Investigation of Multi Input Adaptive Control for STATCOM Nikolay Djagarov Zhivko Grozdev Milen Bonev Technical University Electrical Equipment and Power Supply Department Varna, Bulgaria jagarov@ieee.bg Technical University Electrical Equipment and Power Supply Department Varna, Bulgaria grozdew@yahoo.com Technical University Electrical Equipment and Power Supply Department Varna, Bulgaria bonevi_km@tu-varna.bg Abstract— In the present report is presented the advanced adaptive control of static compensator (STATCOM) consisting of conventional PI-regulator and multi input adaptive regulator. The adaptive static modal regulator identifies the controlled object by optimal observer in real time. By means of identified parameters and variables of controlled object is calculated the control signal. The operation of power system connected through transmission line into infinity buses is being investigated. The power system consists of generator units, static and dynamic loads and STATCOM. The results from investigations show the effectiveness of suggested advanced adaptive control. Keywords-component; STATCOM, FACTS, adaptive control, singular adaptive observer Introduction (Heading 1) I. INTRODUCTION The development and improvement of powerful semiconductor technology in recent years contribute to the development and implementation of flexible alternate current transmission systems (FACTS). The FACTS devices represent a group of innovative devices based on power electronics which are used primarily in high-voltage transmission lines. These devices perform dynamic compensation of power systems by improving natural characteristics of transmission lines, increasing the transmission power and governing the form of voltage lines. The static synchronous compensator represents shunt connected static compensator which generates or absorbs reactive power in order to maintain or adjust the parameters of the power system [1,2,3,4]. The main advantages of static synchronous compensators are: - Voltage control under different operating modes; - Reactive power control; - Improving the power system stability in energy transmission at long distance; - Improving insensitivity of the network by controlling the voltage during major disturbances, such as. short circuit; - Improving the reliability of power systems; - Reducing the costs and increasing capabilities of the managing controllers. For control of FACTS are used all known methods from the theory of control: classical PI-regulators, methods of fuzzy logic and neural network, regulators with adjusted parameters, regulators with variable structure and others. The main trend is to make these controllers adaptive [5]. However, this relates to the need of large computational resources, which will worsen their performance and hence the quality of regulation. The adaptive stabilizer suggested by us uses optimal singular adaptive observers [6]. These observers based on measured parameters of the controlling object identify the parameters and variables of minimal model of Frobenius. The main difference of this identification from the known is that not only the current vector is estimated but also the initial vector. This avoids iterative solution of Riccati equations and hence is achieved very high speed of identification and calculation of control signal. Thanks to this, the calculation time of the control signal and feedback is negligible small in comparison with the speed of running processes in the system. Therefore, these regulators improve all parameters of the transition process, damping the oscillations and improving power system stability as whole. II. STUDIED POWER SYSTEM On Fig.1 is presented studied power system including infinity power system, transmission line, static activeinductive load, dynamic load and STATCOM connected to load bus. The suggested STATCOM represents GTO-based multilevel voltage source converter (VSC) connected in parallel with power system by coupling transformers. The four sets of three-phase voltages obtained at the output of the four threelevel inverters are applied to the secondary windings of four phase-shifting transformers (with phase shifting ±7,5°). In this way of connecting of power transformers are neutralized the odd harmonics up to 45th harmonic with exception of 23rd and 25th (which is ideal for balancing of power system). By regulating of amplitude and phase of the generated voltage from compensator can be regulated the active and reactive power generated/absorbed to/from power system. Also by adjusting the output voltage amplitude of the compensator can 978-1-4577-1829-8/12/$26.00 ©2012 IEEE be regulated the reactive power flow and voltage of the line. On the other hand the DC-voltage of capacitors controls the generated voltage of compensator output. In this way for change of reactive power flow of STATCOM the controller of the compensator first must temporary absorb reactive power from power system for charge the power capacitors. This active power flow is controlled by managing of firing angle of GTO- thyristors [7]. of pagination anywhere in the paper. Do at the AC-terminal R, ERN1 with respect to the capacitor centre tap, is determined by the ON and