GRAMMAR TRANSLATION THE GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION METHOD • "a method of foreign or second language teaching which makes use of translation and grammar study as the main teaching and learning activities." HISTORY o Dates back to Erasmus 1466-1536 oOriginally used to teach Latin and Greek in the late 19th and early 20th centuries oEarlier in 20th century, this method was used for the purpose of helping students read and appreciate foreign language literature. BACKGROUND Traditional method of second language teaching in schools Most common language teaching method Stressed the literacy development Teacher centered INTRODUCTION Original purposes Helping students read and appreciate foreign language literature Students can become more familiar with the grammar of their native language also write and speak their native language better Helpful for mental exercise KEY FEATURES Classes are taught in the mother tongue, with little active use of the target language. Much vocabulary is taught in the form of lists of isolated words. Long elaborate explanations of the intricacies of grammar are given. Grammar provides the rules for putting words together, and instruction often focuses on the form and inflection of words. Reading of difficult classical texts is begun early. Little attention is paid to the content of texts, which are treated as exercises in grammatical analysis. Often the only drills are exercises in translating disconnected sentences from the target language into the mother tongue. PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES Translation of a literary passage • Students will be asked to read a literary passage and then translate the target language into their native language • Translation may be written or spoken • Translation made by the students can show that they understand their meaning • ADVANTAGES Easiest for teachers to use Does not require teachers to speak good English or make good lesson preparations. Only uses the textbook Least stressful for students-teaching occurs in the first language Students learn the new language without contact with native speakers. DISADVANTAGES • Students lack comprehension-only translating wordfor-word • Does not allow students to create meaning in English • Students do not learn to read. • Extensive memorization • Very little student/teacher and student/student interaction PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES • The ability of communicating in the target language is not a goal • The students ask questions in their native language and are also answered by the teacher also in their native language • The teacher asks students in their native language PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES DEDUCTIVE APPLICATION OF RULES • It is important for students to learn about the forms( grammar rules ) of the target language • Grammar rules are presented with examples • Students are asked to apply the rules to examples they are given PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS • Students answer these questions in the target language • Answers to the questions may be in the reading text, or based on the understanding of the students or students’ own experiences related to the text PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES TEACHER AS THE AUTHORITY • Teacher decides whether the students answers are correct • It is important for students to get the correct answers • If students answer incorrectly, the teacher will provide the correct answer PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES MEMORIZATION • Students are asked to memorize new words, grammatical rules, and verb conjugation PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES FILL-IN-THE-BLANKS • Teacher give students sentences with word missing • Students should fill in the blanks with the new vocabulary or with a particular grammar type PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES USE WORDS IN SENTENCES • Students are asked to make up sentences with the new words they learn in the text • This technique can show whether students really understand the new words PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES COMPOSITION • Students are asked to write a composition in the target language • The topic is based on some aspect of the reading passage CONCLUSION • Teaching involves any instructional technique that draws learners attention to some specific grammatical form in such a way that it helps them either to understand it metalinguistically and/or process it in comprehension and/or production so that they can internalize it. THANK YOU!!!