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Head Start In Nursing School Study Guide

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Head Start In Nursing School Study Guide
Integumentary System
• Know different layers of skin Epidermis Dermis SubQ • Know 4 types of cells in the epidermis. Keratinocytes – production of keratin Melanocytes – production of pigment melanin Intraepidermal macrophages – immune responses Tactile – Function in the sensation of touch • Know the layers of the epidermis. Cars – Stratum Corneum Love – Stratum lucidum (Only in thick skin) Gas – Stratum granulosum Spring – Stratum spinosum Break – Stratum basale Immune System
• Innate (born w/ it) vs Adaptive (develops over time) • Functions of the Immune system 1. Surveillance of the body 2. Recognition of foreign material 3. Destruction of entities deemed foreign • Innate defenses - Phagocytosis - Natural killer (NK cells) - Inflammatory response (macrophages, mast cells, WBCs, & inflammatory chemicals) - Antimicrobial proteins (interferons & complement proteins) - Fever • Adaptive defenses - Specific: specific cells w/ specific receptors attach specific pathogens - Systematic - Has memory: if your body encounters an antigen again, it mounts a faster more effective response Endocrine System
• Made up of glands that produce & secrete hormones • Glands (Location + Function) 1. Hypothalamus – brain 2. Pituitary – brain – stimulates growth 3. Thyroid – neck – helps regulate our metabolism 4. Parathyroid – neck 5. Adrenal – kidney – increases blood glucose levels & speeds up HR 6. Pineal – brain – regulates sleep patterns 7. Reproductive – pelvic area – development of sex characters 8. Pancreas – abdomen – regulates blood glucose levels • Diabetes & Endocrine - Insulin helps reduce levels of blood glucose - Glucagon helps increase levels of blood glucose - Diabetes type 1: unable to produce enough insulin, must inject insulin to decrease blood sugar levels - Diabetes type 2: unable to respond effectively to insulin, medication to increase sensitivity to insulin by stimulating the pancreas to release more insulin & medication which inhibits the release of glucagon - Pancreas: contains cells called Islets Langerhans which release both insulin & glucagon - Liver: Responds to the presence of insulin by taking up glucose from the blood, also releases glucose in response to glucagon - Kidneys: Adrenal glands sit on top of the kidneys which release Epinephrine which enables the body for a response of fight or flight which then raises blood pressure & releases glucagon & increases blood glucose level & contracts skeletal muscles to be ready for movement Electrolytes & Lab Values
• Magnesium (Mg) = Magazine - 1.5 -­‐2.5 mEq/L - Muscle relaxation - Hypermagnesemia -­‐ Muscles too relaxed, decreased DTR, Resp. arrest (Relaxed hippie) - Hypomagnesemia -­‐ Muscles excited, increased DTR, seizures, tachycardia • Phosphorus = Body builder holding weight - 2.5-­‐4.5 mg/dL - Muscle contraction - Hyperphosphatemia – muscles excited, tetany - Hypophosphatemia – muscles too relaxed, weakness, resp. failure • Potassium (K) = Bananas come in bundles ranging from 3 to 5 - 3.5-­‐5.0 mEq/L - Cardiac sensitive: ARRHYTHMIAS - Hyperkalemia – paralysis, tall peaked T waves - Hypokalemia-­‐ Paresthesias (pins & needles feeling), flattened T waves, U waves • Calcium = Call 911 - 8.5-­‐10.5 mg/dL - Bones & neuronal excitability - Hypercalcemia – decreased muscle contraction, constipation, QT shortening - Hypocalcemia – Excess muscle contraction, diarrhea, muscle spasms, tetany, trousseau sign, seizures, QT prolongation • Sodium - 8.5-­‐10.5 mg/dL - Bones & neuronal excitability - Hypercalcemia – decreased muscle contraction, constipation, QT shortening - Hypocalcemia – Excess muscle contraction, diarrhea, muscle spasms, tetany, trousseau sign, seizures, QT prolongation Dosage
& Calculations
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