OFF states of the four switches GR1, GR2, GR3 and GR4. III. CONTROL OF STATCOM The control of compensator consist from three control loops; adaptive voltage regulator; current regulator; DC Dynamic load Power System IM Transmission line Static load STATCOM Controller 48 GTO Firing pulses STATCOM Fig.1. Diagram of studied power system not number text heads-the template will do that for you. regulator. The basic idea of STATCOM control is keeping the On the Fig.2 is presented circuit diagram of one 3-level amplitude of voltage in connection node close to the reference GTO-bridge converter module, with limbs R, S and T. With value, which is given from operator. the capacitor centre tap N connected through diodes, each ac The structure of the STATCOM control is shown in Fig.3. node has three voltage levels, +0,5Udc, 0, and -0,5Udc. The The voltage of connection node UT and the current of capacitor voltages are regulated and equalized at 0,5Udc by compensator IS are measured. The inner current control loop another DC-voltage feedback regulation loop and an inner forces the voltage source converter to behave as a controlled DC-voltage equalization feedback loop [8]. The phase voltage current source. For connection of STATCOM to present node S T is used power transformer Tr. The node voltage is controlled R by a two input adaptive controller and gives the reference + signal for the q-current controller. To regulate the DC voltage GR1 of the outer control loop to its constant value a PI controller is + used. To design the PI controller parameters, the inner control UDC1 loop is modeled as a first order delay element and the dynamics of the DC link are taken into account. The controller is tuned GR2 with the symmetrical optimum [9]. The inner current control is US UR UT performed with PI-controllers in rotating dq-axes coordinates. UDC N Grid synchronization is done with a PLL algorithm. GR3 + - UDC2 GR4 Fig.2. Three level diode - clamped converter. The basis of the adaptive regulator, which regulates voltage of static synchronous compensator, is that in real time it can continuously identify the controlled object by lineal model from low order and after that it creates the controlling signal. The performed numerous investigations [10] show that for the needs of regulator can be used models from 2nd order. This provides very high performance and accuracy. In the Two-input adaptive regulator z(k) Iqref UDC Idref voltage control Current regulator UTref US,dq d,q P, Q calculation QS PWM STATCOM Tr IS,abc d,q a,b,c QS UT UDC US,abc a,b,c IS,dq UDCref Ȗ PLL UT,abc UT,dq d,q a,b,c Fig.3. Block diagram of the STATCOM control presented diagram is used two-input optimal singular adaptive (OSA) observer (MISO – multi input single output). As it can be seen on Fig.3 on the input of OSA observer are feeded discrete samples from input UT(k) (voltage of connection point) and QS(k) (reactive power of STATCOM) and also signal z(k), representing limited input sequence used for identification. The observed system might be present by a following type of a linear model in the state space described through the following differential equations [6]: x k 1 A.x k B.>u k z k @ A.x k B.v k T > y ( 0) y (1)@ y (3) y ( 4) y (5) Y T Y >y (2) (1) (2) c .x k ªY º « » ; Ui «¬Y »¼ x(0)=x0,; k=0,1,2,….; where: x(k), x(k+1) are an unknown current state vector in two neighbor moments of discretization; x(0) is an unknown initial state vector; u(k) is an input signal; z(k) is a limited input sequence for identification; A ª0 « at ¬ 1º » ¼ ª0 1 º « » ; bi ¬a 1 a 2 ¼ Y ª bi1 º « »; ¬bi 2¼ (3) c ª 1º «0 » ; B ¬ ¼ >b1 H z c . z.I - A 1 .B as and following difference equation “input/output”, Y z H z .U z H z L . z .Q z can be presented in following way: y (1) º y ( 2 ) »» y ( 3) » ; U 0i » y ( 4) » y (5 ) » » y ( 6 ) »¼ y (7)@ ui (0) º u i (1) »» ui ( 2) » ; » u i ( 3) » ui ( 4) » » u i (5) ¼» (9) ª 0 º «u 0 » ¬ i ¼ The estimation of next vector is calculated: hi T >hi1 hi 2 @ (10) With the help of linear system of algebraic equations: (4) ȍ 2 .Ĭˆ Y >U 1 U 2 Y @ ; Ĭˆ T (11) >h T i1 hi2T aT @ (5) where: ȍ 2 (6) The lower-triangle Toeplitz matrix with dimension 2x1 is shaped: ǻ ª0º A « » (13) ¬ a2 ¼ which taking into account the ratio: 1 ª y (0) « y (1) « « y (2) « « y (3) « y (4) « «¬ y (5 ) ª u i (1) «u ( 2 ) « i « u i ( 3) « «u i ( 4 ) « u i (5) « ¬« u i ( 6 ) y ( 6) where: Y - Hankel matrix; U 0i , U i - Toeplitz matrices. bi @ ; 1 d i d r For the (1) and (2) describing the studied power system correspond to following “input/output” difference equations [7]: T (7) Q z .U z The input/output data are shaped in following matrices and vectors. Y t yk L z .Y z (12) The estimation of the vector bi, is calculated by linear system equations of following type: bˆ i where: bi >bi1 ǻ hˆ i A .bi disconnection from circuit breakers for time 5,03sec. Parts of parameters of STATCOM and power system are shown below. (14) QSTATCOM [MVar] bi 2 @ 100 The estimation of initial vector x̂ 0 is calculated by the optimal estimator of following type: (15) xˆ 0 Y ȍ 3 .bˆ* 80 * b1T b2T where: ȍ 3 >U 01 U 02 @ ; bˆT The current vector is estimated by the degenerate OSA observer of the following type: xˆ k 1 Aˆ .xˆ k 1 Bˆ .u k (16) ˆx 0 xˆ 0 ; k=0,1,2,… 40 > @ The investigations have shown that controlling system can be identified with the help of model from second order i.e. n 2 I qref p aˆ t .xˆ p aˆ1.xˆ1 aˆ 2 .xˆ 2 (17) 60 20 0 -20 -40 -60 10 10.05 10.1 10.15 10.2 time [sec] 10.25 10.3 10.35 Fig.5. Reactive power of STATCOM where: p=k, k+1, k+2 DG [deg] IV. SIMULATION STUDY 50 For prove of rightness and effectiveness of studied system work a computer model of suggested system and control was created in MATLAB space. Different disturbances causing transient processes have been simulated. The simulated transient processes are: three-phase earth short circuit and it’s disconnection from circuit breaker, connection/disconnection of powerful static active-inductive load, connection/disconnection of powerful dynamic load. The obtained simulations are compared with system of identical parameters in with conventional control (PI-controller) for STATCOM. The following figures show some typical parameters of investigated power system. On the figures: STATCOM with adaptive two-input controller-blue line with PI-controller-red line. First transient process (Fig.4yFig.7) which was is simulated present three-phase earth fault at time 5sec and it’s 40 30 20 10 0 -10 -20 5 5.05 5.1 time [sec] 5,15 Fig.6. Firing angle for GTO-thyristors ISTATCOM [p.u.] UT [p.u.] 3.5 3 1.01 2.5 1.005 2 1 1.5 1 0.995 0.5 0.99 0 5 5,05 5,1 5,15 time [sec] 5,2 5,25 Fig.4. Voltage of STATCOM buses 5,3 5 5.05 5.1 5.15 5.2 5.25 time [sec] 5.3 5.35 Fig.7. Current of STATCOM 5.4 DG [deg] Second performed transient process (Fig.8yFig.13), present connection at 1,5sec and disconnection of powerful dynamic load. Parts of parameters of STATCOM, power system and dynamic load are shown below. 10 5 0 UT [p.u.] 1.02 -5 1 -10 0.98 1.5 1.6 1.7 0.96 1.8 1.9 time [sec] 2 2.1 2.2 Fig.10. Firing angle for GTO-thyristors 0.94 Iqref [p.u.] 0.92 1 0.8 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 time [sec] 1.9 2 2.1 0.6 Fig.8. Voltage of STATCOM buses 0.4 0.2 0 QSTATCOM [MVar] -0.2 -0.4 100 -0.6 1.5 50 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 time [sec] 2 2.1 2.2 Fig.11. Control current of STATCOM 0 UDC 4 [V] x 10 2.4 -50 2.2 -100 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2 time [sec] 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2 Fig.9. Reactive power of STATCOM 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 time [sec] 2 2.1 Fig.12. Voltage of STATCOM capacitors 2.2 V. CONCLUSION It is proposed new combined adaptive control of STATCOM consisting of a conventional current regulator and two-input adaptive regulator on the basis of adaptive observer. Through the estimated variables and parameters of the identification model is calculated the control signal in channel for voltage regulation. Conducted simulation studies show the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive management. At disturbances in the power system from proposed diagrams is possible to observe: reduction the transition time; reduction the oscillation of transition process; limitation the deviations of the parameters of the system; facilitation the work of STATCOM. REFERENCES [1] Song Y.H., Flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS). The Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1999. [2] Sao C. K., Lehn P. W., A Benchmark System for Digital Time-Domain Simulation of a Pulse-Width-Modulated D-STATCOM, IEEE Trans. On Power Delivery, Vol. 17, No. 4, Oct. 2002. [3] Hingorani N. G., Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) – Overview, IEEE Spectrum, pp. 40 – 45, April 1993. [4] Hingorani N. G., Gyugy L., Understanding FACTS: Concepts and Technology of Flexible AC Transmission Systems, IEEE Press, 2000. [5] Canizares C. A., Faur Z. T., Analysis of SVC and TCSC controllers in voltage collapse, IEEE Trans. on Power System., Vol. 14, pp. 158-165, Feb. 1999. [6] Sotirov L. N., Selected chapters from modern control theory, Technical university of Varna, Bulgaria,1998, 281pp [7] C. Dufour, J. Belande, Real-time Simulation of a 48-Pulse GTO STATCOM Compensated Power System on a Dual-Xeon PC using RT-LAB, IPST’05, Monreal, 2005 [8] Y. Chen, B, Mwinyiwiwa, Z. Wokmski and B.T. Ooi, “Regulating and Equalizing DC Capacitance Voltages in Multilevel STATCOMs”, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol.12, No.2. April 1997, pp.901-907. [10] D. Schroder, Elektrische Antriebe 2, Regelung von Antriebssystemen, Springer, 2001. [11] Djagarov N. F, Bonev M. B., Multi-input adaptive stabilizer for excitation of synchronous generator, "Bulgarian Journal of Power Engineering", ʋ6/7, 2000, pp. 28y33. Authors: Nikolay Filev Djagarov, Technical University, 9010 Varna, “Studentska”1, Electric Supply and Electrical Equipment Department, Bulgaria, tel: +35952383265; e-mail: jagarov@ieee.bg Zhivko Genchev Grozdev, Technical University, 9010 Varna, “Studentska”1, Electric Supply and Electrical Equipment Department, Bulgaria, tel: +35952383345; e-mail: grozdew@yahoo.com Milen Bonev Bonev, Technical University, 9010 Varna, “Studentska”1, Electric Supply and Electrical Equipment Department, Bulgaria, tel: +35952383345; e-mail: bonevi_km@tu-varna.bg