Uploaded by Annalyn Villamor


Villamor, Andrea
Reviewer in Understanding Self
BSE-ENG, 1st yr.
Spiritual- defined as “relating to or affecting the human spirit or soul as opposed to material or
physical things”.
Religious person- someone who believes in a god or group of gods and consciously adheres to the
beliefs of his/her religion.
Spirituality believes in God who is omnipresent and omniscient, someone who is a living presence in
our hearts.
Contemplative practices:
1.) Meditation- mental exercises*/ mantra*/clear-headedness*
2.) Prayer- a spiritual communion with God*/may elicit a relaxation response, along with feelings of
hope, gratitude and compassion.
3.) Yoga- a Hindu spiritual and ascetic discipline/system of physical posture, breathing techniques,
and sometimes meditation*
4.) Journaling- can help you become aware of your inner life and feel more connected to your
experience and the world around you.
The 16 basic desires that humans share according to Steven Reiss:
1. Acceptance
2. Curiosity
3. Eating
4. Family
5. Honor
6. Idealism
7. Independence
8. Order
9. Physical Activity
10. Power
11. Romance
12. Saving
13. Social contact
14. Status
15. Tranquility
16. Vengeance
The 4 dimensions of religion:
1.) Belief;
2.) Ritual;
3.) Spiritual experience; and
4.) Unique social forms of community
Religious beliefs- generalized system of ideas and values that shape how members of a religious
group come to understand the world around them.
Rituals- the repeated physical gestures or activities, such as prayers and mantras.
The major religions:
1.) Judaism
2.) Christianity
3.) Islam
4.) Hinduism
5.) Buddhism
Babaylan- something that our ancestors looked up to, at the pre-colonial era.
- described as a priestess or shaman
- acted as a healer, spiritual leader, and medium
- performs rituals through chants or prayers for spiritual intervention to drive spirits that
cause illness or misfortune.
Animism- attribution of a soul in plants, inanimate objects, and natural phenomena.
The soul according to some ethnolinguistic groups in the Philippines:
Linnawa- or ‘soul of the dead’ by the Ifugao.
Kaduwa- the Isneg believes that the dead exists in a realm called aglalanawan. The kaduwa (soul) is
believed to cross a pond in a ferry piloted by a kutaw (spirit).
Kankanaey- (another member of the Igorot people) believes that the human person is composed of
the physical body and the ab-abiik (soul). * The soul travels when the body is sick*
Kaluluwa- the Tagalog people’s concept of soul. The soul of a living person is called a “kakambal”.
The Ilokano has a 4-soul system:
The kararua, or the soul proper.
Karkarma stands for natural vigor, mind and reason. It can be stolen. Insanity occurs if the
soul did not return immediately*.
Aniwaas can leave the body during sleep and visit places familiar to the body. Insanity occurs
if the body wakes up without it*.
Anaria is the liberated soul of the dead. It can also perform a duty it failed to do in life. The
howling of dogs means it is present.
Baggi (body) and Ikaruruwa (soul) - the Ibanag/Ybanag believes that the soul has physical
characteristics, like color and the dead babies’ soul can reach adulthood in the spirit realm. Saying
that the soul directs and gives wholeness to a man, but the body can survive without it*.
Karaduwa tawu/tawo (human soul), karaduwa manok (chicken soul), karaduwa baboy (pig soul),
karaduwa kuti (cat soul), and karaduwa hipon (shrimp soul). A soul can also separate itself from
the body. Saying that the karaduwa roams the world when asleep, and that what the person dreams
of are actually the experiences of the karaduwa while roaming around*.
Kiyaraluwa (and five secondary souls) - or ‘one true soul’ is given at birth by the god Magindusa. The
secondary souls are located in both hands and feet, while there is also one in the head just below the
air whorl (alimpuyo).
Gimukod- according to the custom of the ethnic tribes at Bukidnon, there are two types of gimukod;
one in the right hand and one in the left hand. The gimukod in the right hand is the good soul, while
the gimukod in the left one is the bad soul. Saying that the right hand soul is associated with life,
health, joy, and activity and the left hand soul causes lethargy, pain, and illness.
Ritual- a ceremony or action performed in a customary way. It may be prescribed by the traditions of
a community, including a religious community.
Ceremony- a formal act or ritual (often set by custom or tradition) performed in observation of an
event or anniversary.
4 classification of rituals:
1.) Initiative
2.) Positive and Negative
3.) Sacrificial
4.) Life crisis