United States History Hist. 151 William M. Pezza Bucks County Community College Why Study History? There are numerous reasons, but the most important is… To understand the present! New England & Chesapeake Colonies • A Study in Contrasts Themes/Big Ideas • Distant Authority • Social Class Structure • Church/State Relations • Foundations of American Democracy • Approaches to Economic issues Jamestown Plymouth Settling the Chesapeake (50) • 1606- King James chartered a joint stock company for investors to establish colonies in the new world. • They came as single men seeking fortune and intending to return – Investors sought gold, minerals, other natural resources – Open space for jobless vagrants roaming Britain Early Settlers • Virginia, the “Virgin Queen” Elizabeth I • 1607- first settlers reached the Chesapeake Bay area- James River (Map 53) • Chief Powhatan-Algonquian Confederation – Nervous assistance Captain John Smith • Imposed strict discipline upon the lazy, “gentlemen” settlers • Harsh enforcement of work rules • “He that will not work shall not eat.” The Starving Time • Smith is injured and returns to England • Drought • Crop failure • People ate everything, including mice, other rodents, etc. • Governor Gates arrived with supplies and imposed strict work rules again. John Rolfe & Tobacco • By 1612 John Rolfe began experimenting with growing tobacco. • Soon it became a profitable export crop. Tobacco is a cash crop. Soon cotton will be also. • It is labor intensive, and more indentured servants were needed. • As the economy prospered, the first general assembly of Virginia was established- the Virginia House of Burgesses • 1619- first African slaves arrive Social Class Divisions • Virginia became a Royal Colony • Insiders, “connected” people acquired the valuable coastal land. • Freed indentured servants were forced to move westward, inland to find land. – Poor services – Poor land – Indian attacks – Resentment of “distant authority” Bacon’s Rebellion • Former indentured servants felt that the “eastern” government served the needs of the wealthy at the expense of the poor both in tax and land policy. • Warfare with Indians on the frontier • Governor Berkeley was hated. • Nathaniel Bacon led a revolt against the Berkeley government- burned Jamestown. . Bacon’s Rebellion Continued • Rebellion is short lived. • Berkeley crushes the rebellion, but the King realizes that Berkeley overreacted. • As a result, more western lands are opened to the freedmen. Significance of Bacon’s Rebellion • An important lesson was learned by the landed wealthy- slaves might be a better option than indentured servants. • The rebellion illustrated colonial resentment to distant authority • The rebellion illustrated social class tensions So as we leave the Chesapeake topic for now… • The region’s economy is based primarily on cash crop agriculture, which is labor intensive. • The wealthy, planter elite, class has monopolized the best land and resources. • There is a large “underclass” of freedmen trying to make a living on the frontier. • African slaves are soon seen as a potential solution to the labor question. Settling New England (61) Religion in England • The 16th century Protestant Reformationstemmed from dissatisfaction with what many saw as a corrupt, authoritarian, and overly ritualistic Catholic Church and a money flow to Rome. • In England the Anglican church was born. It severed its ties with Rome, but remained ritualistic. Resistance to Central Church Authority • Many resented the hierarchy of the Catholic church: Pope, Archbishops, Bishops, the immense power they held and the authoritarian manner in which they used it. • In New England many believed in the Congregationalist structure without a significant church hierarchy. • This concept has significant democratic implications. Separatists & Puritans • Separatists were Englishmen who wanted to separate themselves from the Anglican Church, the Church of England. • Puritans were Englishmen who wanted to purify the existing church. • Both were persecuted, and both sought freedom in the New World. Settling New England (61) • The separatists and puritans who settled new England came for different reasons than their neighbors to the south. They came for religious “freedom” and came to stay. • They traveled as families, with few indentured servants. • They felt they were on a divine mission to create a model Christian society. Plymouth 1620 • Led by William Bradford on the Mayflower • Blown off course and landing in Plymouth, they were outside the jurisdiction of any corporate charter, so they drafted their own Mayflower Compact- rules of self government. Rocks and… • The New England climate was colder than the Chesapeake region and the soil was not as conducive to cash crop farming, so the settlers had to build a diversified economy based upon fishing, fur trading, lumbering, shipbuilding, and small farming. • There was little need for the type of widespread labor force the south required. …Religion (64) • In 1630 there was a great migration of Puritans, under John Winthrop, to the new world. Those selected to lead the New England colonies of Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay were church leaders. • Thus, the civil government grew out of the church government, and the members of each were identical at the start. • Analysis: Was this a theocracy? Draw parallels with today. John Winthrop (65) • Sermon, “A Model of Christian Charity” • The Mass Bay colony would be a “City on a Hill,” a shining example for the world of what a godly community could be. The members of the community would care for each other and assist each other. • An interesting glitch in the Mass Bay charter was that the company was not required to have its office in England. Thus, it governed itself from the new world. How much religious freedom existed in the New England colonies? (68) • Roger Williams- Rhode Island Williams championed religious liberty and believed that the true covenant was between God and the individual. Therefore, he believed that government did not have the authority to impose the type of religious conformity that existed in Massachusetts. He was banished for his beliefs and started a new colony in Rhode Island based upon religious freedom. Does the concept of separation of church and state have relevance today? Give your reaction to the following? New England Summary • As we leave New England in the middle of the 17th century, we can make the following general observations: – By necessity, NE had a diversified economy – NE placed more emphasis upon religion. – While the Puritans left Europe to practice religions freedom, they did not readily extend those freedoms to those who believed differently. – The Congregationalist “splinters” that occurred had democratic significance.