Annotated Bibliography There is an increasing interest in the concept of automated driving that many researches have begun to take serious steps to investigating how automated driving can be incorporated into the transportation system. What a lot of people are trying to discover through this concept is how selfdriving cars will affect traffic accidents throughout the population. Nowadays, there is an ongoing debate on whether or not the production and use of automated and self-driving cars is good or rather dangerous. Personally, I am a car fanatic so I decided to weigh out the pros and cons of these self-driving cars and how they will affect society. Doing so however, entails a serious analysis to the viability of using such means of transportation. Thus, a collection of studies is needed to help gain a sufficient background and argument before a serious investigation on the idea of automated driving can be made. Throughout plenty of research from case studies, online sources, and scholarly sources, it is evident that the production and use of automated vehicles will be a positive advancement in society. Despite the fact that there could be technical errors at rare incidents, it will drastically decrease the number of death tolls and injuries from traffic accidents. The major problem, however, is that if a technical error does take place, it will cause a huge problem that will affect the U.S economy due to people that will sue automated driving companies. As can be seen, this is a very risky situation but if it does work out it will highly decrease the likeliness of traffic accidents. Abraham, H., Lee, C., Brady, S., Fitzgerald, C., Mehler, B., Reimer, B., & Coughlin, J. F. (2016). Autonomous vehicles, trust, and driving alternatives: A survey of consumer preferences. Retrieved from http://agelab.mit.edu/files/publications/2016_6_Autonomous_Vehicles_Consumer_Preferences .pdf The study's major findings reveal that there are some hesitation with the idea of full automation in the older adult population, but that 50% of the adult market responded positively about technological innovations to assist the driver. The author conveys that an acceptance of a majority of the respondents that training and an orientation to the adoption of technology showed that it is a matter of implementing improved training methods that would help ease drivers to using automated vehicles. The method in which the study will be done is through recruiting participants with the help of "Best Ride, MIT Age Lab, and New England University Transportation Center websites" (Abraham et.al., 2016). Through these online advertisement and web posts, 3034 individuals participated in the survey and conditions such as those "under the legal driving age of 16, did not own a vehicle, or reported owning a vehicle with a production year earlier than 1980" (Abraham et.al., 2016) were excluded from the analysis. This resulted to removing 80 responses from the survey in the study which left 2954 responses which was used in the analysis. The purpose of the study is to discover how the value of fully automated systems as it is used in fully autonomous vehicles and other alternative transportation services such as carpooling and or sharing rides which have become a growing trend. In this regard, a collaborative effort on how many related manufacturers, businesses, and technological suppliers have become aggressively responsive to designing and developing automated systems to cater to this growing need. To be able to do so, the study sought to determine consumers' awareness and satisfaction of the technology used in vehicles and how consumers want to find out about the technology. Additionally, preferences and alternatives to driving will also be explored. The audience of the paper is people who are involved in designing and developing technological systems to assist the driver or supplement automated vehicles. Those interested or are in the line of manufacturing or the business of selling technological systems, and drivers can also be seen as part of the audience in this study. Bazilinskyy, P., Kyriakidis, M., & de Winter, J. (2015). An international Crowdsourcing study into people's statements on fully automated driving. Procedia Manufacturing, 3, 2534-2542. doi:10.1016/j.promfg.2015.07. 540 To uncover the results, the study limited comments of the respondents to 15 characters, which lead to 1,952 comments, 74% of which consisted of male respondents. Its findings dictate that the respondents' opinions varied, with a claim to both positive (POSITV) and negative (NEGATV) responses obtained. Additionally, the results became consistent with a previous study that examines the opinion on automated driving but that uses a five-point Likert Scale instead of the Crowd Flower. The categorization further reveals that an insignificant number of comments were placed in multiple categories which shows that there are connections between categories. The purpose of the study is to determine people's responses towards using automated driving, and how the results can possibly benefit car manufacturers and the market, while specifying the potential of using Crowd Flower to reveal results. Additionally, the study is designed for an audience who is interested and would be affected in the possibility of the fully automated driving. Thus, the paper focuses on the potentials of automated driving to the society by stressing the public's perception of fully automated driving which attempts to identify what the 8,862 respondents from 112 countries who participated in the study know about automated driving. Blanco, M., Atwood, J., Vasquez, H. M., Trimble, T. E., Fitchett, V. L., & Morgan, J. (2015). DOT HS 812 182 human