected to increase the amount of UV light exposure to the lower atmosphere by two percent”  Ultraviolet light that are produced by the sun is extremely harmful to the life on Earth. UV light damages the skin and cause skin cancer. It also hurts the eyes and the marine life. Little to no maintenance is required because there are only a few moving parts in comparison to ICE cars. 2.2 Disadvantages EVs are considered to be high power loads  and they affect the power distribution system, the distribution transformers, cables and fuses the most  . A Nissan Leaf with a mare 24 kWh battery pack can easily consume power equivalent to a single European household. A 3.3 kW charger in a 220 V, 15 Ampere system can raise the current demand by 17% to 25% . Situation can become much worst if charging is done during peak hours thus leading to overload on the system and it will also be unpredictable for quite some time, it can lead to damage of system equipment, tripping of protection relays thus also an increase in the infrastructure cost . Ev load in peak hours will cause load unbalance, shortage of energy, instability, problems in reliability and also degraded power quality  . Electric Vehicle: A Neutral Picture — 4/9 Limited in the distance that can be driven before the complete failure of the battery . Accessories, such as air conditioning and radios will drain the battery quickly . Heavier car due to the electric motors, batteries, chargers, and controllers . More expensive because of cost of the parts and will stay expensive for a time being . 3. Positive Changes to Implement 3.1 SmartGrid After the common use of electric vehicle and predictions of energy usage, world is slowly but steadily shifting towards smart grid, in which there is incorporation of intelligent communication and decision making while keeping the grid architecture safe and efficient. Smart grid is already considered as the future of power grids because it offers array of advantages, reliable power supply, and advanced control with more efficiency. It can also provides us with the advance opportunity like vehicle-to-grid(V2G) and also the better integration of renewable energy, In fact, EV is on the eight priorities listed to create and efficient smart grid . 3.2 Vehicle-To-Grid(V2G) V2G or vehicle-to-grid is a method of providing power to the grid from EV. In this method, the vehicles acts as loads when they are drawing energy, and then they become dynamic energy storage by feeding back the energy to the grid. In V2G EVs can act as a power source to provide during peak hours. But to implement V2G properly first we need to have smart grid fully setup and working. Vehicle using this method can simply be plugged in anytime and put there, the system will choose a suitable time and charge it. Smart meters are required for enabling this system. With this scheme, the peak power demand can be reduced by 56% . This system is attractive as it requires little up gradation of the existing infrastructure, creating a communication system in-between the grid and the EVs is all that is needed . Another concept is produced using the smart grid and the EVs, called virtual power plant (VPP), where a cluster of vehicles is considered as a power plant and dealt like one in the system. VPP architecture and control is shown in Figure 5. 3.3 Integration of renewable energy sources Using renewable energy sources will become more promising and easy with EVs integration into the picture. EV owners can use Renewable energy sources to generate power locally to charge their EVs with sources like solar power becoming very popular. Parking lot roofs can be used for the placement of Solar panels which can charge the vehicles parked underneath as well as supplying the grid in case of excess generation   . Figure 6 demonstrates integration of wind and solar farm with conventional coal and nuclear power grid with EV charging station employing bidirectional V2G. Figure 5. VPP architecture and control  4. Impact on Environment One of the main causes why EVs popularity is rising is because it can reduce the greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles burn fuels directly, inefficiently, and also produce harmful gases, including carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. But, there are also theories that the electrical energy consumed by the EVs can also give rise to the GHS emissions from the power plants which have to produce more because of the extra load added in form of EVs. But these theories can only be proved wrong if in power production the usage of renewable energies are implemented on larger scale. If EVs add excess load during peak hours, it will also lead to the rise of CO2 emission . Reference  also stated that power generation from coal and natural gas will produce more CO2 from EV penetration than ICEs. However, all the power is not generated from such resources. There are many other power generating technologies that produce less GHG. With those considered, the GHG production from power plants because of EV penetration is less than the amount produced by equivalent power generation from ICE vehicles. But, there is also a theory that over the lifetime, EVs cause less emission than conventional vehicles . Denmark managed to reduce 85% CO2 emission from transportation by combining EVs and electric power. EVs also produce far less noise, which can highly reduce sound pollution, mostly in urban areas. The recycling of the batteries raises serious concerns though, as there are few organizations capable of recycling the lithium-ion batteries fully. However, like the previous nickel-metal and lead-acid ones, lithium-ion cells are not made of caustic chemicals, and their reuse can reduce ‘peak lithium’ or ‘peak oil’ demands . Electric Vehicle: A Neutral Picture — 5/9 Figure 6. Wind and solar integration in the grid with the help of EV in V2G system. TSO stands for transmission system organization; DSO for distribution system organization; T1 to T4 represent the transformers coupling the generation, transmission, and distribution stages  Figure 7. Top ten EVs in China in 2016 according to the number of units sold. Data from . 