Sydney DeSimone Post Lab Questions pg. 11/12 1) How does the modern scientific method differ from the natural philosophy of the ancient Greeks? Aristotle and his colleagues used natural philosophy that was mechanistic instead of vitalistic. A mechanists’ explanations of nature deals with cause and effect, the idea that one thing is the result of another. The main difference between the modern day scientific method and the ancient Greek scientific method is that the modern scientific method can test principles by experimentation and observation, while in ancient Greek times their natural philosophy was viewed as the absolute truth and could not be challenged. 2) - List the six steps of one full cycle of the scientific method. Observation Question Hypothesis Prediction Experiment/pertinent observations Conclusion 3) What is tested by an experiment? The experiment is performed to test the prediction. 4) Within the framework of an experiment, describe the a) independent variable: the treatment or condition under study. b) dependent variable: the event or condition that is measured or observed when the results are gathered. c) controlled variable: all other factors which the investigator attempts to keep the same for all groups under study. 5) Is the statement, “In most biology experiments, the relationship between the independent and the dependent variable can best be described as cause and effect,” true or false? Explain Your Answer. This statement is false because cause and effect is rarely proven in biological experiments. Rather, it is more accurate to say that the results correlated, signifying the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. 6) Is a scientific principle taken as absolutely true? Explain your answer. A scientific principle is not taken as absolutely true. Like theories and hypotheses, scientific principles can be modified/discarded if new knowledge is presented. 7) What is the function of research articles in scientific journals? Research articles in scientific journals allow scientists to provide other scientists with their own knowledge and observations. This serves to provide scientists with the information necessary to replicate/repeat experiments. 8) Define the design and structure of a bioassay. Bioassays are used by the pharmaceutical industry to test new drugs. A bioassay establishes the quantity of a substance that results in a defined effective overdose. 9) Describe how you have applied or could apply the scientific method to an everyday problem. The scientific method can be applied when you’re cooking. For example, you could have six different spies to work with, and you could form a hypothesis regarding which blend of spices will go best together. This hypothesis can then be tested by creating all possible spice blends, tasting each, and then reaching a conclusion as to which blend tastes best. 10) Do you think the differences between religious and scientific knowledge make it difficult to debate points of perceived conflict between them? Explain your answer. I think it is somewhat difficult to debate because religious beliefs have always remained the same while science is ever changing, so I think it would be hard to get someone with strong religious knowledge to agree with opposing points from someone with lots of scientific knowledge.