factors evaluation of level 2 and level 3 automated driving concepts. Retrieved from https://www.nhtsa.gov/sites/nhtsa.dot.gov/files/812182_humanfactorseval-l2l3-automdrivingc oncepts.pdf The major findings of the study indicate that people who used nonvisual components were determined to be more effective for users and that driver engagement gave sufficient evidence to dictate how human factors to operating automated vehicles can support development of technological systems. The study involved five experiments to accomplish the study. Twenty five participants joined in the study and all five experiments revealed significant results tailored to answer the purpose of the study. Various tests such as online surveys subjected twenty five participant drivers with regards to their abilities to use the technological system at strategic instances while technology interaction and responses are also assessed. The primary purpose of the study is to examine Level 2 and Level 3 partially automated vehicles interact and respond to interactions with users while considering that basically human interaction with the systems may vary. Level 2 is combined automated driving (driver and technology) while Level 3 is more dependent on technology and not the driver. This caters to an audience who are both knowledgeable and at the advanced levels of using automated vehicles. It also targets technological and vehicle manufacturers to help them realize and analyze the effects which also leads to a discovery on how systems and vehicle manufacturers can improve their products. Kyriakidis, M., Happee, R., & de Winter, J. C. F. (2015). Public opinion on automated driving: Results of an international questionnaire among 5000 respondents. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 32, 127-140. doi:10.1016/j.trf.2015.04. 014 The study claims that there is a growing concern for road transport accidents and pollution Accordingly, the author writes that an emphasis to the cases shows that 90% were caused by driver error. The results showed that manual driving is preferred and found to be more enjoyable but that the respondents are open to the idea of fully automated driving and that there is a possibility to incorporate automated driving in the future. The method used in the study is a 63-question survey method that was created on Crowd Flower and respondents were asked to answer within fifteen minutes but had a sixty minute expiration set to the task. Analysis was done through descriptive statistics at the individual and international level. A total of 5000 respondents completed the survey. The purpose of the study is to reveal what the public thinks about automated driving. More specifically questions about concerns and willingness to buy and use automated vehicles and the differences in the opinion of other countries with regards to using automated vehicles. Automated vehicle manufacturers, technology developers and the general public is the primary audience of the study. Urmson, C., & Whittaker, W. (2008). Self-driving cars and the urban challenge. IEEE Intelligent Systems, 23(2), 66-68. doi:10.1109/mis.2008. 34 The author claims that an increasing awareness on the use of autonomous vehicles is a continued interest in both developed and developing countries. To this, the author notes that many have seen that the benefits of using autonomous vehicles can drastically help in reducing accidents and provide safety measures for humans. The author also states that transitioning to automated vehicles has its issues and challenges. The method used for observing the effectiveness of the system is tested on a single Chevy Tahoe which was equipped with GPS data, laser, and radar to see how it can safely navigate a 53-mile test course with other vehicles. The purpose of the study is to reveal the effectivity and possibility of using a completely automated system in a controlled environment. The audience for the study is key technological developers like Boss, general public interested in converting to automated vehicles and car manufacturers. van Loon, R. J., & Martens, M. H. (2015). Automated driving and its effect on the safety Ecosystem: How do compatibility issues affect the transition period? Procedia Manufacturing, 3, 3280-3285. doi:10.1016/j.promfg.2015.07. 401 A major claim to the study highlights that as many vehicles begin to be incorporated with an automated system. The findings of the study reveal that the issue of inter-vehicle compatibility is stressed in the fact that transitioning to automated vehicles takes time and that there is a possibility that unequipped vehicles will remain to be used after automated vehicles are implemented. But while there is an awareness to a positive integration to the automated system there is also an important concern as to providing an in-depth information and knowledge to driver behaviors and manual vehicles that could potentially complicate a proper transition to automated vehicles Secondly, there is an existing issue of compatibility between vehicles and humans, which could have varying behavioral results when automated and unequipped vehicles are integrated in the roads. The method used in the study is general observation whereby the existing state of unequipped and equipped vehicles is seen to be integrated into many roads in the near future. The audience of the study is the general public who might need information to realize the benefits on road safety and pollution concerns on vehicles. Different local government might also gain important information on how using automated vehicles can be implemented on the roads considering and acknowledging the fact that it will not be easy to replace unequipped vehicles any time soon.