5. Impact on Economy If we look at the perspective of the EV owners, Evs provide less operating cost because of their superior efficiency and less maintenance . It can be up to 70% where ICE vehicles have efficiencies in the range of 60% to 70% . The current high prices of EVs are most likely to come down from mass production and better energy policies in future  which will further increase the economic gains of the owners. V2G also allows the owners to obtain a financial benefit from their vehicles by providing service to the grid . The power companies will benifit from EV integration mainly by implementing charging and V2G. It also allows them to adopt better peak shaving strategies as well as to integrate renewable sources. EV fleets can also lead to $200 to $300 savings in cost per vehicle per year  . Figure 8. Top ten best-selling EVs globally in 2016. Data from . 6. Sales Figures Figure 7 Shows the top ten EVs sold in China in 2016, Figure 8 shows the top ten best-selling EVs globally in 2016, Figure 9 shows the Battery Electric Vehicles(BEV) market shares in Europe in 2016, these figures are a proof that EVs are here to stay for a very long time. Figure 9. BEV market shares in Europe in 2016. Data from . Electric Vehicle: A Neutral Picture — 6/9 7. Barriers to EV Adoption 7.1 Technological Limitations The main obstacles that are being the big consideration when it comes to EV adoption is the drawbacks in its related technology. Batteries for example are the main area of concern because their weight is a great concern and thus range and charging period also depends on the battery. 7.2 Limited Range EVs are held back by the capacity of their batteries , they have a certain amount of stored energy in them and can travel a certain distance in accordance to the battery energy, but, range also depends on the speed of the vehicle, driving conditions, amount of cargo the vehicle is carrying, the terrain it is being driven on, and the services or devices that are being running in the car, for example air condition, stereo, lights etc, this causes the ’range anxiety’ among the users , which indicates the concern about battery getting completing drained while driving to a certain range or about finding a charging station before battery drains out. People are found to be willing to spend upto 75$ extra for an extra range of one mile . Even though the current battery electric vehicles (BEVS) are capable of traveling equivalent or more distance then a conventional vehicle can travel with a full tank, for example, Tesla Model S 100D has a range of almost 564 km with the temperature of 70C and the air conditioning is off . Range anxiety still remains the main obstacle for EVs to overcome. This does not affect the use of EVs for urban areas because in most cases this range is enough for daily commutation inside city limits. Range extenders, which produce electricity from fuel, are also available with models like BMW i3 as an option. Vehicles with such facilities are currently being called as Extended Range Electric Vehicles (EREV). 7.3 Long Charging Period Long charging time is another reason why people are finding it hard to adopt. Depending on the type of charger and battery pack, charging can take from a few minutes to hours; this truly makes EVs incompetent against the ICE vehicles which only take a few minutes to get refueled. Hidrue et al., found out that, to have an hour decreased from the charging time; people are willing to pay 425–3250 . There are some ways to decrease the charging time, for example, increasing the voltage level or employment of better chargers. Some fast charging facilities are available at the present, and more are getting employed in the West. 7.4 Insufficient Charging Stations Even though with the advent of Tesla electric cars, whole world especially the West is very busy in making sufficient charging stations but there are still less than what they need. Not all the public charging stations are compatible with every car as well; therefore it also becomes a challenge to find a proper charging point when it is required to replete the battery. There is also the risk of getting a fully occupied charging station with no room for another car. But, the manufacturers are working on to mitigate this problem. Tesla and Nissan have been expanding their own charging networks, as it, in turn means they can sell more of their EVs. 7.5 High Price The price of the EVs are quite high when compared to their ICE counterparts and that is because EVs are fairly new technology and mass production is not really a fast option for now, and also the high cost of batteries and fuel cells . To make people overlook this factor, governments in different countries including the UK and Germany, have provided incentives and tax breaks which provide the buyers of EVs with subsidies. Figure 10. Limitations of EVs. 8. Discussion It is definite that EVs are not just a contemporary fashion, they are here to stay, but if world does not want to be stuck or want to achieve their climate change goals, we have to work for green energy or renewable energy sources in parallel to the EV shift, because if we do not do that then EVs can be more harmful then ICE cars because they also involves line transmission and energy losses which ICE do not. 9. Future Work The adoption of EVs has opened the doors for new possibilities and ways to improve both the vehicles and also the systems that are associated with it, for example, the power system, which haven’t really developed that much or haven’t brought to the ”smart age” yet, EVs will be the future of vehicles while smart grids are going to be the grid of the future  . Technologies like Vehicle-T0-Grid (V2G) will be a link between these two technologies and both will get benefited from it, there will be a lot more research and Electric Vehicle: A Neutral Picture — 7/9 thus improvement in complementary technologies like charge scheduling, CPP, smart meters etc. At the same time, chargers and EVSEs have to able to communicate with the grid for facilitating V2G, smart metering, and if needed, bidirectional charging . Batteries will improve thus the charging system too, there was no concern about battery temperature before the advent of EVs but now battery temperature management is a crucial part of EVs. There is a need for batteries that are free from toxic materials, have higher power density, less cost, less weight, and certainly less time to charge. There was no interest before in developing more efficient batteries but EVs has already sparked the interest to not only develop but also research more elements that can be used in new batteries. Besides, Li-ion technology has the potential to be improved a lot more. Li-air batteries could be a good option to increase the range of EVs . EVs are likely to move away from using permanent magnet motors which use rare-earth materials. The motors of choice can be induction motor, synchronous reluctance motor, and switched reluctance motor . Tesla is using an induction motor in its models at present. Motors with internal permanent magnet may stay in use . Wireless charging system will become the future of charging thus not only be more convenience but also less use or wiring. Electric roads for wireless charging of vehicles may appear as well in future, though this it still not viable, situation can change in future. Recent works in this sector includes the work of Electrode, an Israeli startup, which claims to be able to achieve this feat in an economic way. Vehicles that follow a designated route along the highway, like trucks, can get their power from overhead lines like trains or trams. It will allow them to gather energy as long as their route resides with the power lines, then carry on with energy from on-board sources. Such a system has been tested by Siemens using diesel-hybrid trucks from Scania on a highway in Sweden . Much research is going on to make the electronics and sensors in EVs more compact, rugged and cheaper—which in many cases are leading to advanced solid state devices that can achieve these goals with promises of cheaper products if they can be mass-produced. 10. Conclusion EVs have great potential of becoming the future of transport while saving this planet from imminent calamities caused by global warming. They are a viable alternative to conventional vehicles that depend directly on the diminishing fossil fuel reserves. The EV types, configurations, energy sources, motors, power conversion and charging technologies for EVs have been discussed in detail in this paper. The key technologies of each section have been reviewed and their characteristics have been presented. The impacts EVs cause in different sectors have been discussed as well, along with the huge possibilities they hold to promote a better and greener energy system by collaborating with smart grid and facilitating the integration of renewable sources. Limitations of current EVs have been listed along with probable solutions to overcome these short- comings. The current optimization techniques and control algorithms have also been included. A brief overview of the current EV market has been presented. Finally, trends and ways of future developments have been assessed followed by the outcomes of this paper to summarize the whole text, providing a clear picture of this sector and the areas in need of further research. 11. Author Contribution All authors contributed for bringing the manuscript in its current state. Their contributions include detailed survey of the literatures and state of art which were essential for the completion of this review paper. 12. Conflict of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. Acknowledgments No funding has been received in support of this research work, and this paper was written as a review paper of multiple papers while demonstrating our research and paper writing skills that we learned during our Masters degree. References  C. C. Chan, “The state of the art of electric and hybrid vehicles,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 90, no. 2, pp. 247–275, Feb 2002.  Tesla, Semi Truck, 2017 (announced November 2017), https://www.tesla.com/semi.  E. A. Grunditz and T. Thiringer, “Performance analysis of current bevs based on a comprehensive review of specifications,” IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 270–289, 2016.  P. Reid, C. 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